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1.
Biospektrum (Heidelb) ; 27(5): 485-487, 2021.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827130

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 still remains a severe global health threat. Despite the high-speed development of vaccines that efficiently prevent COVID-19, there are still no effective treatments of the disease once people are infected. MicroRNAs are powerful regulators of gene expression. They are intensely investigated as therapeutic targets up to the clinical stage. In addition, microRNAs can be detected in the circulation, and thus, represent promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for (long)-COVID-19.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(11): 1806-1818, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453574

ABSTRACT

Patients with heart failure (HF) who contract SARS-CoV-2 infection are at a higher risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Regardless of therapeutic attempts in COVID-19, vaccination remains the most promising global approach at present for controlling this disease. There are several concerns and misconceptions regarding the clinical indications, optimal mode of delivery, safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines for patients with HF. This document provides guidance to all healthcare professionals regarding the implementation of a COVID-19 vaccination scheme in patients with HF. COVID-19 vaccination is indicated in all patients with HF, including those who are immunocompromised (e.g. after heart transplantation receiving immunosuppressive therapy) and with frailty syndrome. It is preferable to vaccinate against COVID-19 patients with HF in an optimal clinical state, which would include clinical stability, adequate hydration and nutrition, optimized treatment of HF and other comorbidities (including iron deficiency), but corrective measures should not be allowed to delay vaccination. Patients with HF who have been vaccinated against COVID-19 need to continue precautionary measures, including the use of facemasks, hand hygiene and social distancing. Knowledge on strategies preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection (including the COVID-19 vaccination) should be included in the comprehensive educational programmes delivered to patients with HF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Heart Failure , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Frail Elderly , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Biospektrum (Heidelb) ; 27(5): 485-487, 2021.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401095

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 still remains a severe global health threat. Despite the high-speed development of vaccines that efficiently prevent COVID-19, there are still no effective treatments of the disease once people are infected. MicroRNAs are powerful regulators of gene expression. They are intensely investigated as therapeutic targets up to the clinical stage. In addition, microRNAs can be detected in the circulation, and thus, represent promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for (long)-COVID-19.

5.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(8): 1823-1840, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174897

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been as unprecedented as unexpected, affecting more than 105 million people worldwide as of 8 February 2020 and causing more than 2.3 million deaths according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Not only affecting the lungs but also provoking acute respiratory distress, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is able to infect multiple cell types including cardiac and vascular cells. Hence a significant proportion of infected patients develop cardiac events, such as arrhythmias and heart failure. Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities are at highest risk of cardiac death. To face the pandemic and limit its burden, health authorities have launched several fast-track calls for research projects aiming to develop rapid strategies to combat the disease, as well as longer-term projects to prepare for the future. Biomarkers have the possibility to aid in clinical decision-making and tailoring healthcare in order to improve patient quality of life. The biomarker potential of circulating RNAs has been recognized in several disease conditions, including cardiovascular disease. RNA biomarkers may be useful in the current COVID-19 situation. The discovery, validation, and marketing of novel biomarkers, including RNA biomarkers, require multi-centre studies by large and interdisciplinary collaborative networks, involving both the academia and the industry. Here, members of the EU-CardioRNA COST Action CA17129 summarize the current knowledge about the strain that COVID-19 places on the cardiovascular system and discuss how RNA biomarkers can aid to limit this burden. They present the benefits and challenges of the discovery of novel RNA biomarkers, the need for networking efforts, and the added value of artificial intelligence to achieve reliable advances.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence/economics , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular System/virology , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(3): 468-475, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120306

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a still growing pandemic, causing many deaths and socio-economic damage. Elevated expression of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 on cardiac cells of patients with heart diseases may be related to cardiovascular burden. We have thus analysed cardiovascular and inflammatory microRNAs (miRs), sensitive markers of cardiovascular damage, in critically ill, ventilated patients with COVID-19 or influenza-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (Influenza-ARDS) admitted to the intensive care unit and healthy controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: Circulating miRs (miR-21, miR-126, miR-155, miR-208a, and miR-499) were analysed in a discovery cohort consisting of patients with mechanically-ventilated COVID-19 (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 15). A validation study was performed in an independent cohort of mechanically-ventilated COVID-19 patients (n = 20), Influenza-ARDS patients (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 32). In both cohorts, RNA was isolated from serum and cardiovascular disease/inflammatory-relevant miR concentrations were measured by miR-specific TaqMan PCR analyses. In both the discovery and the validation cohort, serum concentration of miR-21, miR-155, miR-208a and miR-499 were significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls. Calculating the area under the curve using receiver operating characteristic analysis miR-155, miR-208a and miR-499 showed a clear distinction between COVID-19 and Influenza-ARDS patients. CONCLUSION: In this exploratory study, inflammation and cardiac myocyte-specific miRs were upregulated in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Importantly, miR profiles were able to differentiate between severely ill, mechanically-ventilated Influenza-ARDS and COVID-19 patients, indicating a rather specific response and cardiac involvement of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , MicroRNAs , Critical Illness , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 148: 46-49, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741564

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a public health emergency of international concern as more than 15 million cases were reported by 24th July 2020. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a COVID-19 entry receptor regulating host cell infection. A recent study reported that ACE2 is expressed in cardiomyocytes. In this study, we aimed to explore if there are microRNA (miRNA) molecules which target ACE2 and which may be exploited to regulate the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. Our data reveal that both Ace2 mRNA and Ace2 protein levels are inhibited by miR-200c in rat primary cardiomyocytes and importantly, in human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. We report the first miRNA candidate that can target ACE2 in cardiomyocytes and thus may be exploited as a preventive strategy to treat cardiovascular complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Computer Simulation , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Mice , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , Rats , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 144: 47-53, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154815

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic started several months ago and is still exponentially growing in most parts of the world - this is the most recent and alarming update. COVID-19 requires the collaboration of nearly 200 countries to curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2 while gaining time to explore and improve treatment options especially for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and immunocompromised patients, who appear to be at high-risk to die from cardiopulmonary failure. Currently unanswered questions are why elderly people, particularly those with pre-existing comorbidities seem to exhibit higher mortality rates after SARS-CoV-2 infection and whether intensive care becomes indispensable for these patients to prevent multi-organ failure and sudden death. To face these challenges, we here summarize the molecular insights into viral infection mechanisms and implications for cardiovascular disease. Since the infection starts in the upper respiratory system, first flu-like symptoms develop that spread throughout the body. The wide range of affected organs is presumably based on the common expression of the major SARS-CoV-2 entry-receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Physiologically, ACE2 degrades angiotensin II, the master regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), thereby converting it into vasodilatory molecules, which have well-documented cardio-protective effects. Thus, RAAS inhibitors, which may increase the expression levels of ACE2, are commonly used for the treatment of hypertension and CVD. This, and the fact that SARS-CoV-2 hijacks ACE2 for cell-entry, have spurred controversial discussions on the role of ACE2 in COVID-19 patients. In this review, we highlight the state-of-the-art knowledge on SARS-CoV-2-dependent mechanisms and the potential interaction with ACE2 expression and cell surface localization. We aim to provide a list of potential treatment options and a better understanding of why CVD is a high risk factor for COVID-19 susceptibility and further discuss the acute as well as long-term cardiac consequences.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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