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1.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(17): e2105904, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782563

ABSTRACT

Infectious virus outbreaks pose a significant challenge to public healthcare systems. Early and accurate virus diagnosis is critical to prevent the spread of the virus, especially when no specific vaccine or effective medicine is available. In clinics, the most commonly used viral detection methods are molecular techniques that involve the measurement of nucleic acids or proteins biomarkers. However, most clinic-based methods require complex infrastructure and expensive equipment, which are not suitable for low-resource settings. Over the past years, smartphone-based point-of-care testing (POCT) has rapidly emerged as a potential alternative to laboratory-based clinical diagnosis. This review summarizes the latest development of virus detection. First, laboratory-based and POCT-based viral diagnostic techniques are compared, both of which rely on immunosensing and nucleic acid detection. Then, various smartphone-based POCT diagnostic techniques, including optical biosensors, electrochemical biosensors, and other types of biosensors are discussed. Moreover, this review covers the development of smartphone-based POCT diagnostics for various viruses including COVID-19, Ebola, influenza, Zika, HIV, et al. Finally, the prospects and challenges of smartphone-based POCT diagnostics are discussed. It is believed that this review will aid researchers better understand the current challenges and prospects for achieving the ultimate goal of containing disease-causing viruses worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Laboratories , Point-of-Care Testing , Smartphone , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
2.
Cell ; 185(10): 1728-1744.e16, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767964

ABSTRACT

As the emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 continue to drive the worldwide pandemic, there is a constant demand for vaccines that offer more effective and broad-spectrum protection. Here, we report a circular RNA (circRNA) vaccine that elicited potent neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses by expressing the trimeric RBD of the spike protein, providing robust protection against SARS-CoV-2 in both mice and rhesus macaques. Notably, the circRNA vaccine enabled higher and more durable antigen production than the 1mΨ-modified mRNA vaccine and elicited a higher proportion of neutralizing antibodies and distinct Th1-skewed immune responses. Importantly, we found that the circRNARBD-Omicron vaccine induced effective neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron but not the Delta variant. In contrast, the circRNARBD-Delta vaccine protected against both Delta and Omicron or functioned as a booster after two doses of either native- or Delta-specific vaccination, making it a favorable choice against the current variants of concern (VOCs) of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , RNA, Circular/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , mRNA Vaccines
3.
Sci China Life Sci ; 65(4): 701-717, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371380

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has created a global health crisis. SARS-CoV-2 infects varieties of tissues where the known receptor ACE2 is low or almost absent, suggesting the existence of alternative viral entry pathways. Here, we performed a genome-wide barcoded-CRISPRa screen to identify novel host factors that enable SARS-CoV-2 infection. Beyond known host proteins, i.e., ACE2, TMPRSS2, and NRP1, we identified multiple host components, among which LDLRAD3, TMEM30A, and CLEC4G were confirmed as functional receptors for SARS-CoV-2. All these membrane proteins bind directly to spike's N-terminal domain (NTD). Their essential and physiological roles have been confirmed in either neuron or liver cells. In particular, LDLRAD3 and CLEC4G mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry and infection in an ACE2-independent fashion. The identification of the novel receptors and entry mechanisms could advance our understanding of the multiorgan tropism of SARS-CoV-2, and may shed light on the development of COVID-19 countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Internalization
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e25688, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257893

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Hydroxychloroquine has excellent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects as one of the antimalarial drugs. In particular, hydroxychloroquine was once widely used as a treatment for the new coronavirus pneumonia epidemic in 2020. Retinopathy caused by hydroxychloroquine is normally irreversible, but little attention has been paid to it. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 38-year-old young Chinese woman was taking oral hydroxychloroquine 400 mg daily to control lupus disease activity for six years after the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). She did not have any history of eye disease and was admitted to the hospital with a sudden blurring of both eyes. DIAGNOSES: The diagnosis of retinal macular degeneration caused by hydroxychloroquine was made after excluding other interfering diseases based on the patient's long-term use of hydroxychloroquine and the results of the eye examination. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was discontinued from hydroxychloroquine. To control the recurrence of SLE, she was given intravenous methylprednisolone, oral tacrolimus and mycophenolate. Meanwhile, she was asked to take extra care of her eyes and to come to the hospital every three months to have her vision checked. OUTCOMES: The patient's blurred vision improved one week later. Three months later, her vision examination showed no further decline (0.4 in the right eye and 0.6 in the left eye). Meanwhile, the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) decreased from six points to five points currently. LESSONS: Retinopathy caused by hydroxychloroquine is irreversible and there is no particularly effective treatment. Discontinuation of hydroxychloroquine, better daily eye protection, and regular vision checks are the keys to preventing retinopathy. Although hydroxychloroquine causing retinal toxicity was mentioned several years ago, the rate and severity of retinal toxicity require further research. How to get more patients to take care of their eyes requires continuous and increased education by doctors.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Retinal Diseases/chemically induced , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Visual Acuity
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