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1.
QJM ; 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961143

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors associated with depression in residents in the post-epidemic era of COVID-19. METHODS: A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to conduct a questionnaire survey among community residents through self-designed questionnaires and self-rating depression scale (SDS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the influencing factors of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 1993 residues completed the survey of depression status. The incidence of depressive symptoms was 27.04%. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female (OR 6.239, 95% CI: 2.743-10.698), BMI>24 (OR 2.684, 95% CI: 1.059-3.759), and drinking (OR 1.730, 95% CI: 1.480-3.153) were the risk factors for developing depressive symptoms. Married (OR 0.417, 95% CI: 0.240-0.652), monthly income (3001∼5000 yuan, OR 0.624, 95% CI: 0.280-0.756; >5000 yuan, OR 0.348, 95% CI: 0.117-0.625), ordinary residents (OR 0.722, 95% CI: 0.248-0.924) and urban residents (OR 0.655, 95% CI: 0.394-0.829) were the protective factors of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Under the post-epidemic era of COVID-19, depressive symptoms among community residents have been decreased, but still need to pay more attention. Gender, BMI, drinking, marriage, monthly income, nature of personnel, and residential area are associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms.

2.
Operations Research ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1910426

ABSTRACT

In many supply chains, the brand-owning retailer designs product quality and decides the retail price but often outsources its production to suppliers. For products with a short selling season, low reactive capacity in the supply chain requires the supplier to carry out production before the selling season;but the uncertain market demand creates risks of stockout or excess inventory. Suppliers' reactive capacity and demand uncertainty can influence brand owners' product pricing and quality decisions. For example, during the COVID-19 pandemic, automakers faced supply shortages for automotive chips because of the upstream suppliers' limited parts inventory and production capacities, which have prompted the automakers to increase the quality (e.g., producing higher trims with more optional upgrade features) and price of their products to target fewer (high-valuation) consumers. This paper studies the impacts of the supplier's reactive capacity and demand uncertainty on product quality and firm profitability under pull contracts in the supply chain. We find that an increase in the supplier's reactive capacity can lead to higher or lower equilibrium product quality, benefiting the retailer but potentially reducing the supplier's profit. Interestingly, both the retailer and the supplier can be worse off with a higher probability for the high market state (with more high-valuation consumers). Further, a higher probability for the high market state can lead to lower product quality.

3.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 16: 831977, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715021

ABSTRACT

Microglia are intrinsic immune cells of the central nervous system and play a dual role (pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory) in the homeostasis of the nervous system. Neuroinflammation mediated by microglia serves as an important stage of ischemic hypoxic brain injury, cerebral hemorrhage disease, neurodegeneration and neurotumor of the nervous system and is present through the whole course of these diseases. Microglial membrane protein or receptor is the basis of mediating microglia to play the inflammatory role and they have been found to be upregulated by recognizing associated ligands or sensing changes in the nervous system microenvironment. They can then allosterically activate the downstream signal transduction and produce a series of complex cascade reactions that can activate microglia, promote microglia chemotactic migration and stimulate the release of proinflammatory factor such as TNF-α, IL-ß to effectively damage the nervous system and cause apoptosis of neurons. In this paper, several representative membrane proteins or receptors present on the surface of microglia are systematically reviewed and information about their structures, functions and specific roles in one or more neurological diseases. And on this basis, some prospects for the treatment of novel coronavirus neurological complications are presented.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312179

ABSTRACT

Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as quarantine, self-isolation, social distancing, and virus-contact tracing can greatly reduce the spread of the virus during a pandemic. In the wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries have implemented various NPIs for infection control and mitigation. However, the stringency of the NPIs and the resulting impact among different countries remain unclear due to the lack of quantitative factors. In this study we took a further step to incorporate the effect of the NPIs into the pandemic dynamics model using the concept of policy intensity factor (PIF). This idea enables us to characterize the transition rates as time varying quantities instead of constant values, and thus capturing the dynamical behavior of the basic reproduction number variation in the pandemic. By leveraging a great amount of data reported by the governments and the World Health Organization, we projected the dynamics of the pandemic for the major economies in the world, including the numbers of infected, susceptible, and recovered cases, as well as the pandemic durations. It is observed that the proposed variable-rate susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (VR-SEIR) model fits and projects the pandemic dynamics very well. We further showed that the resulting PIFs correlate with the stringency of NPIs, which allows us to project the final affected numbers of people in those countries when their current NPIs have been imposed for 90, 180, 360 days. It provides a quantitative insight into the effectiveness of the implemented NPIs, and sheds a new light on minimizing both affected people from COVID-19 and the economic impact.

5.
J Aerosol Sci ; 162: 105943, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616550

ABSTRACT

Social distance will remain the key measure to contain COVID-19 before the global widespread vaccination coverage expected in 2024. Containing the virus outbreak in the office is prioritised to relieve socio-economic burdens caused by COVID-19 and potential pandemics in the future. However, "what is the transmissible distance of SARS-CoV-2" and "what are the appropriate ventilation rates in the office" have been under debate. Without quantitative evaluation of the infection risk, some studies challenged the current social distance policies of 1-2 m adopted by most countries and suggested that longer social distance rule is required as the maximum transmission distance of cough ejected droplets could reach 3-10 m. With the emergence of virus variants such as the Delta variant, the applicability of previous social distance rules are also in doubt. To address the above problem, this study conducted transient Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to evaluate the infection risks under calm and wind scenarios. The calculated Social Distance Index (SDI) indicates that lower humidity leads to a higher infection risk due to weaker evaporation. The infection risk in office was found more sensitive to social distance than ventilation rate. In standard ventilation conditions, social distance of 1.7 m-1.8 m is sufficient distances to reach low probability of infection (PI) target in a calm scenario when coughing is the dominant transmission route. However in the wind scenario (0.25 m/s indoor wind), distance of 2.8 m is required to contain the wild virus type and 3 m is insufficient to contain the spread of the Delta variant. The numerical methods developed in this study provide a framework to evaluate the COVID-19 infection risk in indoor environment. The predicted PI will be beneficial for governments and regulators to make appropriate social-distance and ventilation rules in the office.

6.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 31(1): 33, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258582

ABSTRACT

Accurate prediction of the risk of progression of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is needed at the time of hospitalization. Logistic regression analyses are used to interrogate clinical and laboratory co-variates from every hospital admission from an area of 2 million people with sporadic cases. From a total of 98 subjects, 3 were severe COVID-19 on admission. From the remaining subjects, 24 developed severe/critical symptoms. The predictive model includes four co-variates: age (>60 years; odds ratio [OR] = 12 [2.3, 62]); blood oxygen saturation (<97%; OR = 10.4 [2.04, 53]); C-reactive protein (>5.75 mg/L; OR = 9.3 [1.5, 58]); and prothrombin time (>12.3 s; OR = 6.7 [1.1, 41]). Cutoff value is two factors, and the sensitivity and specificity are 96% and 78% respectively. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve is 0.937. This model is suitable in predicting which unselected newly hospitalized persons are at-risk to develop severe/critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Prognosis , Prothrombin Time , ROC Curve , Risk Assessment , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
8.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(3): 201, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, the need to prevent and control the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outside of Hubei province in China and internationally has become increasingly critical. We developed and validated a diagnostic model that does not rely on computed tomography (CT) images to aid in the early identification of suspected COVID-19 pneumonia (S-COVID-19-P) patients admitted to adult fever clinics and made the validated model available via an online triage calculator. METHODS: Patients admitted from January 14 to February 26, 2020 with an epidemiological history of exposure to COVID-19 were included in the study [model development group (n=132) and validation group (n=32)]. Candidate features included clinical symptoms, routine laboratory tests, and other clinical information on admission. The features selection and model development were based on the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression. The primary outcome was the development and validation of a diagnostic aid model for the early identification of S-COVID-19-P on admission. RESULTS: The development cohort contained 26 cases of S-COVID-19-P and seven cases of confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia (C-COVID-19-P). The final selected features included one demographic variable, four vital signs, five routine blood values, seven clinical signs and symptoms, and one infection-related biomarker. The model's performance in the testing set and the validation group resulted in area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUCs) of 0.841 and 0.938, F1 scores of 0.571 and 0.667, recall of 1.000 and 1.000, specificity of 0.727 and 0.778, and precision of 0.400 and 0.500, respectively. The top five most important features were age, interleukin-6 (IL-6), systolic blood pressure (SYS_BP), monocyte ratio (MONO%), and fever classification (FC). Based on this model, an optimized strategy for the early identification of S-COVID-19-P in fever clinics has also been designed. CONCLUSIONS: A machine-learning model based solely on clinical information and not on CT images was able to perform the early identification of S-COVID-19-P on admission in fever clinics with a 100% recall score. This high-performing and validated model has been deployed as an online triage tool, which is available at https://intensivecare.shinyapps.io/COVID19/.

9.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(2): 990-994, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001838

ABSTRACT

The lung lesions of this COVID-19 patient were slowly absorbed, and the clinical symptoms with shortness of breath were improved slowly in the recovery period.

10.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(1): 82-88, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Investigating antecedents of behaviors, such as wearing face coverings, is critical for developing strategies to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine associations between theory-based behavioral predictors of intention to wear a face covering and actual wearing of a face covering in public. METHODS: Data from a cross-sectional panel survey of U.S. adults conducted in May and June 2020 (N = 1,004) were used to test a theory-based behavioral path model. We (a) examined predictors of intention to wear a face covering, (b) reported use of cloth face coverings, and (c) reported use of other face masks (e.g., a surgical mask or N95 respirator) in public. RESULTS: We found that being female, perceived importance of others wanting the respondent to wear a face covering, confidence to wear a face covering, and perceived importance of personal face covering use was positively associated with intention to wear a face covering in public. Intention to wear a face covering was positively associated with self-reported wearing of a cloth face covering if other people were observed wearing cloth face coverings in public at least "rarely" (aOR = 1.43), with stronger associations if they reported "sometimes" (aOR = 1.83), "often" (aOR = 2.32), or "always" (aOR = 2.96). For other types of face masks, a positive association between intention and behavior was only present when observing others wearing face masks "often" (aOR = 1.25) or "always" (aOR = 1.48). CONCLUSIONS: Intention to wear face coverings and observing other people wearing them are important behavioral predictors of adherence to the CDC recommendation to wear face coverings in public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Masks , Psychological Theory , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sex Factors , Social Norms , United States
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e145, 2020 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635331

ABSTRACT

We report a family cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection involving five patients in a family cluster in Dazhou, China, including the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. Three-generation transmission was observed. Through epidemiological investigation, we observed asymptomatic transmission to a cohabiting family member, as well as person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 outside Wuhan city. The asymptomatic transmission demonstrated here provides evidence that there could be a greater risk of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread. This cluster also demonstrated that COVID-19 is transmissible during the incubation period of an asymptomatic person. Early isolation and treatment, stressing prevention of cluster outbreaks, could help prevent further spread of the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Family Health , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Travel
12.
Natl Sci Rev ; 7(9): 1428-1436, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401795

ABSTRACT

Effective therapies are urgently needed for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Chloroquine has been proved to have antiviral effect against coronavirus in vitro. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of chloroquine with different doses in COVID-19. In this multicenter prospective observational study, we enrolled patients older than 18 years old with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection excluding critical cases from 12 hospitals in Guangdong and Hubei Provinces. Eligible patients received chloroquine phosphate 500 mg, orally, once (half dose) or twice (full dose) daily. Patients treated with non-chloroquine therapy were included as historical controls. The primary endpoint is the time to undetectable viral RNA. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients with undetectable viral RNA by day 10 and 14, hospitalization time, duration of fever, and adverse events. A total of 197 patients completed chloroquine treatment, and 176 patients were included as historical controls. The median time to achieve an undetectable viral RNA was shorter in chloroquine than in non-chloroquine (absolute difference in medians -6.0 days; 95% CI -6.0 to -4.0). The duration of fever is shorter in chloroquine (geometric mean ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8). No serious adverse events were observed in the chloroquine group. Patients treated with half dose experienced lower rate of adverse events than with full dose. Although randomized trials are needed for further evaluation, this study provides evidence for safety and efficacy of chloroquine in COVID-19 and suggests that chloroquine can be a cost-effective therapy for combating the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
World J Pediatr ; 16(3): 240-246, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-334

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, an epidemic caused by novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection has occurred unexpectedly in China. As of 8 pm, 31 January 2020, more than 20 pediatric cases have been reported in China. Of these cases, ten patients were identified in Zhejiang Province, with an age of onset ranging from 112 days to 17 years. Following the latest National recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia caused by 2019-nCoV (the 4th edition) and current status of clinical practice in Zhejiang Province, recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory infection caused by 2019-nCoV for children were drafted by the National Clinical Research Center for Child Health, the National Children's Regional Medical Center, Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine to further standardize the protocol for diagnosis and treatment of respiratory infection in children caused by 2019-nCoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
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