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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Estimates of the severity of the SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant (B.1.1.529) are crucial to assess the public health impact associated with its rapid global dissemination. We estimated the risk of SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalisations after infection with omicron compared with the delta variant (B.1.617.2) in Denmark, a country with high mRNA vaccination coverage and extensive free-of-charge PCR testing capacity. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, we included all RT-PCR-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Denmark, with samples taken between Nov 21 (date of first omicron-positive sample) and Dec 19, 2021. Individuals were identified in the national COVID-19 surveillance system database, which included results of a variant-specific RT-PCR that detected omicron cases, and data on SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalisations (primary outcome of the study). We calculated the risk ratio (RR) of hospitalisation after infection with omicron compared with delta, overall and stratified by vaccination status, in a Poisson regression model with robust SEs, adjusted a priori for reinfection status, sex, age, region, comorbidities, and time period. FINDINGS: Between Nov 21 and Dec 19, 2021, among the 188 980 individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 38 669 (20·5%) had the omicron variant. SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalisations and omicron cases increased during the study period. Overall, 124 313 (65·8%) of 188 980 individuals were vaccinated, and vaccination was associated with a lower risk of hospitalisation (adjusted RR 0·24, 95% CI 0·22-0·26) compared with cases with no doses or only one dose of vaccine. Compared with delta infection, omicron infection was associated with an adjusted RR of hospitalisation of 0·64 (95% CI 0·56-0·75; 222 [0·6%] of 38 669 omicron cases admitted to hospital vs 2213 [1·5%] of 150 311 delta cases). For a similar comparison by vaccination status, the RR of hospitalisation was 0·57 (0·44-0·75) among cases with no or only one dose of vaccine, 0·71 (0·60-0·86) among those who received two doses, and 0·50 (0·32-0·76) among those who received three doses. INTERPRETATION: We found a significantly lower risk of hospitalisation with omicron infection compared with delta infection among both vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, suggesting an inherent reduced severity of omicron. Our results could guide modelling of the effect of the ongoing global omicron wave and thus health-care system preparedness. FUNDING: None.

2.
J Rheumatol ; 49(6): 644-649, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726134

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate (1) whether patients with rheumatic disease (RD) treated with rituximab (RTX) raise a serological response toward the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines, and (2) to elucidate the influence of time since the last RTX dose before vaccination on this response. METHODS: We identified and included 201 patients with RDs followed at the outpatient clinic at the Department of Rheumatology, Aarhus University Hospital, who had been treated with RTX in the period 2017-2021 and who had completed their 2-dose vaccination series with a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Total antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were measured on all patients and 44 blood donors as reference. RESULTS: We observed a time-dependent increase in antibody response as the interval from the last RTX treatment to vaccination increased. Only 17.3% of patients developed a detectable antibody response after receiving their vaccination ≤ 6 months after their previous RTX treatment. Positive antibody response increased to 66.7% in patients who had RTX 9-12 months before vaccination. All blood donors (100%) had detectable antibodies after vaccination. CONCLUSION: Patients with RDs treated with RTX have a severely impaired serological response toward COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Our data suggest that the current recommendations of a 6-month interval between RTX treatment and vaccination should be reevaluated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , RNA, Messenger , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
Biomedicines ; 10(2)2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709134

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to compare the test results from patients who, within a short timescale, have been tested for COVID-19 using both a pharyngeal swab and tracheal secretion. Data were collected from the database of AUH, from patients hospitalized between 1 March 2020 and 1 March 2021 who, due to symptoms of COVID-19, were tested by a pharyngeal swab and by tracheal secretion. We found great agreement between oropharyngeal swab and tracheal secretion RT-PCR testing for the diagnosis of COVID-19, with 98.5% of double tests being concordant and only 1.5% being discordant. This finding may advocate a single-test strategy being either an oropharyngeal swab RT-PCR testing or tracheal secretion, although this study revealed 15.9% false negative oropharyngeal swabs.

4.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295613

ABSTRACT

Background Little is known about the long-term course of symptoms for mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) when accounting for symptoms due to other causes. We aimed to compare symptoms day by day for non-hospitalised individuals who tested positive and negative with polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods We followed 210 test-positive and 630 individually matched test-negative health-care workers of the Central Denmark Region up to 90 days after the test, April-June 2020. They daily reported seven COVID-19 related symptoms. Symptom courses were compared graphically and by conditional multivariable logistic regression. Results Thirty % of test-positive and close to zero of test-negative participants reported a reduced sense of taste and smell during all 90 days of follow-up (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 86.07, 95% CI 22.86-323). Dyspnoea was reported by an initial 20% of test-positive with a gradual decline to about 5% after 30 days without ever reaching the level of the test-negative participants (aOR 6.88, 95% CI 2.41-19.63). Cough, headache, sore throat, muscle aches, and fever were temporarily more prevalent among the test positive participants, but after 30 days, no increases were seen. Women and participants aged 45 years or older tended to be more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusion Prevalence of long-lasting reduced sense of taste and smell is highly increased after being diagnosed with mild COVID-19. This pattern is also seen for dyspnoea at a low level but not for cough, sore throat, headache, muscle ache or pain, or fever. Key messages Reduced sense of taste and smell is present at a highly increased level of 30% during 90 days after testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2). Test-positive participants experience dyspnoea persistently more often than test-negative participants but affect only few. The prevalence of cough, sore throat, headache, muscle ache or pain, and fever following a positive test reach the level seen after a negative test within 30 days. Women and participants aged 45 years or older tend to be more susceptible to symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2853-e2860, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to perform a seroprevalence survey on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among Danish healthcare workers to identify high-risk groups. METHODS: All healthcare workers and administrative personnel at the 7 hospitals, prehospital services, and specialist practitioner clinics in the Central Denmark Region were invited to be tested by a commercial SARS-CoV-2 total antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise Co, Ltd, Beijing, China). RESULTS: A total of 25 950 participants were invited. Of these, 17 971 had samples available for SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing. After adjustment for assay sensitivity and specificity, the overall seroprevalence was 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5%-3.8%). The seroprevalence was higher in the western part of the region than in the eastern part (11.9% vs 1.2%; difference: 10.7 percentage points [95% CI, 9.5-12.2]). In the high-prevalence area, the emergency departments had the highest seroprevalence (29.7%), whereas departments without patients or with limited patient contact had the lowest seroprevalence (2.2%). Among the total 668 seropositive participants, 433 (64.8%) had previously been tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and 50.0% had a positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result. CONCLUSIONS: We found large differences in the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in staff working in the healthcare sector within a small geographical area of Denmark. Half of all seropositive staff had been tested positive by PCR prior to this survey. This study raises awareness of precautions that should be taken to avoid in-hospital transmission. Regular testing of healthcare workers for SARS-CoV-2 should be considered to identify areas with increased transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Administrative Personnel , Antibodies, Viral , Delivery of Health Care , Denmark/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
6.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(11): 1925-1931, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391850

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were launched in December 2020. Vaccination of patients with rheumatic diseases is recommended, as they are considered at higher risk of severe COVID-19 than the general population. Patients with rheumatic disease have largely been excluded from vaccine phase 3 trials. This study explores the safety and reactogenicity of BNT162b2 among patients with rheumatic diseases. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), median age 58.8 years, 285 subjects in total, were vaccinated twice with the BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech). Questionnaires on reactogenicity matching the original phase 3 study were answered seven days after completed vaccination. The majority of SLE and RA patients experienced either local (78.0%) or systemic reactions (80.1%). Only 1.8% experienced a grade-4 reaction. Compared to the original study, we found more frequent fatigue [Odds ratio (OR) 2.2 (1.7-2.8)], headache [OR 1.7 (1.3-2.2)], muscle pain [OR 1.8 (1.4-2.3)], and joint pain [OR 2.3 (1.7-3.0)] in patients. In contrast, the use of antipyretics was less frequent [OR 0.5 (0.3-0.6)]. Patients with SLE and RA experience reactogenicity to the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. Reactogenicity was more frequent in patients, however, not more severe compared with healthy controls.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
Thorax ; 76(4): 370-379, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388537

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of ACE inhibitor (ACE-I)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use on rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection and adverse outcomes. METHODS: This nationwide case-control and cohort study included all individuals in Denmark tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA with PCR from 27 February 2020 to 26 July 2020. We estimated confounder-adjusted ORs for a positive test among all SARS-CoV-2 tested, and inverse probability of treatment weighted 30-day risk and risk ratios (RRs) of hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality comparing current ACE-I/ARB use with calcium channel blocker (CCB) use and with non-use. RESULTS: The study included 13 501 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive and 1 088 695 PCR-negative individuals. Users of ACE-I/ARB had a marginally increased rate of a positive PCR when compared with CCB users (aOR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.37), but not when compared with non-users (aOR 1.00 95% CI 0.92 to 1.09).Among PCR-positive individuals, 1466 (11%) were ACE-I/ARB users. The weighted risk of hospitalisation was 36.5% in ACE-I/ARB users and 43.3% in CCB users (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.02). The risk of ICU admission was 6.3% in ACE-I/ARB users and 5.4% in CCB users (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.16), while the 30-day mortality was 12.3% in ACE-I/ARB users and 13.9% in CCB users (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.30). The associations were similar when ACE-I/ARB users were compared with non-users. CONCLUSIONS: ACE-I/ARB use was associated neither with a consistently increased rate nor with adverse outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our findings support the current recommendation of continuing use of ACE-Is/ARBs during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: EUPAS34887.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 382-390, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to compare symptoms day by day for non-hospitalized individuals testing positive and negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: In total, 210 positive-test and 630 negative-test healthcare workers in the Central Denmark Region were followed for up to 90 days after testing, between April and June, 2020. Their daily reported COVID-19-related symptoms were compared graphically and by logistic regression. RESULTS: Thirty per cent of the positive-test and close to 0% of the negative-test participants reported a reduced sense of taste and smell during all 90 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 86.07, 95% CI 22.86-323). Dyspnea was reported by an initial 20% of positive-test participants, declining to 5% after 30 days, without ever reaching the level of the negative-test participants (aOR 6.88, 95% CI 2.41-19.63). Cough, headache, sore throat, muscle pain, and fever were temporarily more prevalent among the positive-test participants; after 30 days, no increases were seen. Women and older participants were more susceptible to long-lasting COVID-19 symptoms. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of long-lasting reduced sense of taste and smell is highly increased in mild COVID-19 patients. This pattern is also seen for dyspnea at a low level, but not for cough, sore throat, headache, muscle pain, or fever.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 109: 17-23, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The distribution and nature of symptoms among SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals need to be clarified. METHODS: Between May and August 2020, 11 138 healthcare and administrative personnel from Central Denmark Region were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and subsequently completed a questionnaire. Symptom prevalence and overall duration for symptoms persisting for more than 30 days were calculated. Logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. RESULTS: In total, 447 (4%) of the participants were SARS-CoV-2-seropositive. Loss of sense of smell and taste was reported by 50% of seropositives compared with 3% of seronegatives. Additionally, seropositives more frequently reported fever, dyspnoea, muscle or joint ache, fatigue, cough, headache and sore throat, and they were more likely to report symptoms persisting for more than 30 days. In adjusted models, they had a higher risk of reporting symptoms, with the strongest association observed for loss of sense of taste and smell (OR = 35.6; 95% CI: 28.6-44.3). CONCLUSION: In this large study, SARS-CoV-2-seropositive participants reported COVID-19-associated symptoms more frequently than those who were seronegative, especially loss of sense of taste and smell. Overall, their symptoms were also more likely to persist for more than 30 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Administrative Personnel , Delivery of Health Care , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans
10.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245341

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with chronic rheumatic diseases (CRD), such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), require special attention during the COVID-19 pandemic, as they are considered at risk of severe infections. We assessed the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in patients with SLE and RA and patient behavior, disease-related symptoms, and mental health. METHODS: More than 900 participants were included: 405 patients with RA or SLE (CRD-patients) and 513 blood donors. All participants had blood SARS-CoV-2 total antibodies measured (sensitivity 96.7%, specificity 99.5%) and answered a questionnaire concerning behavior, anxiety, and symptoms of depression (PHQ-9). The CRD patients were further asked about physical activity, adherence to medication, and disease-related symptoms. RESULTS: CRD-patients had a significant lower seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (n=1/365, 0.3%) compared to blood donors (n=10/513, 1.9%) (p=0.03). Almost 60% of patients were unable to exercise as usual, increased pain was experienced by 34% of patients and increased disease activity by 24%. Almost 10% of patients reduced or discontinued their immunosuppressive treatments at their own initiative. Symptoms of moderate depression were present in 19% of patients compared to 6,8% blood donors (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Low seroprevalence in patients with CRDs indicates successful mitigation of exposure to SARS-CoV-2. However, this appears to occur at the expense of physical activity, experience of increased pain, disease activity, and symptoms of depression. There is a need for care providers to be aware of these negative side-effects and for further studies to investigate the possible long-term consequences.

11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(5): 1468-1481, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Population-level knowledge on individuals at high risk of severe and fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is urgently needed to inform targeted protection strategies in the general population. METHODS: We examined characteristics and predictors of hospitalization and death in a nationwide cohort of all Danish individuals tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from 27 February 2020 until 19 May 2020. RESULTS: We identified 11 122 SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction-positive cases of whom 80% were community-managed and 20% were hospitalized. Thirty-day all-cause mortality was 5.2%. Age was strongly associated with fatal disease {odds ratio [OR] 15 [95% confidence interval (CI): 9-26] for 70-79 years, increasing to OR 90 (95% CI: 50-162) for ≥90 years, when compared with cases aged 50-59 years and adjusted for sex and number of co-morbidities}. Similarly, the number of co-morbidities was associated with fatal disease [OR 5.2 (95% CI: 3.4-8.0), for cases with at least four co-morbidities vs no co-morbidities] and 79% of fatal cases had at least two co-morbidities. Most major chronic diseases were associated with hospitalization, with ORs ranging from 1.3-1.4 (e.g. stroke, ischaemic heart disease) to 2.6-3.4 (e.g. heart failure, hospital-diagnosed kidney disease, organ transplantation) and with mortality with ORs ranging from 1.1-1.3 (e.g. ischaemic heart disease, hypertension) to 2.5-3.2 (e.g. major psychiatric disorder, organ transplantation). In the absence of co-morbidities, mortality was <5% in persons aged ≤80 years. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide population-based COVID-19 study, increasing age and multimorbidity were strongly associated with hospitalization and death. In the absence of co-morbidities, the mortality was, however, <5% until the age of 80 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cause of Death , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(5)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195815

ABSTRACT

Serological assays for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are needed to support clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigations. Recently, assays for large-scale detection of total antibodies (Ab), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and IgM against SARS-CoV-2 antigens have been developed, but there are limited data on the diagnostic accuracy of these assays. This study was a Danish national collaboration and evaluated 15 commercial and one in-house anti-SARS-CoV-2 assays in 16 laboratories. Sensitivity was evaluated using 150 samples from individuals with asymptomatic, mild, or moderate COVID-19, nonhospitalized or hospitalized, confirmed by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT); samples were collected 13 to 73 days either from symptom onset or from positive NAAT (patients without symptoms). Specificity and cross-reactivity were evaluated in samples collected prior to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic from >586 blood donors and patients with autoimmune diseases, cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus infections, and acute viral infections. A specificity of ≥99% was achieved by all total-Ab and IgG assays except one, DiaSorin Liaison XL IgG (97.2%). Sensitivities in descending order were Wantai ELISA total Ab (96.7%), CUH-NOVO in-house ELISA total Ab (96.0%), Ortho Vitros total Ab (95.3%), YHLO iFlash IgG (94.0%), Ortho Vitros IgG (93.3%), Siemens Atellica total Ab (93.2%), Roche Elecsys total Ab (92.7%), Abbott Architect IgG (90.0%), Abbott Alinity IgG (median 88.0%), DiaSorin Liaison XL IgG (median 84.6%), Siemens Vista total Ab (81.0%), Euroimmun/ELISA IgG (78.0%), and Snibe Maglumi IgG (median 78.0%). However, confidence intervals overlapped for several assays. The IgM results were variable, with the Wantai IgM ELISA showing the highest sensitivity (82.7%) and specificity (99%). The rate of seropositivity increased with time from symptom onset and symptom severity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin M/isolation & purification , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(5)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081941

ABSTRACT

Serological assays for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are needed to support clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigations. Recently, assays for large-scale detection of total antibodies (Ab), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and IgM against SARS-CoV-2 antigens have been developed, but there are limited data on the diagnostic accuracy of these assays. This study was a Danish national collaboration and evaluated 15 commercial and one in-house anti-SARS-CoV-2 assays in 16 laboratories. Sensitivity was evaluated using 150 samples from individuals with asymptomatic, mild, or moderate COVID-19, nonhospitalized or hospitalized, confirmed by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT); samples were collected 13 to 73 days either from symptom onset or from positive NAAT (patients without symptoms). Specificity and cross-reactivity were evaluated in samples collected prior to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic from >586 blood donors and patients with autoimmune diseases, cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus infections, and acute viral infections. A specificity of ≥99% was achieved by all total-Ab and IgG assays except one, DiaSorin Liaison XL IgG (97.2%). Sensitivities in descending order were Wantai ELISA total Ab (96.7%), CUH-NOVO in-house ELISA total Ab (96.0%), Ortho Vitros total Ab (95.3%), YHLO iFlash IgG (94.0%), Ortho Vitros IgG (93.3%), Siemens Atellica total Ab (93.2%), Roche Elecsys total Ab (92.7%), Abbott Architect IgG (90.0%), Abbott Alinity IgG (median 88.0%), DiaSorin Liaison XL IgG (median 84.6%), Siemens Vista total Ab (81.0%), Euroimmun/ELISA IgG (78.0%), and Snibe Maglumi IgG (median 78.0%). However, confidence intervals overlapped for several assays. The IgM results were variable, with the Wantai IgM ELISA showing the highest sensitivity (82.7%) and specificity (99%). The rate of seropositivity increased with time from symptom onset and symptom severity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin M/isolation & purification , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2013880, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621959

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, case reports have suggested that the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may lead to adverse outcomes. Objective: To study the association of NSAID use with adverse outcomes in patients hospitalized with influenza or influenza pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used propensity score matching among 7747 individuals aged 40 years or older who were hospitalized with influenza, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction or antigen testing, between 2010 and 2018. Data were collected using Danish nationwide registers. All analyses reported were performed on May 29, 2020. Exposures: Prescription fill of an NSAID within 60 days before admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk ratio (RR) and risk difference (RD) with 95% CIs for intensive care unit admission and death within 30 days of admission. Results: A total of 7747 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 71 [59-80] years, 3980 [51.4%] men) with confirmed influenza were identified. Of these, 520 (6.7%) were exposed to NSAIDs. In the unmatched cohorts, 104 of 520 patients (20.0%) who used NSAIDs and 958 of 7227 patients (13.3%) who did not use NSAIDs were admitted to the intensive care unit. For death within 30 days of admission, we observed 37 events (7.1%) among those who used NSAIDs compared with 563 events (7.8%) among those who did not. Current NSAID use was associated with intensive care unit admission (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.26 to 1.81; RD, 6.7%; 95% CI, 3.2% to 10.3%), while NSAID use was not associated with death (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.26; RD, -0.7%; 95% CI, -3.0% to 1.6%). In the matched cohorts, risks were unchanged for patients who used NSAIDs, while 83 ICU admissions (16.0%) and 36 deaths (6.9%) were observed among matched individuals who did not use NSAIDs. Matched (ie, adjusted) analyses yielded attenuated risk estimates for intensive care unit admission (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.63; RD, 4.0%; 95% CI, -0.6% to 8.7%) and death (RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.60; RD, 0.2%; 95% CI, -2.9% to 3.3%). Associations were more pronounced among patients who used NSAIDs for a longer period (eg, for intensive care unit admission: RR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.19 to 3.06; RD, 13.4%; 95% CI, 4.0% to 22.8%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of adult patients hospitalized with influenza, the use of NSAIDs was not associated with 30-day intensive care unit admission or death in adjusted analyses. There was an association between long-term use of NSAIDs and intensive care unit admission.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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