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3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The aim of this multinational study was to assess the development of adverse mental health symptoms among individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 in the general population by acute infection severity up to 16 months after diagnosis. METHODS Participants consisted of 247 249 individuals from seven cohorts across six countries (Denmark, Estonia, Iceland, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden) recruited from April 2020 through August 2021. We used multivariable Poisson regression to contrast symptom-prevalence of depression, anxiety, COVID-19 related distress, and poor sleep quality among individuals with and without a diagnosis of COVID-19 at entry to respective cohorts by time (0-16 months) from diagnosis. We also applied generalised estimating equations (GEE) analysis to test differences in repeated measures of mental health symptoms before and after COVID-19 diagnosis among individuals ever diagnosed with COVID-19 over time. FINDINGS A total of 9979 individuals (4%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the study period and presented overall with a higher symptom burden of depression (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.03-1.36) and poorer sleep quality (1.13, 1.03-1.24) but not with higher levels of symptoms of anxiety or COVID-19 related distress compared with individuals without a COVID-19 diagnosis. While the prevalence of depression and COVID-19 related distress attenuated with time, the trajectories varied significantly by COVID-19 acute infection severity. Individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 but never bedridden due to their illness were consistently at lower risks of depression and anxiety (PR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75-0.91 and 0.77, 0.63-0.94, respectively), while patients bedridden for more than 7 days were persistently at higher risks of symptoms of depression and anxiety (PR 1.61, 95% CI 1.27-2.05 and 1.43, 1.26-1.63, respectively) throughout the 16-month study period. CONCLUSION Acute infection severity is a key determinant of long-term mental morbidity among COVID-19 patients.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e049967, 2021 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test if patients recovering from COVID-19 are at increased risk of mental morbidities and to what extent such risk is exacerbated by illness severity. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Iceland. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 22 861 individuals were recruited through invitations to existing nationwide cohorts and a social media campaign from 24 April to 22 July 2020, of which 373 were patients recovering from COVID-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptoms of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder Scale) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; modified Primary Care PTSD Screen for DSM-5) above screening thresholds. Adjusting for multiple covariates and comorbidities, multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess the association between COVID-19 severity and mental morbidities. RESULTS: Compared with individuals without a diagnosis of COVID-19, patients recovering from COVID-19 had increased risk of depression (22.1% vs 16.2%; adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.48, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.82) and PTSD (19.5% vs 15.6%; aRR 1.38, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.75) but not anxiety (13.1% vs 11.3%; aRR 1.24, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.64). Elevated relative risks were limited to patients recovering from COVID-19 that were 40 years or older and were particularly high among individuals with university education. Among patients recovering from COVID-19, symptoms of depression were particularly common among those in the highest, compared with the lowest tertile of influenza-like symptom burden (47.1% vs 5.8%; aRR 6.42, 95% CI 2.77 to 14.87), among patients confined to bed for 7 days or longer compared with those never confined to bed (33.3% vs 10.9%; aRR 3.67, 95% CI 1.97 to 6.86) and among patients hospitalised for COVID-19 compared with those never admitted to hospital (48.1% vs 19.9%; aRR 2.72, 95% CI 1.67 to 4.44). CONCLUSIONS: Severe disease course is associated with increased risk of depression and PTSD among patients recovering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Iceland/epidemiology , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2
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