Background: Literature suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in poor sleep quality, especially among the infected population. However, literature regarding the effect of COVID-19 pandemic and SARS-CoV-2 infection on occurrence of insomnia, restless legs syndrome and dream enactment behavior is either scarce or unavailable. Methods: This study was planned to assess the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the occurrence of insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS) and dream enactment behavior (DEB). For this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire comprising of items related to demographic details, past medical history, and information related to SARS-CoV-2 infection was distributed through social media. Insomnia was diagnosed using clinical criteria. RLS, DEB, sleep quality, depression and anxiety were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Information regarding the use of hypnotic medications was also gathered. Results: Of the 1596 respondents, 37.2% reported disturbed sleep while insomnia was reported by 22.6% respondents. 27.3% of respondents reported RLS and 17.4% suffered DEB. The odds of insomnia were greater among males (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.03-1.58; P < 0.02) and among those who had SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.42-2.19; P < 0.001). Similarly, SARS-CoV-2 infection was also associated with increased odds of RLS (OR = 2.48; 95% CI = 1.98-3.11; P < 0.001) and DEB (OR = 1.58; 95%CI = 1.21-2.06; P < 0.001). Insomnia, RLS and DEB were more frequent among respondents who required oxygen therapy, those who experienced loss of taste and/or smell, depression and anxiety. Prevalence of insomnia, DEB and RLS was higher than said prevalence among respondents with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but lower than that of those with positive history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. 5.3% of respondents reported taking hypnotic medications before infection, 7% during infection and 5.3% after infection. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2-infection-related factors in association with environmental factors have increased the prevalence of insomnia, DEB and RLS among subjects having infection. SARS-CoV-2-associated immunological changes, hypoxia and neurotropism may play a role in occurrence of insomnia, DEB and RLS.
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, perceived stress is an important determinant of mental health problems, especially in health care workers (HCW). By and large, regional language tools to assess perceived stress in the context of the pandemic have not been validated in India. We aim to explore the factor structure of the Telugu translated version of the COVID-19 pandemic-related Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10-C) administered on grassroots frontline HCW of rural Telangana, India. Methods: Data relating to 311 grassroots frontline HCW consisting of accredited social health activists (ASHA), multipurpose health workers (MPHW), and auxiliary nurse and midwives (ANMs) working in rural primary health centers (PHC) in five districts of Telangana were analyzed. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify latent factors. Convergent validity was assessed by computing Pearson product-moment correlations between the scores of PSS-10-C and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scales. Results: The principal component analysis showed that the 10 items of the scale were significantly loaded by two latent factors with eigen values of 2.792 and 2.009, respectively. Factor solution showed that six and four items correlated with each of the two factors, respectively. Significant correlations between PSS-10-C, GAD-7, and PHQ-9 scores showed convergent validity. The two factors may represent substantive factors "perceived self-efficacy" and "perceived helplessness." There may be an influence of the reverse-coded method on the factor solution. Conclusion: The Telugu translated version of PSS-10-C holds fair-to-good psychometric properties.
Objective: To assess psychological resilience, coping, and related psychological distress in admitted COVID-19 patients. Predictors of subsequent development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and disability were also studied.Methods: Stable inpatients with COVID-19 (aged > 18 years with mild symptoms) admitted to a tertiary care hospital from April 2020 to December 2020 were recruited for the study. During admission, the patients were assessed for resilience, coping, and psychological distress using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10), Brief COPE (Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced), and 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4). Similarly, they were assessed at 4 weeks after discharge using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule.Results: A total of 176 patients were recruited for the study and assessed during their admission, and 102 were reassessed during follow-up. Of the patients, 17.6% during admission and 58.8% at follow-up had significant psychological distress (PHQ-4 score > 2). The mean ± SD CD-RISC-10 score was 27.94 ± 5.82. The most used coping strategies were emotional support, religion, and acceptance. Increased resilience was associated with better education (rs = 0.265, P = .007), less psychological distress (r = -0.596, P = .001), and healthy coping strategies. PHQ-4, PCL-5, and disability scores at follow-up were positively correlated (Pearson correlation). The multiple regression model statistically significantly predicted PTSS (F7, 94 = 2.660, P < .015, adjusted R2 = 0.103).Conclusions: COVID-19 patients with better resilience are associated with reduced psychological distress. Better resilient traits and reduced psychological distress may prevent ensuing PTSS and disability.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Resilience, Psychological , Adaptation, Psychological , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
Objective: Prevalence of insomnia has been high during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, especially in health care workers. The 7-item Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) is the most commonly used tool to assess insomnia severity and its impact. The ISI has not been translated and validated for use among Telugu-speaking health care workers. The objective of this study was to explore the factor structure of the Telugu-translated version of the ISI, administered among primary care health workers in rural Telangana, India.Methods: The Telugu version of the ISI was administered to 315 grass-root primary care health workers in rural primary health centers of 5 districts of Telangana. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to measure the factor structure of the translated version of the ISI. Data were collected in August 2021.Results: The principal component analysis showed that the 7 items of the scale significantly loaded on to 1 latent factor with an eigenvalue of 4.036, explaining 57.66% of the total variance. The factor reliability (Cronbach α) was 0.876.Conclusions: The results show that the Telugu translated version of the ISI conforms to previously found factor solutions and is valid to assess insomnia severity in primary care health workers.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/diagnosis
Objective: In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, anxiety during pregnancy should be assessed from a composite context of anxiety/fear of COVID-19 infection and pregnancy-specific anxiety. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a scale that measures anxiety related to situations specific to pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic-the Antenatal COVID-19 Anxiety (AnCAn) Scale.Methods: Items were generated based on a literature review and focused group discussions. Face and content validation was completed. Data were collected from 557 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of 5 tertiary care general hospitals in India. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to measure structural validity and to identify latent factors. Screening accuracy was assessed using scores on the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale. Data were collected between July and October 2020.Results: The principal component analysis showed that the 12 items of the scale significantly loaded onto 2 latent factors, with Eigen values of 6.575 and 1.213, respectively. Factor solution showed that 6 items correlated with each of the 2 factors. Both sensitivity and specificity of AnCAn total and subscores were > 70%.Conclusions: We conclude that the AnCAn Scale holds good psychometric properties, and it identifies and distinguishes 2 latent factors: (1) anxiety related to acquiring infection and (2) anxiety related to spreading infection and social role obligations, which are compositely related to anxiety specific to COVID-19 and pregnancy.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
While higher anxiety during antenatal period cause several maternal and foetal health related complications, lower anxiety levels are found to be associated with lesser "precautionary behaviours" and consequently greater risk of infection, during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we aimed to assess rates and determinants of generalized anxiety at the time of the pandemic as well as anxiety that was specific to the context of being pregnant during the COVID-19 pandemic. (COVID-19-antenatal anxiety) in Indian women. This hospital-based, cross-sectional study using face-to-face interviews was conducted at antenatal clinics of five medical college hospitals in India. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD -7) and a customized scale to assess antenatal COVID-19 anxiety along with other tools that assessed social support and COVID-19-risk perception were administered to 620 pregnant women. We found that the percentage of women with moderate or severe anxiety based on GAD -7 was 11.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that higher COVID-19-risk perception, greater antenatal COVID-19 anxiety and lower perceived support significantly predicted moderate and severe generalized anxiety. Greater number of weeks of gestation, lower education, semiurban habitat and lower perceived social support were significant predictors of antenatal COVID-19 anxiety. We conclude that the rates of anxiety in pregnant women though not very high, still warrant attention and specific interventions.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Mental Health , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Intimate Partner Violence , Female , Humans , India , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
INTRODUCTION: To mitigate the spread of the pandemic coronavirus infection (COVID-19), governments across the world have adopted "lockdowns" which have confined many individuals to their homes. This disrupts normal life routines, elements of which are important circadian cues. The pandemic is also associated with new stressors, altered roles, and uncertainties about health and economic security, which are also likely to affect sleep. The current study is an online survey of sleep experience, routines, physical activity, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, to study the alterations associated with the lockdown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey was conducted in early May 2020 using a questionnaire circulated through social media platforms. Questions related to demographic characteristics, current and previous sleep schedules, routine, and working patterns. Insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index - 4), Stress (Perceived Stress Scale - 4), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire - 4) and physical activity (International Physical Activities Questionnaire) were assessed using standardized instruments. RESULTS: A total of 958 valid responses were received. Compared to the prelockdown period, there was a shift to a later bedtime and waking time, with a reduction in night-time sleep and an increase in day-time napping. These effects were visible across occupational groups, but mostly affected working individuals except health professionals. Sleep quality deteriorated across groups. Reductions in sleep duration were associated with depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 lockdown is associated with changes in sleep schedule and in the quantity and quality of night-time sleep. Although these changes are associated with elevated rates of emotional symptoms, it is unclear from these cross-sectional results, whether sleep deterioration produces psychological distress, or vice versa.