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Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 7329-7339, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311480


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to build a radiomics model with deep learning (DL) and human auditing and examine its diagnostic value in differentiating between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: Forty-three COVID-19 patients, whose diagnoses had been confirmed with reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) tests, and 60 CAP patients, whose diagnoses had been confirmed with sputum cultures, were enrolled in this retrospective study. The candidate regions of interest (ROIs) on the computed tomography (CT) images of the 103 patients were determined using a DL-based segmentation model powered by transfer learning. These ROIs were manually audited and corrected by 3 radiologists (with an average of 12 years of experience; range 6-17 years) to check the segmentation acceptance for the radiomics analysis. ROI-derived radiomics features were subsequently extracted to build the classification model and processed using 4 different algorithms (L1 regularization, Lasso, Ridge, and Z test) and 4 classifiers, including the logistic regression (LR), multi-layer perceptron (MLP), support vector machine (SVM), and extreme Gradient Boosting (XGboost). A receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the performance of the model. RESULTS: Quantitative CT measurements derived from human-audited segmentation results showed that COVID-19 patients had significantly decreased numbers of infected lobes compared to patients in the CAP group {median [interquartile range (IQR)]: 4 [3, 4] and 4 [4, 5]; P=0.031}. The infected percentage (%) of the whole lung was significantly more elevated in the CAP group [6.40 (2.77, 11.11)] than the COVID-19 group [1.83 (0.65, 4.42); P<0.001], and the same trend applied to each lobe, except for the superior lobe of the right lung [1.81 (0.09, 5.28) for COVID-19 vs. 1.32 (0.14, 7.02) for CAP; P=0.649]. Additionally, the highest proportion of infected lesions were observed in the CT value range of (-470, -370) Hounsfield units (HU) in the COVID-19 group. Conversely, the CAP group had a value range of (30, 60) HU. Radiomic model using corrected ROIs exhibited the highest area under ROC (AUC) of 0.990 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.962-1.000] using Lasso for feature selection and MLP for classification. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed radiomics model based on human-audited segmentation made accurate differential diagnoses of COVID-19 and CAP. The quantification of CT measurements derived from DL could potentially be used as effective biomarkers in current clinical practice.

COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Computers , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Nano Today ; 39:101184, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1230685


Nanotoxicology and nanomedicine are two sub-disciplines of nanotechnology focusing on the phenomena, mechanisms, and engineering at the nano-bio interface. For the better part of the past three decades, these two disciplines have been largely developing independently of each other. Yet recent breakthroughs in microbiome research and the current COVID-19 pandemic demonstrate that holistic approaches are crucial for solving grand challenges in global health. Here we show the Yin and Yang relationship between the two fields by highlighting their shared goals of making safer nanomaterials, improved cellular and organism models, as well as advanced methodologies. We focus on the transferable knowledge between the two fields as nanotoxicological research is moving from pristine to functional nanomaterials, while inorganic nanomaterials – the main subjects of nanotoxicology – have become an emerging source for the development of nanomedicines. We call for a close partnership between the two fields in the new decade, to harness the full potential of nanotechnology for benefiting human health and environmental safety.

Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3938, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087495


Since its first outbreak, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been rapidly spreading worldwide and caused a global pandemic. Rapid and early detection is essential to contain COVID-19. Here, we first developed a deep learning (DL) integrated radiomics model for end-to-end identification of COVID-19 using CT scans and then validated its clinical feasibility. We retrospectively collected CT images of 386 patients (129 with COVID-19 and 257 with other community-acquired pneumonia) from three medical centers to train and externally validate the developed models. A pre-trained DL algorithm was utilized to automatically segment infected lesions (ROIs) on CT images which were used for feature extraction. Five feature selection methods and four machine learning algorithms were utilized to develop radiomics models. Trained with features selected by L1 regularized logistic regression, classifier multi-layer perceptron (MLP) demonstrated the optimal performance with AUC of 0.922 (95% CI 0.856-0.988) and 0.959 (95% CI 0.910-1.000), the same sensitivity of 0.879, and specificity of 0.900 and 0.887 on internal and external testing datasets, which was equivalent to the senior radiologist in a reader study. Additionally, diagnostic time of DL-MLP was more efficient than radiologists (38 s vs 5.15 min). With an adequate performance for identifying COVID-19, DL-MLP may help in screening of suspected cases.

COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , Deep Learning , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Algorithms , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , Radiologists