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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 749: 142358, 2020 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759346

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has spread internationally and whilst the current focus of those dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic is understandably restricting its direct transmission, the potential for secondary transmission via wastewater should not be underestimated. The virus has been identified in human fecal and wastewater samples from different countries and potential cases of transmission via wastewater have been reported. Our recommendations for hospital wastewater treatment, municipal wastewater plants, sewage sludge, water reuse and aquatic environments are designed to reduce the risk of such transmission, and contribute to limiting the resurgence of COVID-19 as current restrictions are relaxed. A particular urgent recommendation focusses on supporting low-income countries in tackling the potential for secondary transmission via wastewater.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Pandemics , Waste Water
2.
Water Res ; 179: 115907, 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175680

ABSTRACT

The main route of transmission of the human coronaviruses (HCoVs), and presumably also of the new pandemic SARS-CoV-2, is via droplets and close contacts, however their fecal elimination also suggests the possible spread via water. A scientific literature search was thus carried out to highlight the current state of the art and knowledge gaps regarding coronavirus in water. Since 1978 only 22 studies have met the inclusion criteria, and considered heterogeneous purposes, detection methods and types of water. In vitro experiments have addressed the recovery efficiency of analytical methods, survival in different types of water and the removal efficiency of water treatments. Field studies have monitored coronaviruses in surface waters, sewage, slurry, and biosolids. Overall, at the lab scale, HCoVs or surrogates can survive for several days at 4 °C, however their persistence is lower compared with non-enveloped viruses and is strongly influenced by temperature and organic or microbial pollution. HCoVs have rarely been detected in field investigations, however may be due to the low recovery efficiency of the analytical methods. The scarcity of information on HCoV in the environment suggests that research is needed to understand the fate of these viruses in the water cycle.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health
3.
BMJ ; 369: m1362, 2020 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-27651
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