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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334337

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is still widespread in pigs rapidly due to its highly contagious, resulting in huge economic losses to the pig industry. Herein, we investigated the molecular divergence between PEDV and other related coronaviruses, the results showed that the spike (S) gene exhibited larger dS (synonymous substitutions per synonymous site) values than other genes. In the assay of the extent of positive selection, eight amino acid (aa) sites of S protein showed strong signals of positive selection, and seven aa sites of them were located in the surface of S protein (S1 domain), suggesting the high selection pressure of S protein during receptor binding. We analyzed the complete genomes of 647 strains retrieved from the GenBank database. Topologically, the high similarity between the complete genome and S gene indicated that the S gene is more representative of the evolutionary relationship at the genome-wide level than other genes. Structurally, the dominant of the highly mutated residues of S protein indicated that the evolutionary pattern is highly S1 domain related. We constructed the haplotype networks using the PEDV S gene, the results showed that the strains are obviously clustered geographically in the lineages corresponding to genotype GI and GII. The alignment analysis on representative strains in the main haplotypes revealed 3 distinguishable nucleic acid sites among those strains, suggesting a putative evolutionary mechanism of PEDV. These findings provide several new fundamental insights into the evolution of PEDV and the guidance for developing effective prevention countermeasures against PEDV.

2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 2998-2999, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526434
3.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 43(1):83-87, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1140722

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 (Corona virus disease 2019) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) poses a huge threat to human health worldwide since December 2019. In order to study the correlation betweenSARS-CoV-2 and porcine coronavirus, the phylogenetic analysis of spike (S) protein amino acid sequence of human coronavirusand porcine coronavirus, the similarity analysis of the spatial structure of S1 subunit receptor binding domain (RBD) of S proteinwere conducted by bioinformatics analysis, moreover, the double- antigen sandwich ELISA kit was utilized to detect the SARSCoV-2 antibody in common porcine coronavirus positive serum. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed a low identity of Sprotein amino acid sequence between SARS-CoV-2 and porcine coronavirus, indicating a long distance of genetic evolution, andthe S1 subunit RBD spatial structure showed huge differences, meanwhile, all of the porcine coronavirus positive serum samplestested were negative of SARS-CoV-2 antibody. Our data suggested the huge differences in gene and protein level between SARS-CoV-2 and porcine coronavirus, which indicating that SARS-CoV-2 shows a minimal risk of achieving cross-species transmission byinfecting pigs to threaten public health security. This research provides a basis for studying COVID-19 pathogen traceability andbiosafety analysis of cross-species transmission.

4.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(3): nwaa291, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977391

ABSTRACT

Minks are raised in many countries and have transmitted severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to humans. However, the biologic properties of SARS-CoV-2 in minks are largely unknown. Here, we investigated and found that SARS-CoV-2 replicates efficiently in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts, and transmits efficiently in minks via respiratory droplets; pulmonary lesions caused by SARS-CoV-2 in minks are similar to those seen in humans with COVID-19. We further found that a spike protein-based subunit vaccine largely prevented SARS-CoV-2 replication and lung damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection in minks. Our study indicates that minks are a useful animal model for evaluating the efficacy of drugs or vaccines against COVID-19 and that vaccination is a potential strategy to prevent minks from transmitting SARS-CoV-2.

6.
Front. Agric. Sci. Eng. ; 2(7): 218-226, 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-612901

ABSTRACT

Emergent coronaviruses (CoVs) such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV have posed great threats to public health worldwide over the past two decades. Currently, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 as a pandemic causes greater public health concern. CoV diversity is due to the large size and replication mechanisms of the genomes together with having bats as their optimum natural hosts. The ecological behavior and unique immune characteristics of bats are optimal for the homologous recombination of CoVs. The relationship of spatial structural characteristics of the spike protein, a protein that is critical for recognition by host receptors, in different CoVs may provide evidence in explaining the coevolution of CoVs and their hosts. This information may help to enhance our understanding of CoV evolution and thus provide part of the basis of preparations for any future outbreaks.

7.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(4): 1745-1749, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71843

ABSTRACT

The pandemic SARS-CoV-2 has been reported in 123 countries with more than 5,000 patients died from it. However, the original and intermediate hosts of the virus remain unknown. In this study, 1,914 serum samples from 35 animal species were used for detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies using double-antigen sandwich ELISA after validating its specificity and sensitivity. The results showed that no SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were detected in above samples which excluded the possibility of 35 animal species as intermediate host for SARS-CoV-2. More importantly, companion animals including pet dogs (including one dog the SARS-CoV-2 patient kept and two dogs which had close contact with it) and cats, street dogs and cats also showed serological negative to SARS-CoV-2, which relieved the public concerns for the pets as SARS-CoV-2 carriers.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , Animals, Wild , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cats , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Pets , SARS-CoV-2
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