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1.
Audiol Res ; 12(4): 388-392, 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023118

ABSTRACT

Background: The advancement of otologic surgery in low-resource settings has been limited by the cost and transport of surgical equipment. This study compared the transportation costs of an otologic microscopic surgical setup (MSS) versus an endoscopic surgical setup (ESS) in low- and low to middle-income countries (LMICs) for surgical teaching. Methods: Dimensions of microscopes, endoscopes and associated surgical instruments were used to calculate shipping costs from Minneapolis, MN, USA to Kenya, Haiti and Sri Lanka. Results: The average cost of internationally shipping the ESS is less than the MSS in Kenya (ESS: USD 1344.03; MSS: USD 20,947.00; p = 0.370), Haiti (ESS: USD 549.11; MSS: USD 1679.00; p < 0.05) and Sri Lanka (ESS: USD 945.38; MSS: USD 8490.57; p = 0.377). Freight shipping was required for the MSS while the ESS can be packed into an international checked bag for USD 35.00 USD. Discussion: The ESS has fewer logistical barriers than the MSS, making the endoscope a feasible option for surgical teaching in LMICs.

2.
The Family Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2009292

ABSTRACT

Stress among parents has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Research prior to the pandemic indicates that parents of children who struggle with emotion regulation (ER) and who themselves are less mindful report more stress and diminished coping abilities. We know little, however, about these associations in the context of COVID-19. To prevent COVID-related deteriorations in parent well-being and child outcomes and to support parents during this potentially challenging time, it is important to understand the factors that are associated with increased stress as well as adaptive coping. This paper discusses the association between children's ER, mindful parenting (MP), parent stress, and parents’ coping with parenting during the pandemic in a sample of 217 caregivers of school-aged children (91.0% mothers). Results indicated that children's ER was associated with parents’ self-reported coping with parenting in the pandemic but was not associated with increased stress. Further, MP moderated the association between children's ER and coping, such that parents who were the most mindful and had children with better ER skills reported significantly greater ability to cope with pandemic parenting. Coping was lower for other combinations of ER and mindful parenting. These findings contradict those from before COVID, suggesting the relationship between children's ER and parent outcomes may differ in the COVID-19 context, and offering insights into which parents may be most likely to struggle with coping with pandemic parenting.

3.
J Infect ; 85(5): 557-564, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007856

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection in UK healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: We conducted a prospective sero-epidemiological study of HCWs at a major UK teaching hospital using a SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay. Risk factors for seropositivity were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: 410/5,698 (7·2%) staff tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Seroprevalence was higher in those working in designated COVID-19 areas compared with other areas (9·47% versus 6·16%) Healthcare assistants (aOR 2·06 [95%CI 1·14-3·71]; p=0·016) and domestic and portering staff (aOR 3·45 [95% CI 1·07-11·42]; p=0·039) had significantly higher seroprevalence than other staff groups after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity and COVID-19 working location. Staff working in acute medicine and medical sub-specialities were also at higher risk (aOR 2·07 [95% CI 1·31-3·25]; p<0·002). Staff from Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) backgrounds had an aOR of 1·65 (95% CI 1·32 - 2·07; p<0·001) compared to white staff; this increased risk was independent of COVID-19 area working. The only symptoms significantly associated with seropositivity in a multivariable model were loss of sense of taste or smell, fever, and myalgia; 31% of staff testing positive reported no prior symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection amongst HCWs is highly heterogeneous and influenced by COVID-19 working location, role, age and ethnicity. Increased risk amongst BAME staff cannot be accounted for solely by occupational factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
4.
J Pediatr Health Care ; 36(5): 416-429, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946246

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current study assessed maternal attitudes and intention about the COVID-19 vaccine for children ages 5-11 years since the onset of the Delta variant and examined if the Delta variant changed maternal perceptions about COVID-19 vaccination and COVID-19 precautions for children. METHOD: Participants were 821 mothers (mean age = 40.11 years; 84.3% White) from the United States who had at least one child aged 5-11 years old. They were recruited online and completed questionnaires on Qualtrics (Provo, UT) about their youngest children aged 5-11 years. RESULTS: Most mothers (n = 595; 72.6%) reported they were very likely to have their child vaccinated for COVID-19 once a vaccine is available for children. After controlling for maternal and child factors, maternal trust in the COVID-19 vaccine development and approval process (odds ratio [OR] = 35.07; p < .001) was associated with maternal likelihood of having one's child vaccinated for COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Our findings highlight that one strategy for increasing maternal intent to have one's child vaccinated for COVID-19 may be bolstering maternal trust in the COVID-19 development and approval process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Intention , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
5.
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior ; 54(7, Supplement):S72-S73, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1914684

ABSTRACT

Background Immigrant communities have higher nutrition-related health disparities, exacerbated by food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective To apply principles of group model building (GMB), a participatory systems science approach, to identify barriers and opportunities for collective impact around nutrition programming in immigrant communities in an urban environment during and after the pandemic. Study Design, Setting, Participants We convened four in-person sessions in November 2021 that drew from GMB practice with 10 community partners organized around their program domains/goals: community gardening;nutrition education;community-supported agriculture;and future planning for food-related programming. Participants were prompted to collaboratively identify programmatic goals, challenges, and potential mitigating actions. Measurable Outcome/Analysis We generated a causal loop diagram (CLD) – a visual representation of hypothesized causal relationships between variables and feedback structures within a system – for each program domain. CLDs were validated and refined with community stakeholder input. We then synthesized all four CLDs into one comprehensive model which were shared with all community stakeholders during a plenary discussion session, which aided in identifying opportunities for collective action. Results Multilevel barriers emerged, including ethnocentric food policies that center the diets and practices of White Americans thereby inhibiting culturally tailored food guidelines and funding for culturally appropriate nutrition education;the shortage of culturally tailored nutrition education in communities as a missed opportunity for fostering pride in immigrant food culture and sustainment of traditional food practices;and limited access to/procurement of traditional ethnic produce in food assistance programs serving disadvantaged immigrant communities, increasing the likelihood of food waste and worsening food insecurity. Conclusions Emergent themes coalesced around the need to embed cultural tailoring into all levels of the food system, which would require coordinated actions around food policy advocacy, collectively identifying funding for culturally tailored community education and gardening, and community-academic research to support these actions. Funding NIH

6.
Textbook of Zoonoses ; n/a(n/a):192-197, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1913744

ABSTRACT

Summary Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important pathogens for humans and vertebrate animals. These viruses can infect the respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic and central nervous system of humans, livestock, birds, bats and other wild animals. The CoVs have frequently crossed species barriers and some have emerged as important human pathogens. Bats are well adapted anatomically and physiologically to CoVs. During the twenty-first century, the world has witnessed two pandemics of coronaviruses (SARSCoV and SARS-CoV-2) and fatal sporadic outbreaks due to the emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV. Most of the coronaviruses are transmitted through respiratory droplets during coughing or sneezing. Transmission through the ocular surface is also possible. Animal CoVs have been known since the late 1930s. Various diagnostic tests are available for the detection of coronaviruses infection which is mainly based on antigen detection or specific antibody detection. During the development of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate, at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, raw materials shortages, including chromatography resins, necessitated the determination of a cleaning in place (CIP) strategy for a multimodal core-shell resin both rapidly and efficiently. Here, we describe the deployment of high throughput (HT) techniques to screen CIP conditions for cleaning Capto? Core 700 resin exposed to clarified cell culture harvest of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate produced in Vero adherent cell culture. The best performing conditions, comprised of 30% n-propanol and ≥0.75 N NaOH, were deployed in cycling experiments, completed with miniature chromatography columns, to demonstrate their effectiveness. The success of the CIP strategy was ultimately verified at the laboratory scale. Here, its impact was assessed across the entire purification process which also included an ultrafiltration/diafiltration step. It is shown that the implementation of the CIP strategy enabled the re-use of the Capto Core 700 resin for up to ten cycles without any negative impact on the purified product. Hence, the strategic combination of HT and laboratory-scale experiments can lead rapidly to robust CIP procedures, even for a challenging to clean resin, and thus help to overcome supply shortages. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

7.
Biotechnol J ; 17(10): e2200191, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905797

ABSTRACT

During the development of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate, at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, raw materials shortages, including chromatography resins, necessitated the determination of a cleaning in place (CIP) strategy for a multimodal core-shell resin both rapidly and efficiently. Here, the deployment of high throughput (HT) techniques to screen CIP conditions for cleaning Capto Core 700 resin exposed to clarified cell culture harvest (CCCH) of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate produced in Vero adherent cell culture are described. The best performing conditions, comprised of 30% n-propanol and ≥0.75 N NaOH, were deployed in cycling experiments, completed with miniature chromatography columns, to demonstrate their effectiveness. The success of the CIP strategy was ultimately verified at the laboratory scale. Here, its impact was assessed across the entire purification process which also included an ultrafiltration/diafiltration step. It is shown that the implementation of the CIP strategy enabled the re-use of the Capto Core 700 resin for up to 10 cycles without any negative impact on the purified product. Hence, the strategic combination of HT and laboratory-scale experiments can lead rapidly to robust CIP procedures, even for a challenging to clean resin, and thus help to overcome supply shortages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , 1-Propanol , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Regeneration , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Hydroxide
8.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-5, 2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895661

ABSTRACT

Objective: The benefits of mindfulness-training and mentoring for college students have yet to be investigated. We aimed to provide an exploratory and descriptive account of their potential benefits during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants: In February 2020, 49 undergraduates (M = 20.51 years-old; 94% female) participated in a randomized trial of 12-week mentoring + mindfulness or mentoring-as-usual. After five weekly mentoring-sessions, programs were interrupted by COVID-19; mentoring continued online. Methods: Undergraduates completed questionnaires about mental health, behaviors, and regulatory processes in February and July 2020, with additional COVID-19-related questions at follow-up. Results: Participants reported moderate COVID-19-related perceived stress, but mental health, health behaviors, and regulatory processes did not diminish over time, with no condition differences. Undergraduates described using contemplative practices and social support to cope with COVID-19-stress. Conclusions: Undergraduates showed stable mental health/health behaviors despite moderate COVID-19-related-stress. Future research on mentoring with a mindfulness component among a larger and more heterogeneous sample will be necessary.

10.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330905

ABSTRACT

The biopharmaceutical industry is capable of rapid responses in the face of unprecedent challenges, such as the COVID-19 pandemic;safe and efficacious vaccines were developed in record times. However, additional hurdles, including raw materials shortages, need be overcome to improve further the industry’s agility. During the development of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate, such supply limitations necessitated the determination of a cleaning in place (CIP) strategy for a multimodal core-shell resin both rapidly and efficiently. This is a challenging task with its complexity depending on the nature of the resin and the composition of the feed stream. Here, we describe the deployment of high throughput (HT) techniques to screen CIP conditions for cleaning Capto™ Core 700 resin exposed to clarified cell culture harvest of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate produced in Vero adherent cell culture. The best performing conditions, comprised of 30% n-propanol and ≥0.75 N NaOH, were deployed in cycling experiments, completed with miniature chromatography columns, to demonstrate their effectiveness. The success of the CIP strategy was ultimately verified at laboratory scale. Here, its impact was assessed across the entire purification process which also included an ultrafiltration/diafiltration step. It is shown that the implementation of the CIP strategy enabled the re-use of the Capto Core 700 resin for up to ten cycles without any negative impact on the purified product. Hence, the strategic combination of HT and laboratory scale experiments can lead rapidly to robust CIP procedures, even for a challenging to clean resin, and thus help to overcome supply shortages.

11.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(11): e29181, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many countries remain in the grip of the COVID-19 global pandemic, with a considerable journey still ahead toward normalcy and free mobility. Contact tracing smartphone apps are among a raft of measures introduced to reduce spread of the virus, but their uptake depends on public choice. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to ascertain the views of citizens in Wales on their intended use of a COVID-19 contact tracing smartphone app, including self-proposed reasons for or against use and what could lead to a change of decision. METHODS: We distributed an anonymous survey among 4000 HealthWise Wales participants in May 2020. We adopted a mixed methods approach: responses to closed questions were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics; open question responses were analyzed and grouped into categories. RESULTS: A total of 976 (24.4%) people completed the survey. Smartphone usage was 91.5% overall, but this varied among age groups. In total, 97.1% were aware of contact tracing apps, but only 67.2% felt sufficiently informed. Furthermore, 55.7% intended to use an app, 23.3% refused, and 21.0% were unsure. The top reasons for app use were as follows: controlling the spread of the virus, mitigating risks for others and for oneself, and increasing freedoms. The top reasons against app use were as follows: mistrusting the government, concerns about data security and privacy, and doubts about efficacy. The top response for changing one's mind about app use from being willing to being unwilling was that nothing would; that is, they felt that nothing would cause them to become unwilling to use a contact tracing app. This was also the top response for changing one's mind from being unwilling to being willing to use contact tracing apps. Among those who were unsure of using contact tracing apps, the top response was the need for more information. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents demonstrated a keenness to help themselves, others, society, and the government to avoid contracting the virus and to control its spread. However, digital inclusion varied among age groups, precluding participation for some people. Nonetheless, unwillingness was significant, and considering the nature of the concerns raised and the perceived lack of information, policy and decision-makers need to do more to act openly, increase communication, and demonstrate trustworthiness if members of the public are to be confident in using an app.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Contact Tracing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Wales
12.
Javnost-The Public ; : 1-19, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1455048

ABSTRACT

Quality deliberation is essential for societies to address the challenges presented by the coronavirus pandemic effectively and legitimately. Critics of deliberative and participatory democracy are highly skeptical that most citizens can engage with such complex issues in good circumstances and these are far from ideal circumstances. The need for rapid action and decision-making is a challenge for inclusivity and quality of deliberation. Additionally, policy responses to the virus need to be even more co-ordinated than usual, which intensifies their complexity. The digitalisation of the public sphere may be seen as a further challenge to deliberating. Furthermore, these are stressful and emotional times, making a considered judgement on these issues potentially challenging. We employ a modified version of the Discourse Quality Index to assess the deliberative quality in two facilitated synchronous digital platforms to consider aspects of data use in light of COVID 19. Our study is the first to perform a comprehensive, systematic and in-depth analysis of the deliberative capacity of citizens in a pandemic. Our evidence indicates that deliberation can be resilient in a crisis. The findings will have relevance to those interested in pandemic democracy, deliberative democracy in a crisis, data use and digital public spheres. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Javnost-The Public is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

13.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 293-302, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442723

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is adversely affecting adolescents' mental health and health behaviors, particularly among those with preexisting mental health conditions and from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. However, direct tests of changes in health outcomes among vulnerable adolescents from before to during COVID-19 are limited. In addition, little is known about how to buffer adolescents, particularly those who are most vulnerable, against stress-related decrements in health. This randomized controlled trial begins to fill these gaps in the literature by exploring changes in mental health, health behaviors, executive function, emotion regulation, and mindfulness among vulnerable adolescents involved in a mentoring program during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also examined to what extent there were protective benefits of incorporating mindfulness training within a mentoring program for buffering adolescents from negative pandemic health effects. Thirty-five adolescents (Mage = 12.9, 37% female) and 32 parents (Mage = 44.75, 80% female) completed questionnaires at baseline (February 2020) and follow-up (July 2020). There were few significant reductions in health; instead, on average, youth reported improvements in sleep, emotion regulation, executive function, and mindfulness over time. Adolescents randomized to mentoring + mindfulness displayed significantly less posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and emotional impulsivity at follow-up, compared to the mentoring-as-usual condition. These pilot findings suggest that mentoring with a mindfulness training component may offer an effective strategy for protecting adolescents from deteriorations in health outcomes during COVID-19. Further, there may be unique benefits of mindfulness training for vulnerable youth as a way to adapt to stressful events. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/physiology , COVID-19 , Emotional Regulation/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Impulsive Behavior/physiology , Mentoring , Mindfulness , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
14.
The FASEB Journal ; 35(S1), 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1388028

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) is the sole viral protein responsible for both viral binding to a host cell and the membrane fusion event needed for cell entry. In addition to facilitating fusion needed for viral entry, S can also drive cell-cell fusion, a pathogenic effect observed in the lungs of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. While several studies have investigated S requirements involved in viral particle entry, examination of S stability and factors involved in S cell-cell fusion remain limited. We demonstrate that S must be processed at the S1/S2 border in order to mediate cell-cell fusion, and that mutations at potential cleavage sites within the S2 subunit alter S processing at the S1/S2 border, thus preventing cell-cell fusion. We also identify residues within the internal fusion peptide and the cytoplasmic tail that modulate S cell-cell fusion. Additionally, we examine S stability and protein cleavage kinetics in a variety of mammalian cell lines, including a bat cell line related to the likely reservoir species for SARS-CoV-2, and provide evidence that proteolytic processing alters the stability of the S trimer. This work therefore offers insight into S stability, proteolytic processing, and factors that mediate S cell-cell fusion, all of which help give a more comprehensive understanding of this highly sought-after therapeutic target.

16.
Front Public Health ; 8: 607830, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063370

ABSTRACT

Research has shown that music can be used to educate or disseminate information about public health crises. Grounded in the edutainment approach, we explored how songs are being used to create awareness about COVID-19 in Ghana, a sub-Saharan African country. YouTube was searched, and 28 songs met the study inclusion criteria. We conducted a thematic analysis of the song lyrics. Most lyrics were in English, Ghanaian Pidgin English, Akan, Ga, or Dagbani. Reflecting the multilingual population of Ghana, half of the songs contained three languages to convey their message, and only five songs were in one language. Eight themes emerged from the analysis: public health guidelines, COVID-19 is real and not a hoax, COVID-19 is infectious, prayer as method to stop the virus, emotional reaction and disruption of "everyday" activities; verbally expelling the virus, call for unity and collective efforts, and inspiring hope. We show that songs have the potential as a method for rapidly sharing information about emerging public health crises. Even though, it is beyond the scope of this study to draw conclusions about the reception and impact of songs on awareness and knowledge, the study shows that examining song lyrics can still be useful in understanding local attitudes toward COVID-19, as well as strategies for promoting preventive behaviors. We note that additional multidimensional efforts are needed to increase awareness among the general public about the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Awareness , COVID-19/prevention & control , Music/psychology , Public Health , Communication , Ghana , Health Education , Humans , Religion , Social Media
18.
Cell Mol Bioeng ; 13(4): 331-339, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705949

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Interventions that could prevent thrombosis, clinical decompensation, and respiratory compromise in patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are key to decrease mortality rate. Studies show that profound cytokine release and excessive activation of blood coagulation appear to be key drivers of COVID-19 associated mortality. Since limited in vitro methods exist for assessing the effects of anticoagulants on hemostasis, the development of novel therapies to safely prevent thrombosis in COVID-19 patients relies on preclinical animal models and early phase human trials. Herein we present the design of a microfluidic "bleeding chip" to evaluate the effects of antithrombotic therapies on hemostatic plug formation in vitro. METHODS: The design of the microfluidic device consists of two orthogonal channels: an inlet that serves as a model blood vessel, and a bleeding channel to model hemostatic plug formation at sites of compromised endothelial barrier function. This is achieved by placing a series of 3 pillars spaced 10 µm apart at the intersection of the two channels. The pillars and bleeding channel are coated with the extracellular matrix protein collagen. RESULTS: Perfusion of human whole blood through the microfluidic bleeding chip led to initial platelet adhesion and aggregation at the pillars followed by hemostatic plug formation and occlusion of the bleeding channel. CONCLUSIONS: Safe and effective mitigating agents are needed for treatment and prevention of thrombotic complications in COVID-19 patients. This simple microfluidic device holds potential to be developed into a tool for assessing the effects of anticoagulant therapy on hemostasis.

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