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1.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(6): 499-510, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Till now, no meta-analysis is available to address the clinical profile, risk factors, different interventions, and outcomes among COVID-19-associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (C-ROCM) cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight literature databases were screened using appropriate keywords from November 1, 2019, to June 30, 2021. The objectives were to analyze the clinical and microbiological profile, risk factor/comorbidity, intervention, and outcome. "R-metafor package" was used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies were included. The mean age of presentation of C-ROCM was 54.6 years. The most common presentation was ptosis (72.7%), lid edema (60.6%), proptosis (60.6%), ophthalmoplegia (57.3%), loss of vision (53.7%), facial edema (34.7%), and nasal-blockage (11.8%). Evidence of intracranial spread was seen in 42.8% of cases. Rhizopus was the most common fungus (57.1%) isolated in fungal culture. Among C-ROCM patients, diabetes was the commonest comorbid condition, and the use of corticosteroids related to COVID-19 treatment was the most common risk factor (85.75%). Compared to controlled diabetics, C-ROCM was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetics (odds ratio [OR] 0.15, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 0.041-0.544, P = 0.0010). However, no significant association was seen between C-ROCM and COVID-19 severity (OR 0.930, 95% C.I. 0.212-4.087, P = 0.923). For treatment, amphotericin-B was the most common antifungal drug used which was followed by surgical options. However, mortality was high (prevalence 0.344, 95% C.I. 0.205-0.403) despite treatment. CONCLUSION: Although local rhino-orbito symptoms were the first to appear, rapid intracranial extension was seen in a significant number of C-ROCM cases. Uncontrolled diabetes and excessive use of corticosteroid were the most common risk factors present among the C-ROCM cases. High index clinical suspicion is imperative (specifically among COVID-19 patients with diabetes), and routine screening may be helpful.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/complications , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/complications , Nose Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(4): 317-327, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367964

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic, parallel opportunistic infections have also been emerging as another disease spectrum. Among all these opportunistic infection, mucormycosis has become a matter of concern with its rapid increase of cases with rapid spread as compared to pre-COVID-19 era. Cases have been reported in post-COVID-19-related immune suppression along with the presence of comorbidity which adds on the deadly outcome. There is no systematic review addressing the issue of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. This is the first systematic review of published studies of mucormycosis associated with COVID-19. The aim was to analyze the real scenario of the disease statement including all the published studies from first November 2019 to 30th June to analyze the contemporary epidemiology, clinical manifestations, risk factor, prognosis, and treatment outcome of COVID-19 associated rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis. A comprehensive literature search was done in following databases, namely, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and EMBASE using keywords mucormycosis, rhino orbital cerebral mucormycosis, COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-2 (from November 01, 2019 to June 30, 2021). Our study shows that, while corticosteroids have proved to be lifesaving in severe to critical COVID-19 patients, its indiscriminate use has come with its price of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis epidemic, especially in India especially in patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus with higher mortality. Corticosteroid use should be monitored and all COVID-19 patients should be closely evaluated/monitored for sequelae of immunosuppression following treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Meningitis, Fungal/microbiology , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Meningitis, Fungal/drug therapy , Meningitis, Fungal/immunology , Meningitis, Fungal/mortality , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/immunology , Mucormycosis/mortality , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/immunology , Nose Diseases/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/immunology , Orbital Diseases/mortality , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 906: 174233, 2021 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260717

ABSTRACT

Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of pyrimidone which catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotate to orotate. Orotate is utilized in the biosynthesis of uridine-monophosphate. DHODH inhibitors have shown promise as antiviral agent against Cytomegalovirus, Ebola, Influenza, Epstein Barr and Picornavirus. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 action of DHODH inhibitors are also coming up. In this review, we have reviewed the safety and efficacy of approved DHODH inhibitors (leflunomide and teriflunomide) against COVID-19. In target-centered in silico studies, leflunomide showed favorable binding to active site of MPro and spike: ACE2 interface. In artificial-intelligence/machine-learning based studies, leflunomide was among the top 50 ligands targeting spike: ACE2 interaction. Leflunomide is also found to interact with differentially regulated pathways [identified by KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) and reactome pathway analysis of host transcriptome data] in cogena based drug-repurposing studies. Based on GSEA (gene set enrichment analysis), leflunomide was found to target pathways enriched in COVID-19. In vitro, both leflunomide (EC50 41.49 ± 8.8 µmol/L) and teriflunomide (EC50 26 µmol/L) showed SARS-CoV-2 inhibition. In clinical studies, leflunomide showed significant benefit in terms of decreasing the duration of viral shredding, duration of hospital stay and severity of infection. However, no advantage was seen while combining leflunomide and IFN alpha-2a among patients with prolonged post symptomatic viral shredding. Common adverse effects of leflunomide were hyperlipidemia, leucopenia, neutropenia and liver-function alteration. Leflunomide/teriflunomide may serve as an agent of importance to achieve faster virological clearance in COVID-19, however, findings needs to be validated in bigger sized placebo controlled studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Crotonates/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxybutyrates/pharmacology , Leflunomide/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/antagonists & inhibitors , Toluidines/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Crotonates/adverse effects , Crotonates/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxybutyrates/adverse effects , Hydroxybutyrates/therapeutic use , Leflunomide/adverse effects , Leflunomide/therapeutic use , Nitriles/adverse effects , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Toluidines/adverse effects , Toluidines/therapeutic use
4.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(1): 63-72, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225882

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented collaborative effort among industry, academia, regulatory bodies, and governments with huge financial investments. Scientists and researchers from India also left no stone unturned to find therapeutic and preventive measures against COVID-19. Indian pharmaceutical companies are one of the leading manufacturers of vaccine in the world, are utilizing its capacity to its maximum, and are one among the forerunners in vaccine research against COVID-19 across the globe. In this systematic review, the information regarding contribution of Indian scientists toward COVID-19 research has been gathered from various news articles across Google platform apart from searching PubMed, WHO site, COVID-19 vaccine tracker, CTRI, clinicaltrials.gov, and websites of pharmaceutical companies. The article summarizes and highlights the various therapeutic and vaccine candidates, diagnostic kits, treatment agents, and technology being developed and tested by Indian researcher community against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomedical Research , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Development , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Trials as Topic , Computer-Aided Design , Diffusion of Innovation , Drug Repositioning , Humans , India , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
5.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 52(6): 535-550, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119594

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although the use of steroids in the management of COVID-19 has been addressed by a few systematic review and meta-analysis, however, they also used data from "SARS-CoV" and "MERS-CoV." Again, most of these studies addressed only one severity category of patients or addressed only one efficacy endpoint (mortality). In this context, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of steroid therapy among all severity categories of patients with COVID-19 (mild to moderate and severe to critical category) in terms of "mortality," "requirement of mechanical ventilation," "requirement of ICU" and clinical cure parameters. METHODS: 11 databases were screened. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or high quality (on the basis of risk of bias analysis) comparative-observational studies were included in the analysis. RevMan5.3 was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies (3 RCT and 12 comparative-observational studies) were included. In the mechanically-ventilated COVID-19 population, treatment with dexamethasone showed significant protection against mortality (single study). Among severe and critically ill combined population, steroid administration was significantly associated with lowered mortality (risk ratio [RR] 0.83 [0.76-0.910]), lowered requirement of mechanical ventilation (RR 0.59 [0.51-0.69]), decreased requirement of intensive care unit (ICU) (RR 0.62 [0.45-0.86]), lowered length of ICU stay (single-study) and decreased duration of mechanical ventilation (two-studies). In mild to moderate population, steroid treatment was associated with a higher "duration of hospital stay," while no difference was seen in other domains. In patients at risk of progression to "acute respiratory distress syndrome," steroid administration was associated with "reduced requirement of mechanical ventilation" (single-study). CONCLUSION: This study guides the use of steroid across patients with different severity categories of COVID-19. Among mechanically ventilated patients, steroid therapy may be beneficial in terms of reduced mortality. Among "severe and critical" patients; steroid therapy was associated with lowered mortality, decreased requirement of mechanical ventilation, and ICU. However, no benefit was observed in "mild to moderate" population. To conclude, among properly selected patient populations (based-upon clinical severity and biomarker status), steroid administration may prove beneficial in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Steroids/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Steroids/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
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