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1.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-4, 2022 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774059

ABSTRACT

Background: Transverse myelitis (TM) is a rare, acquired neuro-immunological spinal cord disorder that occurs with rapid onset of motor weakness, sensory deficits with bowel and bladder dysfunction. Patients being treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for advanced malignancy have a known higher propensity of developing neuro immune complications. With the advent of COVID-19 pandemic there have been reported cases of TM with COVID-19 immunization. The reported infrequency of TM with both of the aforementioned causes makes delineation of the etiology challenging.Methods: We present a patient with metastatic small cell lung cancer (SCLC) on maintenance Atezolizumab immunotherapy who developed longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) after administration of second dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine one day prior to presenting symptoms of acute paralysis of the lower extremity, sensory loss from chest down with overflow incontinence. A clinical diagnosis of myelopathy was supported by MRI of the spine illustrating enhancing lesions from C7-T7 concerning for LETM.Results: A 5-day course of pulsed methylprednisolone followed by therapeutic plasma exchange for 3 days resulted in only minimal improvement in the neurologic exam with increased strength in his lower extremities while the sensory level remained unchanged.Conclusions: This case demonstrates the complication and symptomatology of TM in the setting of anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody with coincidental COVID-19 mRNA vaccine administration. The causal relationship between the vaccine and LETM is difficult to establish. However, the presence of a known inciting factor hints at a possible exaggeration of the existing neuro-inflammatory process.

2.
Neuroimmunology Reports ; : 100063, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1616679

ABSTRACT

Background Neurological autoimmune disorders are often triggered by bacterial and viral infections, with growing evidence supporting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection precipitation of these disorders. COVID-19 is already implicated in causing discrete para-infectious neurological syndromes: acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), transverse myelitis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and is also associated with encephalopathy, acute cerebrovascular disease, neuromuscular disorders, and seizures. Case Presentation We describe a case of a 43-year-old Asian woman with chronic Hepatitis B (HBV) co-infected acutely with COVID-19, presenting with urinary retention, bilateral blindness, thoracic sensory level, and quadriparesis. Extensive workup narrowed down her diagnosis as seronegative NMOSD. She had complete resolution of symptoms after treatment with concurrent plasma exchange (PLEX), high dose corticosteroids, and emtricitabine-tenofovir. Follow-up visit showed no seroconversion at 6 months and no relapses. Conclusions Our literature review highlights the likely link between COVID-19 infection and the development of neurologic autoimmune diseases. Our literature review supports a virus-triggered immune-mediated process rather than neuro-invasion. Many viral illnesses have been linked to the development of NMOSD and anti-AQP4 antibody-related myelitis. Additionally, there is limited literature linking chronic HBV infection with the development of optic neuritis and speculation thatcross-reactivity between HBsAg and myelin antigens may lead to the development of demyelinating diseases in the CNS and PNS. We observed remarkable clinical improvement after treatment with alternating days of IV methylprednisolone and therapeutic PLEX.

3.
Cureus ; 13(10), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1469211

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to report EEG findings in both COVID-19 survivors and non-survivors who underwent EEG either due to seizure or encephalopathy. Out of total 1468 COVID-19-positive patients, 19 patients underwent EEG. Eight out of 19 patients had a history of seizure disorder and in the remaining 11 with no prior history of seizures, four had a clinical seizure during their hospital stay. Only one had new-onset complex focal status epilepticus on EEG. Amongst the survivors (13/19), the most common EEG findings were normal followed by mild diffuse slowing. Amongst the non-survivors (6/19), the most common EEG finding was moderate to severe slowing in 50% of the patients. It can be deduced that COVID-19 infection does not increase the propensity of epileptiform discharges on EEG. There is perhaps a trend towards increased risk of new-onset status epilepticus in patients with encephalopathy and focal lesions.

4.
Cureus ; 13(9): e18360, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute confusional state (ACS) in COVID-19 is shown to be associated with poor clinical outcomes. METHODS: We assessed the impact of ACS - defined as a documented deterioration of mental status from baseline on the alertness and orientation to time, place, and person - on inpatient mortality and the need for intensive care unit (ICU) transfer in inpatient admissions with active COVID-19 infection in a single-center retrospective cohort of inpatient admissions from a designated COVID-19 tertiary care center using an electronic health record system. Furthermore, we developed and validated a neurological history and symptom-based predictive score of developing ACS. RESULTS: Thirty seven out of 245 (15%) patients demonstrated ACS. Nineteen (51%) patients had multifactorial ACS, followed by 11 (30%) patients because of hypoxemia. ACS patients were significantly older (80 [70-85] years vs 50.5 [38-69] years, p < 0.001) and demonstrated more frequent history of dementia (43% vs 9%, p < 0.001) and epilepsy (16% vs 2%, p = 0.001). ACS patients observed significantly higher in-hospital mortality (45.9% vs 1.9%, aOR [adjusted odds ratio]: 15.7, 95% CI = 3.6-68.0, p < 0.001) and need for ICU transfer (64.9% vs 35.1%, aOR: 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2-6.1, p = 0.015). In patients who survived hospitalization, ACS was associated with longer hospital stay (6 [3.5-10.5] days vs 3 [2-7] day, p = 0.012) and numerically longer ICU stay (6 [4-10] days vs 3 [2-6] days, p = 0.078). A score to predict ACS demonstrated 75.68% sensitivity and 81.73% specificity at a cutoff of ≥3. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of ACS was found in patients with COVID-19 in our study cohort. Patients with ACS demonstrated increased mortality and need for ICU care. An internally validated score to predict ACS demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in our cohort.

5.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 54(4): 312-322, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067910

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate five illustrative cases and perform a literature review to identify and describe a working approach to adult-onset white matter diseases (WMD). STATE OF THE ART: Inherited WMD are a group of disorders often seen in childhood. In adulthood, progressive WMDs are rare, apart from the common nonspecific causes of hypertension and other cerebrovascular diseases. The pattern of WMDs on neuroimaging can be an important clue to the final diagnosis. Due to the adoption of a combined clinical-imaging-laboratory approach, WMD is becoming better recognised, in addition to the rapidly evolving field of genomics in this area. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: While paediatric WMDs have a well-defined and literature-based clinical-laboratory approach to diagnosis, adult-onset WMDs remain an important, pathologically diverse, radiographic phenotype, with different and distinct neuropathologies among the various subtypes of WMD. Adult-onset WMDs comprise a wide collection of both acquired and inherited aetiologies. While severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neurological complications are emerging, we are as yet unaware of it causing WMD outside of post-anoxic changes. It is important to recognise WMD as a potentially undefined acquired or genetic syndrome, even when extensive full genome testing reveals variants of unknown significance. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: We propose a combined clinical-imaging-laboratory approach to WMD and continued exploration of acquired and genetic factors. Adult-onset WMD, even given this approach, can be challenging because hypertension is often comorbid. Therefore, we propose that undiagnosed patients with WMD be entered into multicentre National Organisation for Rare Diseases registries to help researchers worldwide make new discoveries that will hopefully translate into future cures.


Subject(s)
Leukoencephalopathies/diagnosis , Leukoencephalopathies/etiology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter/pathology
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