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Sustainability ; 13(3):1553, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1059458


Although the negative economic impacts of COVID-19 are undiscovered, the tourism industry is recognized as one of the most vulnerable sectors. Considering tourism’s contribution to Malaysia’s GDP, this study aims to examine vendors’ attitudes and perceptions towards international tourists in night markets after the emergence of COVID-19 and the impacts of propagation power of COVID-19 on vendors’ perceptions in Malaysia. As large numbers of informal workers lost 60% of their income worldwide due to the pandemic, a lack of research is observed on vendors’ attitudes after the pandemic, especially in Southeast Asia. The study model was derived on the basis of the revised social exchange theory (SET). A questionnaire survey was conducted among local vendors in Malaysia using a multistage probability sampling method. Findings revealed that place attachment has a significant effect on positive perception but not negative perception towards international tourists’ receptiveness. Results indicate that positive perceptions towards international tourists significantly and positively mediate the relationship among place attachment, economic gain, and involvement with tourist receptiveness. Moreover, the research concluded that vendors still have positive attitudes towards international tourists’ receptiveness due to economic gain and their place attachment and involvement levels during the COVID-19 pandemic.