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1.
J Appl Toxicol ; 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013548

ABSTRACT

The antiviral drug remdesivir has been used to treat the growing number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, the drug is mainly excreted through urine and feces and introduced into the environment to affect non-target organisms, including fish, which has raised concerns about potential ecotoxicological effects on aquatic organisms. Moreover, studies on the ecological impacts of remdesivir on aquatic environments have not been reported. Here, we aimed to explore the toxicological impacts of microinjection of remdesivir on zebrafish early embryonic development and larvae and the associated mechanism. We found that 100 µM remdesivir delayed epiboly and impaired convergent movement of embryos during gastrulation, and dose-dependent increases in mortality and malformation were observed in remdesivir-treated embryos. Moreover, 10-100 µM remdesivir decreased blood flow and swimming velocity and altered the behavior of larvae. In terms of molecular mechanisms, 80 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by transcriptome analysis in the remdesivir-treated group. Some of these DEGs, such as manf, kif3a, hnf1ba, rgn, prkcz, egr1, fosab, nr4a1, and ptgs2b, were mainly involved in early embryonic development, neuronal developmental disorders, vascular disease and the blood flow pathway. These data reveal that remdesivir can impair early embryonic development, blood flow and behavior of zebrafish embryos/larvae, probably due to alterations at the transcriptome level. This study suggests that it is important to avoid the discharge of remdesivir to aquatic ecosystems and provides a theoretical foundation to hinder remdesivir-induced ecotoxicity to aquatic environments.

2.
Sci Immunol ; : eadd5446, 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992933

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron sub-variants have generated a world-wide health crisis due to resistance to most approved SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies and evasion of vaccination-induced antibodies. To manage Omicron sub-variants and prepare for potential new variants, additional means of isolating broad and potent humanized SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies are desirable. Here, we describe a mouse model in which the primary B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire is generated solely through V(D)J recombination of a human VH1-2 heavy chain (HC) and, substantially, a human Vκ1-33 light chain (LC). Thus, primary humanized BCR repertoire diversity in these mice derives from immensely diverse HC and LC antigen-contact complementarity-region-3 (CDR3) sequences generated by non-templated junctional modifications during V(D)J recombination. Immunizing the human VH1-2/Vκ1-33-rearranging mouse model with SARS-CoV-2 (Wuhan-Hu-1) spike protein immunogens elicited several VH1-2/Vκ1-33-based neutralizing antibodies that bound RBD in a different mode from each other and from those of many prior human patient-derived VH1-2-based neutralizing antibodies. Of these, SP1-77 potently and broadly neutralized all SARS-CoV-2 variants through BA.5. Cryo-EM studies revealed that SP1-77 bound RBD away from the receptor-binding-motif via a CDR3-dominated recognition mode. Lattice-light-sheet-microscopy-based studies showed that SP1-77 did not block ACE2-mediated viral attachment or endocytosis, but rather blocked viral-host membrane fusion. The broad and potent SP1-77 neutralization activity and non-traditonal mechanism of action suggest this antibody might have therapeutic potential. Likewise, the SP1-77 binding epitope may further inform on vacccine strategies. Finally, the general class of humanized mouse models we have described may contribute to identifying therapeutic antibodies against future SARS-CoV-2 variants and other pathogens.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e222940, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748799

ABSTRACT

Importance: Reports of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) after messenger RNA (mRNA)-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has caused safety concerns, but CVT is also known to occur after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Comparing the relative incidence of CVT after infection vs vaccination may provide a better perspective of this complication. Objective: To compare the incidence rates and clinical characteristics of CVT following either SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between January 23, 2020, and August 3, 2021, this observational cohort study was conducted at all public acute hospitals in Singapore, where patients hospitalized with CVT within 6 weeks of SARS-CoV-2 infection or after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) were identified. Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection was based on quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or positive serology. National SARS-CoV-2 infection data were obtained from the National Centre for Infectious Disease, Singapore, and vaccination data were obtained from the National Immunisation Registry, Singapore. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical characteristics, crude incidence rate (IR), and incidence rate ratio (IRR) of CVT after SARS-CoV-2 infection and after mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Results: Among 62 447 individuals diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infections included in this study, 58 989 (94.5%) were male; the median (range) age was 34 (0-102) years; 6 CVT cases were identified (all were male; median [range] age was 33.5 [27-40] years). Among 3 006 662 individuals who received at least 1 dose of mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, 1 626 623 (54.1%) were male; the median (range) age was 50 (12-121) years; 9 CVT cases were identified (7 male individuals [77.8%]; median [range] age: 60 [46-76] years). The crude IR of CVT after SARS-CoV-2 infections was 83.3 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 30.6-181.2 per 100 000 person-years) and 2.59 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 1.19-4.92 per 100 000 person-years) after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Six (66.7%) received BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine and 3 (33.3%) received mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. The crude IRR of CVT hospitalizations with SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with those who received mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was 32.1 (95% CI, 9.40-101; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The incidence rate of CVT after SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly higher compared with after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. CVT remained rare after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, reinforcing its safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Vaccination , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Young Adult
4.
Cell Rep ; 38(11): 110514, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739598

ABSTRACT

The success of nucleoside-modified mRNAs in lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNP) as COVID-19 vaccines heralded a new era of vaccine development. For HIV-1, multivalent envelope (Env) trimer protein nanoparticles are superior immunogens compared with trimers alone for priming of broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) B cell lineages. The successful expression of complex multivalent nanoparticle immunogens with mRNAs has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that mRNAs can encode antigenic Env trimers on ferritin nanoparticles that initiate bnAb precursor B cell expansion and induce serum autologous tier 2 neutralizing activity in bnAb precursor VH + VL knock-in mice. Next-generation sequencing demonstrates acquisition of critical mutations, and monoclonal antibodies that neutralize heterologous HIV-1 isolates are isolated. Thus, mRNA-LNP can encode complex immunogens and may be of use in design of germline-targeting and sequential boosting immunogens for HIV-1 vaccine development.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV-1 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Ferritins/genetics , HIV Antibodies , Humans , Liposomes , Mice , RNA, Messenger , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324341

ABSTRACT

We present an unusual case of a patient with bilateral lung transplantation due to severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), who subsequently complicated with acute myocardial infarction and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322990

ABSTRACT

Background: Multiple neurological manifestations have been associated with acute Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections, however the late sequelae of COVID-19 are less well described. We describe a series of consecutive young men who present with ischemic stroke in the convalescent phase of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection.Methods: We included consecutive young acute ischemic stroke patients (≤50 years old) with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infections based on positive SARS-CoV-2 serology, without any respiratory symptoms. We reviewed their clinical course, imaging, and laboratory findings.Findings: Eighteen young male patients, aged 35-50 years old, who were diagnosed with asymptomatic COVID-19 based on positive SARS-CoV-2 serology, presented with acute ischemic stroke from 21 May 2020 to 14 October 2020. The median time from positive serology to stroke was 54·5 days (range 0-130). The median age of the patients was 41 (range 35-50), with a median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale of five (range 1-25). Ten (55·6%) patients presented with large vessel occlusions, of which 6 patients underwent acute recanalization treatment. Only three patients had a possible cardiac source of embolus. The annual incidence rate ischemic stroke was 2·16 (95% CI 1·36 – 3·48, p<0.001) times more compared to an age, sex, ethnicity-matched historical cohort.Interpretation: Eighteen young patients, with laboratory confirmed COVID-19, presented with acute ischemic strokes in the convalescent period. We report what could be the next wave of complications from the COVID-19 pandemic. Larger prospective studies are needed to identify young patients with cryptogenic stroke who may have had COVID-19 infections.Funding: There was no funding for this study.Declaration of Interests: No authors report any conflict of interest related to this study.Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by our institutional ethics review board and a waiver of consent was permitted in view of the observational nature of the study.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512321

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the profile of COVID-19-related public stigma and its correlates in the general population of China. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in China from 7 May to 25 May in 2020. A total of 1212 participants from the general population completed the survey measuring their stigmatizing attitudes towards COVID-19, as well as knowledge and causal attributions of COVID-19. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the correlates of COVID-19-related public stigma. A total of 31.8% of participants endorsed stigmatization towards people with COVID-19. Those who were of older age (t = -3.97, p < 0.001), married (F = 3.04, p < 0.05), had a lower level of education (F = 8.11, p < 0.001), and a serious psychological response (F = 3.76, p < 0.05) reported significantly higher scores of public stigma. Dangerousness (B = 0.047, p < 0.001), fear (B = 0.059, p < 0.001), anger (B = 0.038, p < 0.01), and responsibility (B = 0.041, p < 0.001) were positively associated with public stigma. This study shows that public stigma related to COVID-19 is prevalent in the general population of China. Actions against public stigma need to contain the spread of misinformation about COVID-19, alter inappropriate attributions, alleviate unfavorable reactions, and provide psychosocial support for the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Stigma , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(1): 19-33, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440466

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases, including COVID-19, are crucial public health issues and may lead to considerable fear among the general public and stigmatization of, and discrimination against, specific populations. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of stigma in infectious disease epidemics. We systematically searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases since inception to June 08, 2021, and reported the prevalence of stigma towards people with infectious diseases including SARS, H1N1, MERS, Zika, Ebola, and COVID-19. A total of 50 eligible articles were included that contributed 51 estimates of prevalence in 92722 participants. The overall pooled prevalence of stigma across all populations was 34% [95% CI: 28-40%], including enacted stigma (36% [95% CI: 28-44%]) and perceived stigma (31% [95% CI: 22-40%]). The prevalence of stigma in patients, community population, and health care workers, was 38% [95% CI: 12- 65%], 36% [95% CI: 28-45%], and 30% [95% CI: 20-40%], respectively. The prevalence of stigma in participants from low- and middle-income countries was 37% [95% CI: 29-45%], which is higher than that from high-income countries (27% [95% CI: 18-36%]) though this difference was not statistically significant. A similar trend of prevalence of stigma was also observed in individuals with lower education (47% [95% CI: 23-71%]) compared to higher education level (33% [95% CI: 23-4%]). These findings indicate that stigma is a significant public health concern, and effective and comprehensive interventions are needed to counteract the damaging effects of the infodemics during infectious disease epidemics, including COVID-19, and reduce infectious disease-related stigma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Humans , Prevalence
10.
Journal of Jianghan University ; 48(6):33-37, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1279219

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the assessment value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio(NLR) for prognosis in coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19).

11.
Smart Healthcare System Design ; n/a(n/a):301-311, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1272154

ABSTRACT

Summary COVID-19 has already affected the world with this deadly virus, resulting in over 3.5 lakh deaths. The behavior of this virus is extraordinarily peculiar and mutates frequently. So, the scientific community faces the problems to analyze and forecast the virus's growth and transmission capability. The combined effort of powerful Artificial intelligence and Image processing techniques to predict the initial pattern of COVID-19 disease identifies the most affected areas in each country through social networking information and predicts drug-protein interactions for making new drugs vaccines. However, AI-empowered X-Ray and computed tomography image acquisition and segmentation techniques help us identify and diagnose the COVID-19 affected patients with minimal contact. In this chapter, our primary motivation is to sum up the essential roles of some AI-driven techniques (Machine learning, Deep learning, etc.) and AI-empowered imaging techniques to analyze, predict, and diagnose against COVID-19 disease. An essential set of open challenges and future research issues on AI-empowered procedures for handling COVID-19 are also discussed in this chapter. Summary This paper mainly deals with the design of Machine Learning model for the analysis of transmission dynamics of Covid 19. The entire globe is affected because of Corona virus. Ventilator dependent, Severe Acute respiratory and quarantine care ICU patients frequently face difficulties for their most basic human interactions, namely communication due to either respiratory illness, language problem or intubated. ICU patients have serious implications with respect to physical and psychological due to non communication problems. Researchers have developed different types of services like Speech language Pathologist so that Augmentative and alternative communication assistance can be given to all health professionals and caretakers. A probabilistic model is designed to analyse the new cases and death cases. Using machine learning approach Regression model is designed and future predications are displayed. The adequacy of the model is discussed along with the residuals of new cased and death cases. PCF and APCAF are obtained. This paper mainly deals with a probabilistic model to analyse and predict the new cases and deaths of covid 19. A new transformation of analyzing stationarity is carried out and based on this forecasting is executed. Summary This research express an impression of automated decision-making techniques that have been suggested for scrutiny of data from IoT based healthcare systems. IoT data analytics plays a vital role in this modern era since data from connected devices reveal meaningful results with better insights for the future. The chapter involves the design of a decision-making system that collects data from IoT based healthcare systems, preprocess and analyzes data, and generates detailed information reports for better diagnosis. Data preprocessing methods such as data cleaning, munging, normalization, reduction, and removing noisy data are applied. The blend of IoT data with analytics technique results to be beneficial in healthcare systems. The collected IoT information like pulse rate, temperature, oxygen level and heart rate from connected devices can be used to analyze the need and severity in the preliminary stage itself using appropriate machine learning techniques. Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques such as SMART, WPM, and TOPSIS are also applied for conclusion production procedure to generate detailed informative diagnostic reports. Being healthcare data, the overall objective is to aid business organizations with better decision making processes through data analytics thereby deploying the right IoT strategy. The result of the next-generation expert systems can utilize the results for further analysis in diagnosis and treatment. Summary The proposed work deals with the design and development of touch and native voice-assisted prototype to enable the intuitive communication & interaction between health professionals and patients who are affected with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI), Ventilator-dependent and admitted in Quarantine care. It also ensures the development of the multilingual capability to communicate effectively in most speaking ten Indian languages, so that the patients will be relieved from pains etc., as their queries are being addressed by health professionals. In this prototype, touch based gesture patterns can be effectively used as an interactive module and helps the doctors to monitor and answer to the queries of ICU patients regularly by updating it to the caretakers such that the patients are at ease to express their emotions or pains. The proposed prototype will be made available and accessible in an open software repository. As per the existing methods patients express their needs through non-verbal communication methods and they could be missed out or misinterpreted resulting in symptoms that are poorly understood and the clinicians overestimate their ability to understand their communication feelings. These situations are eradicated by employing the use of ?Touch Voice of SARI? Application. Hence this can be considered as an assistive communication tool which replaces the nonverbal communication to a meaningful communication for ventilator patients and healthcare professionals.

14.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(5)2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241234

ABSTRACT

The demand for animal protein has increased considerably worldwide, especially in China, where large numbers of livestock and poultry are produced. Antibiotics have been widely applied to promote growth and prevent diseases. However, the overuse of antibiotics in animal feed has caused serious environmental and health risks, especially the wide spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which seriously affects animal and human health, food safety, ecosystems, and the sustainable future development of animal protein production. Unfortunately, AMR has already become a worldwide challenge, so international cooperation is becoming more important for combatting it. China's efforts and determination to restrict antibiotic usage through law enforcement and effective management are of significance. In this review, we address the pollution problems of antibiotics; in particular, the AMR in water, soil, and plants caused by livestock and poultry manure in China. The negative impact of widespread and intensive use of antibiotics in livestock production is discussed. To reduce and mitigate AMR problems, we emphasize in this review the development of antibiotic substitutes for the era of antibiotic prohibition.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217498, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196364

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a known neurological complication in patients with respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 infection. However, AIS has not been described as a late sequelae in patients without respiratory symptoms of COVID-19. Objective: To assess AIS experienced by adults 50 years or younger in the convalescent phase of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series prospectively identified consecutive male patients who received care for AIS from public health hospitals in Singapore between May 21, 2020, and October 14, 2020. All of these patients had laboratory-confirmed asymptomatic COVID-19 infection based on a positive SARS-CoV-2 serological (antibodies) test result. These patients were individuals from South Asian countries (India and Bangladesh) who were working in Singapore and living in dormitories. The total number of COVID-19 cases (54 485) in the worker dormitory population was the population at risk. Patients with ongoing respiratory symptoms or positive SARS-CoV-2 serological test results confirmed through reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction nasopharyngeal swabs were excluded. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical course, imaging, and laboratory findings were retrieved from the electronic medical records of each participating hospital. The incidence rate of AIS in the case series was compared with that of a historical age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched national cohort. Results: A total of 18 male patients, with a median (range) age of 41 (35-50) years and South Asian ethnicity, were included. The median (range) time from a positive serological test result to AIS was 54.5 (0-130) days. The median (range) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 5 (1-25). Ten patients (56%) presented with a large vessel occlusion, of whom 6 patients underwent intravenous thrombolysis and/or endovascular therapy. Only 3 patients (17%) had a possible cardiac source of embolus. The estimated annual incidence rate of AIS was 82.6 cases per 100 000 people in this study compared with 38.2 cases per 100 000 people in the historical age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched cohort (rate ratio, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.36-3.48; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This case series suggests that the risk for AIS is higher in adults 50 years or younger during the convalescent period of a COVID-19 infection without respiratory symptoms. Acute ischemic stroke could be part of the next wave of complications of COVID-19, and stroke units should be on alert and use serological testing, especially in younger patients or in the absence of traditional risk factors.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Convalescence , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/ethnology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Singapore/epidemiology , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6655185, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first diagnosed case of infection with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), there has been a rapid spread of the disease with an increasing number of cases confirmed every day, as well as a rising death toll. An association has been reported between acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, our study was conducted to explore possible risk factors of AKI as well as whether AKI was a risk factor for worse outcome, especially mortality among patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: We included all hospital admissions with confirmed or clinically diagnosed COVID-19 from January 29 to February 25, 2020. We collected demographic and epidemiological information, past medical history, symptoms, laboratory tests, treatments, and outcome data from electronic medical records. A total of 492 patients with diagnosed or clinically diagnosed COVID-19 were included in this study. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of AKI was 7.32%. Among the factors associated with AKI, males versus females (aOR 2.73), chronic kidney disease (aOR 42.2), hypertension (aOR 2.82), increased leucocytes (aOR 6.08), and diuretic use (aOR 7.89) were identified as independent risk factors for AKI among patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. There was a significant difference in hospital fees and death in patients with and without AKI (p < 0.05). The mortality rate in patients with AKI was 63.9%. CONCLUSIONS: AKI was widespread among patients with COVID-19. The risk factors of AKI in COVID-19 patients included sex, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, infection, and diuretic use. AKI may be associated with a worse outcome, especially mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , China , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968898

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status in general population in different affected areas in China. METHODS: This was a comparative study including two groups of participants: (1) general population in an online survey in Ya'an and Jingzhou cities during the COVID-19 outbreak from 10-20 February 2020; and (2) matching general population selected from the mental health survey in Ya'an in 2019 (from January to May 2019). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used. RESULTS: There were 1775 participants (Ya'an in 2019 and 2020: 537 respectively; Jingzhou in 2020: 701). Participants in Ya'an had a significantly higher rate of general health problems (GHQ scores ⩾3) in 2020 (14.7%) than in 2019 (5.2%) (p < 0.001). Compared with Ya'an (8.0%), participants in Jingzhou in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of anxiety (SAS scores ⩾50, 24.1%) (p < 0.001). Participants in Ya'an in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of depression (SDS scores ⩾53, 55.3%) than in Jingzhou (16.3%) (p < 0.001). The risk factors of anxiety symptoms included female, number of family members (⩾6 persons), and frequent outdoor activities. The risk factors of depression symptoms included participants in Ya'an and uptake self-protective measures. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of psychological symptoms has increased sharply in general population during the COVID-19 outbreak. People in COVID-19 severely affected areas may have higher scores of GHQ and anxiety symptoms. Culture-specific and individual-based psychosocial interventions should be developed for those in need during the COVID-19 outbreak.

18.
Semin Dial ; 34(1): 57-65, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894796

ABSTRACT

Hemodialysis patients are susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and mortality-related risk factors for those who undergoing hemodialysis with COVID-19. We conducted a retrospective study. A total of 49 hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 (Group 1) and 74 uninfected patients (Group 2) were included. For patients in Group 1, we found the median age was 62 years (36-89 years), 59.3% were male, and the median dialysis vintage was 26 months. Twenty-eight patients (57%) had three or more comorbidities and two patients (4%) died. The most common symptoms were fever (32.7%) and dry cough (46.9%), while nine patients (18.4%) were asymptomatic. Blood routine tests indicated lymphocytopenia, the proportion of lymphocyte subsets was generally reduced, and chest CT scans showed ground-glass opacity (45.8%) and patchy shadowing (35.4%). However, these findings were not specific to hemodialysis patients with COVID-19, and similar manifestations could be found in patients without SARS-CoV-2 infection. In conclusion, for hemodialysis patients with COVID-19, lymphocytopenia and ground-glass opacities or patchy opacities were common but not specific to them, early active treatment and interventions against nosocomial infection can significantly reduce the mortality and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Renal Dialysis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Kidney Med ; 2(3): 354-358, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832003

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infective disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2). Previous studies of the COVID-19 pneumonia outbreak were based on information from the general population. Limited data are available for hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. This report describes the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in an in-center hemodialysis patient, as well as our experience in implementing steps to prevent the spread of COVID-19 pneumonia among in-center hemodialysis patients. The diagnosis, infection control, and treatment of COVID-19 in hemodialysis patients are discussed in this report, and we conclude with recommendations for how a dialysis facility can respond to COVID-19 based on our experiences.

20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105379, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-816739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been increasing reports associating the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with thromboembolic phenomenon including ischemic strokes and venous thromboembolism. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare neurovascular emergency that has been observed in some COVID-19 patients, yet much remains to be learnt of its underlying pathophysiology. OBJECTIVE: We present a case series of local patients with concomitant COVID-19 infection and CVT; and aim to perform a systematic review of known cases in the current literature. METHODS: We describe two patients with concomitant COVID-19 infection and CVT from a nationwide registry in Singapore. We then conducted a literature search in PubMed and Embase using a suitable keyword search strategy from 1st December 2019 to 11th June 2020. All studies reporting CVT in COVID-19 patients were included. RESULTS: Nine studies and 14 COVID-19 patients with CVT were studied. The median age was 43 years (IQR=36-58) and majority had no significant past medical conditions (60.0%). The time taken from onset of COVID-19 symptoms to CVT diagnosis was a median of 7 days (IQR=6-14). CVT was commonly seen in the transverse (75.0%) and sigmoid sinus (50.0%); 33.3% had involvement of the deep venous sinus system. A significant proportion of patients had raised D-dimer (75.0%) and CRP levels (50.0%). Two patients reported presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Most patients received anticoagulation (91.7%) while overall mortality rate was 45.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The high mortality rate of CVT in COVID-19 infection warrants a high index of suspicion from physicians, and early treatment with anticoagulation should be initiated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/blood , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
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