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1.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 140(5): 471, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858521
2.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(10): 1159-1168, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846610

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The outcomes of survivors of critical illness due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) compared with non-COVID-19 are yet to be established. Objectives: We aimed to investigate new disability at 6 months in mechanically ventilated patients admitted to Australian ICUs with COVID-19 compared with non-COVID-19. Methods: We included critically ill patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 from two prospective observational studies. Patients were eligible if they were adult (age ⩾ 8 yr) and received ⩾24 hours of mechanical ventilation. In addition, patients with COVID-19 were eligible with a positive laboratory PCR test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Measurements and Main Results: Demographic, intervention, and hospital outcome data were obtained from electronic medical records. Survivors were contacted by telephone for functional outcomes with trained outcome assessors using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Between March 6, 2020, and April 21, 2021, 120 critically ill patients with COVID-19, and between August 2017 and January 2019, 199 critically ill patients without COVID-19, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Patients with COVID-19 were older (median [interquartile range], 62 [55-71] vs. 58 [44-69] yr; P = 0.019) with a lower Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (17 [13-20] vs. 19 [15-23]; P = 0.011). Although duration of ventilation was longer in patients with COVID-19 than in those without COVID-19 (12 [5-19] vs. 4.8 [2.3-8.8] d; P < 0.001), 180-day mortality was similar between the groups (39/120 [32.5%] vs. 70/199 [35.2%]; P = 0.715). The incidence of death or new disability at 180 days was similar (58/93 [62.4%] vs. 99/150 [66/0%]; P = 0.583). Conclusions: At 6 months, there was no difference in new disability for patients requiring mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 compared with non-COVID-19. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04401254).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Survivors
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335271

ABSTRACT

Background Australia managed relatively well during the global COVID-19 pandemic owing to our swift mandated public health response. During the NSW lockdown restrictions, we noted a decrease in acute stroke presentations at our institution, similar to what was subsequently reported worldwide. Aims We aimed to test our hypothesis that (i) the true numbers of ischaemic strokes did not change, however patients were presenting later and (ii) the proportion of TIAs decreased. Methods We conducted a retrospective audit of all stroke and TIA presentations in 2020 and compared these with data from 2019. We collected information about stroke subtype, severity, time from stroke/TIA onset to presentation and acute reperfusion therapies. Results Between January-February and April-March 2020, there was a 15% drop in acute stroke presentations (128 vs. 109). In the same period “stroke mimic” presentations dropped by 22%. The proportion of patients attending the emergency department within 4.5hrs was only 36% compared with 48% over the similar period in 2019. Conclusions Although the raw numbers of ischemic stroke presentations remained stable during NSW Covid lockdown, the proportion of patients presenting within time window for acute reperfusion therapies fell. The number of TIAs similarly fell suggesting COVID-19 discouraged patients from presenting to hospital which placed them at higher risk of disabling stroke. The opportunity cost of lockdown restrictions on stroke outcome should be considered in future policy directives.

4.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22272134

ABSTRACT

Enveloped viruses are prone to inactivation when exposed to strong acidity levels characteristic of atmospheric aerosol. Yet, the acidity of expiratory aerosol particles and its effect on airborne virus persistence has not been examined. Here, we combine pH-dependent inactivation rates of influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 with microphysical properties of respiratory fluids using a biophysical aerosol model. We find that particles exhaled into indoor air become mildly acidic (pH {approx} 4), rapidly inactivating influenza A virus within minutes, whereas SARS-CoV-2 requires days. If indoor air is enriched with non-hazardous levels of nitric acid, aerosol pH drops by up to 2 units, decreasing 99%-inactivation times for both viruses in small aerosol particles to below 30 seconds. Conversely, unintentional removal of volatile acids from indoor air by filtration may elevate pH and prolong airborne virus persistence. The overlooked role of aerosol pH has profound implications for virus transmission and mitigation strategies.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312237

ABSTRACT

We analyze global equity market co-movement during the last 25 years using a dynamic spatial model. Based on a generalized autoregressive score model, we analyze the co-movement among global, European, American, and Asian equity markets during various crises including the Asian, the financial, the European sovereign debt crisis, as well as the economic turmoil due to the current COVID-19 pandemic. Our results show an increase in the co-movement prior to the onset of the global financial crisis in 2008, a generally higher co-movement among European countries compared to American and Asian-Pacific countries, while the highest level of co-movement is reached during the current pandemic. When accounting for time-varying variances, however, we find evidence for global contagion only during the COVID-19 pandemic which induces an economic downturn in the first quarter of 2020.

6.
JMIR Form Res ; 5(12): e19230, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), experienced by more than 80% of people with MS. FACETS (Fatigue: Applying Cognitive Behavioral and Energy Effectiveness Techniques to Lifestyle) is an evidence-based, face-to-face, 6-session group fatigue management program for people with MS. Homework tasks are an integral part of FACETS and are currently undertaken in a paper-based form. Feedback from a consultation undertaken with FACETS attendees and health care professionals with experience in delivering the FACETS program suggested that being able to complete the homework tasks digitally would be desirable, potentially enhancing engagement and adherence and enabling on-the-go access to fit into busy lifestyles. Relative to other long-term conditions, there are few apps specifically for MS and, of those available, many have been developed with little or no input from people with MS. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this mixed methods study was to create a digital toolkit comprising the homework tasks (eg, activity diary, goal planner, thought diary) of the FACETS program for people with MS, considering end users' unique requirements throughout the design, build, prototyping, and testing stages. METHODS: Phase 1 involved the elicitation of detailed user requirements for the toolkit via 2 focus groups with previous attendees of FACETS (n=3 and n=6) and wireframing. Phase 2 involved supervised usability testing with people with MS (n=11) with iterative prototyping. The usability sessions involved going through test scenarios using the FACETS toolkit on an Android test phone with video capture and concurrent think-aloud followed by completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS) and a semistructured interview collecting feedback about design, content, and functionality. RESULTS: The mean SUS score for the digital toolkit was 74.3 (SD 16.8, 95% CI 63.2-85.6; range 37.5-95), which equates to an adjective rating of good and a B grade (70th-79th percentile range) on the Sauro-Lewis curved grading scale. A number of usability and design issues (such as simplifying overall screen flow to better meet users' needs) and suggestions for improvements (such as using location-based services and displaying personalized information and progress via a central dashboard) were addressed and implemented during the usability testing cycle. CONCLUSIONS: This work highlights the importance of the participation of people with MS across the entire development cycle, working to a human-centered design methodology to enable a considered and MS-centered solution to be developed. Continued horizon scanning for emergent technological enhancements will enable us to identify opportunities for further improvements to the FACETS toolkit prior to launch. The toolkit supports self-monitoring and management of fatigue and has potential applicability to other long-term conditions where fatigue is a significant issue.

7.
Smart Learning Environments ; 8(1):35-35, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1581990

ABSTRACT

All human being’s ways of living, working and studying were significantly impacted by the Covid-19 in 2020. In China, the Ministry of Education reacted fast in ensuring that primary school students could learn online at home by promoting the Sky Class program from February 2020. Educators, parents, and students all faced the challenges of adapting to new online teaching and learning environments. In this small-scale case study, Sky Class’s content and the participants’ experiences, will be presented. Four primary school teachers and five primary school students and their parents participated in three-rounds of interviews sharing their perspectives and experiences of online learning. The study showed that the students gained more parental support and that they benefited from using multimedia functions, like replay, in their Sky Classes. However, the majority of participants reported that the students learnt less. By mapping the learning activities and themes from Sky Class against Cope and Kalantzis’ e-learning ecologies, our study found that only ubiquitous learning and multimodal meaning were achieved. We suggest the reason may be that high cognitive learning was not achieved due to less teachers’ supervision, lack of interaction, delayed feedback, shorter learning times and communication. In conclusion, innovative pedagogies, which can foster different types of learning from the e-learning ecologies may overcome the negative aspects reported about Sky Class. Further research is required for implementing online technology as a catalyst for educational change.

8.
J Physiother ; 68(1): 8-25, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587161

ABSTRACT

This document provides an update to the recommendations for physiotherapy management for adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the acute hospital setting. It includes: physiotherapy workforce planning and preparation; a screening tool for determining requirement for physiotherapy; and recommendations for the use of physiotherapy treatments and personal protective equipment. New advice and recommendations are provided on: workload management; staff health, including vaccination; providing clinical education; personal protective equipment; interventions, including awake proning, mobilisation and rehabilitation in patients with hypoxaemia. Additionally, recommendations for recovery after COVID-19 have been added, including roles that physiotherapy can offer in the management of post-COVID syndrome. The updated guidelines are intended for use by physiotherapists and other relevant stakeholders caring for adult patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 in the acute care setting and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitals , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Physical Therapy Modalities , SARS-CoV-2
9.
World journal of critical care medicine ; 10(6):323-333, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1558278

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe complication of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and the primary cause of death in the current pandemic. Critically ill patients often undergo extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy as the last resort over an extended period. ECMO therapy requires sedation of the patient, which is usually achieved by intravenous administration of sedatives. The shortage of intravenous sedative drugs due to the ongoing pandemic, and attempts to improve treatment outcome for COVID-19 patients, drove the application of inhaled sedation as a promising alternative for sedation during ECMO therapy. Administration of volatile anesthetics requires an appropriate delivery. Commercially available ones are the anesthetic gas reflection systems AnaConDa® and MIRUSTM, and each should be combined with a gas scavenging system. In this review, we describe respiratory management in COVID-19 patients and the procedures for inhaled sedation during ECMO therapy of COVID-19 related ARDS. We focus particularly on the technical details of administration of volatile anesthetics. Furthermore, we describe the advantages of inhaled sedation and volatile anesthetics, and we discuss the limitations as well as the requirements for safe application in the clinical setting.

10.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 382, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are few reports of new functional impairment following critical illness from COVID-19. We aimed to describe the incidence of death or new disability, functional impairment and changes in health-related quality of life of patients after COVID-19 critical illness at 6 months. METHODS: In a nationally representative, multicenter, prospective cohort study of COVID-19 critical illness, we determined the prevalence of death or new disability at 6 months, the primary outcome. We measured mortality, new disability and return to work with changes in the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 12L (WHODAS) and health status with the EQ5D-5LTM. RESULTS: Of 274 eligible patients, 212 were enrolled from 30 hospitals. The median age was 61 (51-70) years, and 124 (58.5%) patients were male. At 6 months, 43/160 (26.9%) patients died and 42/108 (38.9%) responding survivors reported new disability. Compared to pre-illness, the WHODAS percentage score worsened (mean difference (MD), 10.40% [95% CI 7.06-13.77]; p < 0.001). Thirteen (11.4%) survivors had not returned to work due to poor health. There was a decrease in the EQ-5D-5LTM utility score (MD, - 0.19 [- 0.28 to - 0.10]; p < 0.001). At 6 months, 82 of 115 (71.3%) patients reported persistent symptoms. The independent predictors of death or new disability were higher severity of illness and increased frailty. CONCLUSIONS: At six months after COVID-19 critical illness, death and new disability was substantial. Over a third of survivors had new disability, which was widespread across all areas of functioning. Clinical trial registration NCT04401254 May 26, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Disabled Persons , Recovery of Function/physiology , Return to Work/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 10(4): 381-387, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367049

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: COVID-19 has placed unprecedented pressure on health systems globally, whereas simultaneously stimulating unprecedented levels of transformation. Here, we review digital adoption that has taken place during the pandemic to drive improvements in ophthalmic clinical care, with a specific focus on out-of-hospital triage and services, clinical assessment, patient management, and use of electronic health records. We show that although there have been some successes, shortcomings in technology infrastructure prepandemic became only more apparent and consequential as COVID-19 progressed. Through our review, we emphasize the need for clinicians to better grasp and harness key technology trends such as telecommunications and artificial intelligence, so that they can effectively and safely shape clinical practice using these tools going forward.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Technology , Telemedicine , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307898

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the agreement in diagnosis and management plans reached between clinicians reviewing eyelid lesions remotely and in face-to-face clinics. METHODS: In this single-centre observational case series, data were prospectively collected on 50 consecutive adults referred with eyelid lesions suitable to be seen by a nurse. A proforma was completed to gather salient information. A nurse specialist saw patients in face-to-face clinics and collected information using the proforma, devising a diagnosis and management plan. Photographs of the eyelid lesions were taken by a medical photographer. A subsequent remote review was completed by an oculoplastic consultant using the proforma information and photographs in the absence of the patient. The diagnosis and management plan constructed by the nurse specialist were compared with those reached by the consultant. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 44 consecutive cases. There was an overall 91% agreement (40 cases out of 44) between the diagnoses reached by the nurse specialist, and the remote reviewer; kappa coefficient 0.88 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.99). There was an overall 82% agreement (36 out of 44 cases) in the management plans devised by the nurse-led clinic and remote reviewer; kappa coefficient 0.74 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.90). The average time taken for a remote reviewer to reach a diagnosis and management plan was 1 min and 20 s. CONCLUSIONS: This study evaluated the feasibility of assessing eyelid lesions using asynchronous telemedicine. There was overall a high rate of concordance in the diagnosis reached, and management devised between the clinic and remote review.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Services , Eyelids , Telemedicine , Adult , Diagnostic Services/organization & administration , Diagnostic Services/standards , Eyelids/injuries , Humans , Referral and Consultation
13.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The COVID-19 has facilitated a paradigm shift in the sphere of ophthalmic telemedicine: its utility is no longer limited to providing care to remote regions, rather it is expeditiously being adopted as the new standard of care. The aim of our paper is to explore the current attitudes of oculoplastic surgeons towards telemedicine and its utility in the present landscape and its prospects in the future. METHODS: A 39-item questionnaire was distributed to consultant oculoplastic surgeons practising across the UK and anonymised responses were collected and analysed. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic has allowed rapid implementation of telemedicine services in oculoplastic departments across the UK with 86.6% of the respondents incorporating telemedicine into the routine clinical practice. Clinicians reported a statistically significant increase in utility of telemedicine, confidence in using telemedicine and quality of infrastructure available to employ telemedicine following the COVID-19 outbreak. The greatest utility of telemedicine is in triaging, postoperative assessment and eyelid lesion assessment. Main barriers to implementation of telemedicine included difficulties in conducting clinical examinations, lack of administrative support and poor access to digital technologies for patients. Overall, most clinicians were satisfied with the impact of telemedicine services and almost all experts foresee themselves continuing to use telemedicine in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine has become an integral part of the oculoplastic service delivery since the COVID-19 pandemic its use is likely to continue. Further development of digital infrastructure and improvement of clinical examination capabilities are required to enable its wider adoption.

14.
EClinicalMedicine ; 34: 100818, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: the need for social distancing midst the COVID-19 pandemic has forced ophthalmologists to innovate with telemedicine. The novel process of triaging emergency ophthalmology patients via videoconsultations should reduce hospital attendances. However, the safety profile of such services were unknown. METHODS: in this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed case notes of 404 adults who used our videoconsultation service from 20/04/2020 to 03/05/2020. We compared these to 451 patient who attended eye casualty in person at the same time who were deemed not to require same day ophthalmic examination. FINDINGS: patients seen by videoconsultations tended to be younger (Median = 43 years, Inter-quartile range = 27 vs Median= 49 years, Inter-quartile range = 28)'. More males used the face-to-face triage (55%) while more females used videoconsultation (54%)%. Fewer patients seen by videoconsultations required specialist review compared to face-face triage [X 2 (1, N = 854) = 128.02, p<0.001)]. 35.5% of the patients initially seen by videoconsultation had unplanned reattendance within 1 month, compared to 15.7% in the group initially seen in person. X 2 (1, N = 234) = 7.31, p = 0.007). The rate of actual harm was no different (at 0% for each method), with perfect inter-grader correlation when graded independently by two senior ophthalmologists. 97% of patients seen on the video platform surveyed were satisfied with their care. INTERPRETATION: we demonstrate comparable patient safety of videoconsultations at one-month follow-up to in person review. The service is acceptable to patients and reduces the risk of COVID-19 transmission. We propose that videoconsultations are effective and desirable as a tool for triage in ophthalmology. FUNDING: the research supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre based at Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology who fund PT and DS's time to conduct research. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health.

15.
Cell Rep ; 34(12): 108890, 2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131156

ABSTRACT

Multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines show protective efficacy, which is most likely mediated by neutralizing antibodies recognizing the viral entry protein, spike. Because new SARS-CoV-2 variants are emerging rapidly, as exemplified by the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 lineages, it is critical to understand whether antibody responses induced by infection with the original SARS-CoV-2 virus or current vaccines remain effective. In this study, we evaluate neutralization of a series of mutated spike pseudotypes based on divergence from SARS-CoV and then compare neutralization of the B.1.1.7 spike pseudotype and individual mutations. Spike-specific monoclonal antibody neutralization is reduced dramatically; in contrast, polyclonal antibodies from individuals infected in early 2020 remain active against most mutated spike pseudotypes, but potency is reduced in a minority of samples. This work highlights that changes in SARS-CoV-2 spike can alter neutralization sensitivity and underlines the need for effective real-time monitoring of emerging mutations and their effect on vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests/methods , Point Mutation , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e19151, 2021 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines and legislations, many websites remain poorly accessible to users with disability, especially those with visual impairment, as the internet has become a more visually complex environment. With increasing reliance on the internet and almost 2 million people in the United Kingdom being affected by vision loss, it is important that they are not overlooked when developing web-based materials. A significant proportion of those affected have irreversible vision loss due to rare genetic eye disorders, and many of them use the internet as a primary source of information for their conditions. However, access to high-quality web-based health information with an inclusive design remains a challenge for many. We have developed a new web-based resource for genetic eye disorders called Gene.Vision thataims to provide a holistic guide for patients, relatives, and health care professionals. OBJECTIVE: Through a usability testing session of our website prototype, this study aims to identify key web-based accessibility features for internet users with vision impairment and to explore whether the contents provided in Gene.Vision are relevant and comprehensible. METHODS: A face-to-face testing session with 8 participants (5 patients, 2 family members, and 1 member of the public) and 8 facilitators was conducted on a prototype website. Remote testing was performed with another patient due to COVID-19 restrictions. Home page design, navigation, content layout and quality, language, and readability were explored through direct observation and task completion using the think-aloud method. A patient focus group was organized to elicit further feedback. Qualitative data were gathered and analyzed to identify core themes through open and axial coding. RESULTS: All participants had good computer literacy; 6 patients with visual impairment used visual aid software including iOS VoiceOver and Speak Screen, iOS Classic Invert, ZoomText 2020, Job Access With Speech, and Nonvisual Desktop Access. The features identified by the participants that will enhance accessibility and usability for users with visual impairment were a consistent website layout, a structured information hierarchy with a clear description of links, good chromatic and luminance contrast, a simple home page with predictable and easy navigation, adaptability to various assistive software, and readable and relevant content. They reported that dynamic content (such as carousels) and large empty spaces reduced accessibility. Information on research, support available, practical advice, and links to charities were incentives for repeated website visits. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the importance of developing a website with a user-based approach. Through end user testing, we identified several key web-based accessibility features for people with visual impairment. Target end users should always be involved early and throughout the design process to ensure their needs are met. Many of these steps can be implemented easily and will aid in search engine optimization.

17.
Aust Crit Care ; 34(2): 123-131, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-837401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemics and the large-scale outbreak of infectious disease can significantly impact morbidity and mortality worldwide. The impact on intensive care resources can be significant and often require modification of service delivery, a key element which includes rapid expansion of the critical care workforce. Pandemics are also unpredictable, which necessitates rapid decision-making and action which, in the lack of experience and guidance, may be extremely challenging. Recognising the potential strain on intensive care units (ICUs), particularly on staffing, a working group was formed for the purpose of developing recommendations to support decision-making during rapid service expansion. METHODS: The Critical Care Pandemic Staffing Working Party (n = 21), representing nursing, allied health, and medical disciplines, has used a modified consensus approach to provide recommendations to inform multidisciplinary workforce capacity expansion planning in critical care. RESULTS: A total of 60 recommendations have been proposed which reflect general recommendations as well as those specific to maintaining the critical care workforce, expanding the critical care workforce, rostering and allocation of the critical care workforce, nurse-specific recommendations for staffing the ICU, education support and training during ICU surge situations, workforce support, models of care, and de-escalation. CONCLUSION: These recommendations are provided with the intent that they be used to guide interdisciplinary decision-making, and we suggest that careful consideration is given to the local context to determine which recommendations are most appropriate to implement and how they are prioritised. Ongoing evaluation of recommendation implementation and impact will be necessary, particularly in rapidly changing clinical contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/organization & administration , Health Workforce/organization & administration , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/organization & administration , Australia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Prog Retin Eye Res ; 82: 100900, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745955

ABSTRACT

The simultaneous maturation of multiple digital and telecommunications technologies in 2020 has created an unprecedented opportunity for ophthalmology to adapt to new models of care using tele-health supported by digital innovations. These digital innovations include artificial intelligence (AI), 5th generation (5G) telecommunication networks and the Internet of Things (IoT), creating an inter-dependent ecosystem offering opportunities to develop new models of eye care addressing the challenges of COVID-19 and beyond. Ophthalmology has thrived in some of these areas partly due to its many image-based investigations. Tele-health and AI provide synchronous solutions to challenges facing ophthalmologists and healthcare providers worldwide. This article reviews how countries across the world have utilised these digital innovations to tackle diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, refractive error correction, cataract and other anterior segment disorders. The review summarises the digital strategies that countries are developing and discusses technologies that may increasingly enter the clinical workflow and processes of ophthalmologists. Furthermore as countries around the world have initiated a series of escalating containment and mitigation measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, the delivery of eye care services globally has been significantly impacted. As ophthalmic services adapt and form a "new normal", the rapid adoption of some of telehealth and digital innovation during the pandemic is also discussed. Finally, challenges for validation and clinical implementation are considered, as well as recommendations on future directions.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence/trends , Digital Technology/methods , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/therapy , Ophthalmology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Global Health , Humans , Inventions , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
19.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 27(3)2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 crisis forced hospitals in the UK dramatically to reduce outpatient activity. To provide continuity of care and to assist patients reluctant or unable to leave their homes, video consultations were rapidly implemented across routine and emergency ophthalmology services. OBJECTIVE: To describe the deployment and scaling to a large volume of teleophthalmology using a video consultation platform 'Attend Anywhere' in Moorfields Eye Hospital's accident and emergency (A&E) department (London, UK). METHOD: Patient satisfaction, waiting time, consultation duration, outcome and management were audited following the launch of the new virtual A&E service. RESULTS: In the 12 days following the service launch, 331 patients were seen by video consultation. 78.6% of patients (n=260) were determined not to need hospital A&E review and were managed with advice (n=126), remote prescription (n=57), general practitioner referral (n=27), direct referral to hospital subspecialty services (n=26) or diversion to a local eye unit (n=24). Mean patient satisfaction was 4.9 of 5.0 (n=62). The mean consultation duration was 12 min (range 5-31 min) and the wait time was 6 min (range 0-37 min). CONCLUSION: Video consultations showed greater than expected usefulness in the remote management of eye disease and supported a substantial reduction in the number of people visiting the hospital.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Eye Diseases , Ophthalmology , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/therapy , Female , Humans , London , Male , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction , Pneumonia, Viral
20.
J Physiother ; 66(2): 73-82, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617940

ABSTRACT

This document outlines recommendations for physiotherapy management for COVID-19 in the acute hospital setting. It includes: recommendations for physiotherapy workforce planning and preparation; a screening tool for determining requirement for physiotherapy; and recommendations for the selection of physiotherapy treatments and personal protective equipment. It is intended for use by physiotherapists and other relevant stakeholders in the acute care setting caring for adult patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Critical Care/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Physical Therapy Modalities , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Therapy Modalities/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy
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