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1.
Economics & Politics ; 35(2):556-594, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20238028

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we study the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in estimated panel vector autoregression models for 92 countries. The large cross‐section of countries allows us to shed light on the heterogeneity of the responses of stock markets and nitrogen dioxide emissions as high‐frequency measures of economic activity. We quantify the effect of the number of infections and four dimensions of policy measures: (1) containment and closure, (2) movement restrictions, (3) economic support, and (4) adjustments of health systems. Our main findings show that a surprise increase in the number of infections triggers a drop in our two measures of economic activity. Propping up economic support measures, in contrast, raises stock returns and emissions and, thus, contributes to the economic recovery. We also document vast differences in the responses across subsets of countries and between the first and the second wave of infections.

2.
J Int Money Finance ; 137: 102890, 2023 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234034

ABSTRACT

Lockdowns imposed to fight the Covid-19 pandemic have cross-border effects. In this paper, we estimate the empirical magnitude of lockdown spillovers in a set of panel local projections. We use daily indicators of economic activity such as stock returns, effective exchange rates, NO2 emissions, mobility and maritime container trade. Lockdown shocks originating in the most important trading partners have a strong and significant adverse effect on economic activity in the home economy. For stock prices and exports, the spillovers can even be larger than the effect of domestic lockdown shocks. The results are robust with respect to alternative country weights used to construct foreign shocks, i.e. weights based on foreign direct investment or the connectedness through value chains. We find that lockdown spillovers have been particularly strong during the first wave of the pandemic. Countries with a higher export share are particularly exposed to lockdown spillovers.

3.
International Economics ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2120164

ABSTRACT

Policymakers imposed constraints on public life in order to contain the Covid-19 pandemic. At the same time, fiscal, monetary and macroprudential policy implemented a large range of expansionary measures to limit the economic consequences of the pandemic and stimulate the recovery. In this paper, we assess the response of the equity market as a high-frequency indicator of economic activity to containment and stabilization policies for 29 European economies. We construct indicators of containment and stabilization policies and estimate a range of panel VAR models. The main results are threefold: First, we find that stock markets are highly responsive to containment and stabilization policies. We show that domestic fiscal policy, macroprudential policy as well as monetary policy support the recovery as reflected in the stock market. Second, expansionary fiscal policy conducted at the European level reduces rather raises stock prices. Third, we estimate the model over subsamples and show that the counter-intuitive stock market response to EU policies is driven by the responses in medium- and high-debt countries. These countries’ stock markets are also particularly susceptible to monetary policy announcements.

4.
Economics & Politics ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1968091

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we study the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in estimated panel vector autoregression models for 92 countries. The large cross-section of countries allows us to shed light on the heterogeneity of the responses of stock markets and nitrogen dioxide emissions as high-frequency measures of economic activity. We quantify the effect of the number of infections and four dimensions of policy measures: (1) containment and closure, (2) movement restrictions, (3) economic support, and (4) adjustments of health systems. Our main findings show that a surprise increase in the number of infections triggers a drop in our two measures of economic activity. Propping up economic support measures, in contrast, raises stock returns and emissions and, thus, contributes to the economic recovery. We also document vast differences in the responses across subsets of countries and between the first and the second wave of infections.

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