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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318387

ABSTRACT

Potently neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies often target the receptor binding site (RBS) of spike protein but the variability of RBS epitopes hampers broad neutralization of different clades of coronaviruses and emerging drifted viruses. Here, we identified a human RBS antibody that potently neutralizes SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 variants that belong to clade 1 SARS-related coronavirus. X-ray crystallography revealed coordinated recognition by the heavy chain to conserved sites and the light chain to RBS, allowing for the mimicry of ACE2 binding mode. The minimum footprints in the hypervariable region of RBS contributed to the breadth of neutralization, and the activity was further enhanced by IgG3 switching. Eventually, the coordinated binding resulted in broad neutralization of SARS-CoV and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Furthermore, therapeutic treatment in a hamster model provided protection at low dosage. The structural basis for broadly neutralizing activity informs the design of broad spectrum of therapeutics and vaccines.Funding: This work was supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development grant JP19fk0108111 (TH, YT), JP20fk0108298 (TK, TH, KM, YT), JP20am0101093 (KM), JP20ae0101047 (KM), JP20fk0108251 (HS), and JP20am0101124 (YK), by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology grant JPMXS0420100119 (KM) and 20H05773 (TH), by The Naito Foundation (TH), and by Joint Usage/Research Center program of Institute for Frontier Life and Medical Sciences, Kyoto University (KM).Conflict of Interest: AS is an employee of Shionogi & Co., Ltd. MO is a CEO, employee, and shareholder of Trans Chromosomics, Inc. These authors acknowledge a potential conflict of interest and attest that the work contained in this report is free of any bias that might be associated with the commercial goals of the company. TO, YA, MO, TH, KM, and YT declare that an intellectual property application has been filed using the data presented in this paper. The other authors declare that they have no competing interests.Ethical Approval: Animal procedures were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan, and performed in accordance with the guidelines of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. In vitro escape mutation screening experiments for SARSCoV-2 were performed at the Biosafety Level-3 facility of the Research Center for ZoonosisControl, Hokkaido University, and the National Institute of Infectious Diseases following the institutional guidelines.

2.
Front Neurol ; 12: 725566, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389217

ABSTRACT

Over 100 drugs and chemicals are associated with permanent hearing loss, tinnitus, and vestibular deficits, collectively known as ototoxicity. The ototoxic potential of drugs is rarely assessed in pre-clinical drug development or during clinical trials, so this debilitating side-effect is often discovered as patients begin to report hearing loss. Furthermore, drug-induced ototoxicity in adults, and particularly in elderly patients, may go unrecognized due to hearing loss from a variety of etiologies because of a lack of baseline assessments immediately prior to novel therapeutic treatment. During the current pandemic, there is an intense effort to identify new drugs or repurpose FDA-approved drugs to treat COVID-19. Several potential COVID-19 therapeutics are known ototoxins, including chloroquine (CQ) and lopinavir-ritonavir, demonstrating the necessity to identify ototoxic potential in existing and novel medicines. Furthermore, several factors are emerging as potentiators of ototoxicity, such as inflammation (a hallmark of COVID-19), genetic polymorphisms, and ototoxic synergy with co-therapeutics, increasing the necessity to evaluate a drug's potential to induce ototoxicity under varying conditions. Here, we review the potential of COVID-19 therapies to induce ototoxicity and factors that may compound their ototoxic effects. We then discuss two models for rapidly detecting the potential for ototoxicity: mammalian auditory cell lines and the larval zebrafish lateral line. These models offer considerable value for pre-clinical drug development, including development of COVID-19 therapies. Finally, we show the validity of in silico screening for ototoxic potential using a computational model that compares structural similarity of compounds of interest with a database of known ototoxins and non-ototoxins. Preclinical screening at in silico, in vitro, and in vivo levels can provide an earlier indication of the potential for ototoxicity and identify the subset of candidate therapeutics for treating COVID-19 that need to be monitored for ototoxicity as for other widely-used clinical therapeutics, like aminoglycosides and cisplatin.

3.
Immunity ; 54(10): 2385-2398.e10, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370548

ABSTRACT

Potent neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies often target the spike protein receptor-binding site (RBS), but the variability of RBS epitopes hampers broad neutralization of multiple sarbecoviruses and drifted viruses. Here, using humanized mice, we identified an RBS antibody with a germline VH gene that potently neutralized SARS-related coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 variants. X-ray crystallography revealed coordinated recognition by the heavy chain of non-RBS conserved sites and the light chain of RBS with a binding angle mimicking the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. The minimum footprints in the hypervariable region of RBS contributed to the breadth of neutralization, which was enhanced by immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) class switching. The coordinated binding resulted in broad neutralization of SARS-CoV and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Low-dose therapeutic antibody treatment in hamsters reduced the virus titers and morbidity during SARS-CoV-2 challenge. The structural basis for broad neutralizing activity may inform the design of a broad spectrum of therapeutics and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Binding Sites, Antibody , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/chemistry , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Mice , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240347, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a pandemic, a most-common pattern resembled organizing pneumonia (OP) has been identified by CT findings in novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We aimed to delineate the evolution of CT findings and outcome in OP of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 106 COVID-19 patients with OP based on CT findings were retrospectively included and categorized into non-severe (mild/common) and severe (severe/critical) groups. CT features including lobar distribution, presence of ground glass opacities (GGO), consolidation, linear opacities and total severity CT score were evaluated at three time intervals from symptom-onset to CT scan (day 0-7, day 8-14, day > 14). Discharge or adverse outcome (admission to ICU or death), and pulmonary sequelae (complete absorption or lesion residuals) on CT after discharge were analyzed based on the CT features at different time interval. RESULTS: 79 (74.5%) patients were non-severe and 103 (97.2%) were discharged at median day 25 (range, day 8-50) after symptom-onset. Of 67 patients with revisit CT at 2-4 weeks after discharge, 20 (29.9%) had complete absorption of lesions at median day 38 (range, day 30-53) after symptom-onset. Significant differences between complete absorption and residuals groups were found in percentages of consolidation (1.5% vs. 13.8%, P = 0.010), number of involved lobe > 3 (40.0% vs. 72.5%, P = 0.030), CT score > 4 (20.0% vs. 65.0%, P = 0.010) at day 8-14. CONCLUSION: Most OP cases had good prognosis. Approximately one-third of cases had complete absorption of lesions during 1-2 months after symptom-onset while those with increased frequency of consolidation, number of involved lobe > 3, and CT score > 4 at week 2 after symptom-onset may indicate lesion residuals on CT.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Front Public Health ; 8: 567672, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-854056

ABSTRACT

Background: As global healthcare system is overwhelmed by novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), early identification of risks of adverse outcomes becomes the key to optimize management and improve survival. This study aimed to provide a CT-based pattern categorization to predict outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: One hundred and sixty-five patients with COVID-19 (91 men, 4-89 years) underwent chest CT were retrospectively enrolled. CT findings were categorized as Pattern 0 (negative), Pattern 1 (bronchopneumonia pattern), Pattern 2 (organizing pneumonia pattern), Pattern 3 (progressive organizing pneumonia pattern), and Pattern 4 (diffuse alveolar damage pattern). Clinical findings were compared across different categories. Time-dependent progression of CT patterns and correlations with clinical outcomes, i.e." discharge or adverse outcome (admission to ICU, requiring mechanical ventilation, or death), with pulmonary sequelae (complete absorption or residuals) on CT after discharge were analyzed. Results: Of 94 patients with outcome, 81 (86.2%) were discharged, 3 (3.2%) were admitted to ICU, 4 (4.3%) required mechanical ventilation, 6 (6.4%) died. 31 (38.3%) had complete absorption at median day 37 after symptom onset. Significant differences between pattern-categories were found in age, disease severity, comorbidity and laboratory results (all P < 0.05). Remarkable evolution was observed in Pattern 0-2 and Pattern 3-4 within 3 and 2 weeks after symptom-onset, respectively; most of patterns remained thereafter. After controlling for age, CT pattern significantly correlated with adverse outcomes [Pattern 4 vs. Pattern 0-3 [reference]; hazard-ratio [95% CI], 18.90 [1.91-186.60], P = 0.012]. CT pattern [Pattern 3-4 vs. Pattern 0-2 [reference]; 0.26 [0.08-0.88], P = 0.030] and C-reactive protein [>10 vs. ≤ 10 mg/L [reference]; 0.31 [0.13-0.72], P = 0.006] were risk factors associated with pulmonary residuals. Conclusion: CT pattern categorization allied with clinical characteristics within 2 weeks after symptom onset would facilitate early prognostic stratification in COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , Male , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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