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Infect Genet Evol ; 111: 105432, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293208


Outbreaks of HFMD in children aged <5 years have been reported worldwide and the major causative agents are Coxsackievirus (CV) A16, enterovirus (EV)-A71 and recently CVA6. In India, HFMD is a disease that is not commonly reported. The purpose of the study was to identify the enterovirus type(s) associated with large outbreak of Hand, foot, and mouth disease during COVID-19 pandemic in 2022. Four hundred and twenty five clinical samples from 196-suspected cases were collected from different parts of the country. This finding indicated the emergence of CVA6 in HFMD along with CVA16, soon after the gradual easing of non-pharmaceutical interventions during-pandemic COVID-19 and the relevance of continued surveillance of circulating enterovirus types in the post-COVID pandemic era.

COVID-19 , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Child , Humans , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enterovirus/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , India/epidemiology , China/epidemiology
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 835168, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775700


The main route of the transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are through respiratory pathways and close contact of human-to-human. While information about other modes of transmission is comparatively less, some published literature supporting the likelihood of a fecal-oral mode of transmission has been accumulating. The diagnosis of SARS-COV-2 infected cases is based on the real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The fecal excretion of SARS-COV-2 has been reported frequently, however, the role of fecal viral load with the severity of disease is not yet clear. Our study focused on the investigation of SARS-CoV-2 shedding in the fecal samples of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 280 RT-PCR-positive patients were enrolled, among them 15.4% had gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. It was shown that 62% of the patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in fecal specimens. This positivity was not related to the presence of GI symptoms and the severity of disease. The next generation sequencing [NGS] of SARS-CoV-2 from fecal samples of patients was performed to analyze mutational variations. Findings from this study not only emphasized the potential presence of SARS-CoV-2 in feces, but also its continuing mutational changes and its possible role in fecal-oral transmission.