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1.
Front Oncol ; 12: 820647, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715027

ABSTRACT

Azvudine (FNC) is a novel cytidine analogue that has both antiviral and anticancer activities. This minireview focuses on its underlying molecular mechanisms of suppressing viral life cycle and cancer cell growth and discusses applications of this nucleoside drug for advanced therapy of tumors and malignant blood diseases. FNC inhibits positive-stand RNA viruses, like HCV, EV, SARS-COV-2, HBV, and retroviruses, including HIV, by suppressing their RNA-dependent polymerase enzymes. It may also inhibit such enzyme (reverse transcriptase) in the human retrotransposons, including human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). As the activation of retrotransposons can be the major factor of ongoing cancer genome instability and consequently higher aggressiveness of tumors, FNC has a potential to increase the efficacy of multiple anticancer therapies. Furthermore, FNC also showed other aspects of anticancer activity by inhibiting adhesion, migration, invasion, and proliferation of malignant cells. It was also reported to be involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, thereby inhibiting the progression of cancer through different pathways. To the date, the grounds of FNC effects on cancer cells are not fully understood and hence additional studies are needed for better understanding molecular mechanisms of its anticancer activities to support its medical use in oncology.

2.
Int J Fertil Steril ; 15(4): 241-245, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575145

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic struck global health systems with overgrowing demands in many fields of health care; yet, reproductive care, particularly pregnancy care remains a special focus of interest. Pregnancy is a major physiologic change that alters temporarily normal function of many organs, and specifically the immune system. Therefore, pregnant women are more susceptible to respiratory pathogens compared to the others. The current pandemic may have serious consequences on pregnancy whether directly or indirectly. In the present review, direct and indirect possible adverse effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on female reproductive system by focusing on pregnancy and delivery has been discussed in details. In addition, the pregnancy consequences and whether maternal infection can affect infants were deliberated. The adverse impact of luck down and related psychological complications and obesity on pregnant women were discussed as well. Finally, the effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination on maternal health and pregnancy outcome was analyzed.

3.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(11): 1281-1294, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470080

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Human gut microbiota plays a crucial role in providing protective responses against pathogens, particularly by regulating immune system homeostasis. There is a reciprocal interaction between the gut and lung microbiota, called the gut-lung axis (GLA). Any alteration in the gut microbiota or their metabolites can cause immune dysregulation, which can impair the antiviral activity of the immune system against respiratory viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2. AREAS COVERED: This narrative review mainly outlines emerging data on the mechanisms underlying the interactions between the immune system and intestinal microbial dysbiosis, which is caused by an imbalance in the levels of essential metabolites. The authors will also discuss the role of probiotics in restoring the balance of the gut microbiota and modulation of cytokine storm. EXPERT OPINION: Microbiota-derived signals regulate the immune system and protect different tissues during severe viral respiratory infections. The GLA's equilibration could help manage the mortality and morbidity rates associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Dysbiosis/immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Immune System/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 51(9): 1107-1120, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term sequalae of COVID-19 remain poorly characterized. We assessed persistent symptoms in previously hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and assessed potential risk factors. METHODS: Data were collected from patients discharged from 4 hospitals in Moscow, Russia between 8 April and 10 July 2020. Participants were interviewed via telephone using an ISARIC Long-term Follow-up Study questionnaire. RESULTS: 2,649 of 4755 (56%) discharged patients were successfully evaluated, at median 218 (IQR 200, 236) days post-discharge. COVID-19 diagnosis was clinical in 1291 and molecular in 1358. Most cases were mild, but 902 (34%) required supplemental oxygen and 68 (2.6%) needed ventilatory support. Median age was 56 years (IQR 46, 66) and 1,353 (51.1%) were women. Persistent symptoms were reported by 1247 (47.1%) participants, with fatigue (21.2%), shortness of breath (14.5%) and forgetfulness (9.1%) the most common symptoms and chronic fatigue (25%) and respiratory (17.2%) the most common symptom categories. Female sex was associated with any persistent symptom category OR 1.83 (95% CI 1.55 to 2.17) with association being strongest for dermatological (3.26, 2.36 to 4.57) symptoms. Asthma and chronic pulmonary disease were not associated with persistent symptoms overall, but asthma was associated with neurological (1.95, 1.25 to 2.98) and mood and behavioural changes (2.02, 1.24 to 3.18), and chronic pulmonary disease was associated with chronic fatigue (1.68, 1.21 to 2.32). CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of adults admitted to hospital due to COVID-19 reported persistent symptoms 6 to 8 months after discharge. Fatigue and respiratory symptoms were most common, and female sex was associated with persistent symptoms.


Subject(s)
Aftercare , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Russia/epidemiology
5.
Cell J ; 23(4): 382-388, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377148

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as a severe respiratory disease, affects various tissues and organs. The specific SARS-CoV-2 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is highly expressed in male gonads. Thus, male reproductive tissues could be a potential target for virus colonization. We performed a comprehensive search in PubMed and Google Scholar to retrieve relevant articles published till 15 April 2021. The keywords used were: male fertility, male reproductive health, semen parameters, sex hormones, SARS-CoV-2, and COVID-19. Validated evidence about the adverse effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection on the male reproductive system is limited and few studies have reported semen analysis results or presence of viral RNA in semen samples of infected men. Nevertheless, alterations in reproductive hormones such as decreased level of testosterone (T) with raised luteinizing hormone (LH) have been reported in some patients. Although the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the male reproduction health remains unclear, evidence suggests that male gonads may be potentially vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this article, we discussed the possible impacts of COVID-19 on male gonads, sex hormones, and semen quality and suggested preventive solutions.

6.
Drug Discov Today ; 27(1): 223-233, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363147

ABSTRACT

Approaches based on animal and two-dimensional (2D) cell culture models cannot ensure reliable results in modeling novel pathogens or in drug testing in the short term; therefore, there is rising interest in platforms such as organoids. To develop a toolbox that can be used successfully to overcome current issues in modeling various infections, it is essential to provide a framework of recent achievements in applying organoids. Organoids have been used to study viruses, bacteria, and protists that cause, for example, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and liver diseases. Their future as models of infection will be associated with improvements in system complexity, including abilities to model tissue structure, a dynamic microenvironment, and coinfection. Teaser. Organoids are a flexible tool for modelling viral, bacterial and protist infections. They can provide fast and reliable information on the biology of pathogens and in drug screening, and thus have become essential in combatting emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Infections , Organoids , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/trends , Infections/drug therapy , Infections/microbiology , Models, Animal , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/microbiology , Reproducibility of Results
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(1): 1-11, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Russian population are unknown. Information on the differences between laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed COVID-19 in real-life settings is lacking. METHODS: We extracted data from the medical records of adult patients who were consecutively admitted for suspected COVID-19 infection in Moscow between 8 April and 28 May 2020. RESULTS: Of the 4261 patients hospitalized for suspected COVID-19, outcomes were available for 3480 patients (median age, 56 years; interquartile range, 45-66). The most common comorbidities were hypertension, obesity, chronic cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Half of the patients (n = 1728) had a positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while 1748 had a negative RT-PCR but had clinical symptoms and characteristic computed tomography signs suggestive of COVID-19. No significant differences in frequency of symptoms, laboratory test results, and risk factors for in-hospital mortality were found between those exclusively clinically diagnosed or with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR. In a multivariable logistic regression model the following were associated with in-hospital mortality: older age (per 1-year increase; odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.06), male sex (1.71; 1.24-2.37), chronic kidney disease (2.99; 1.89-4.64), diabetes (2.1; 1.46-2.99), chronic cardiovascular disease (1.78; 1.24-2.57), and dementia (2.73; 1.34-5.47). CONCLUSIONS: Age, male sex, and chronic comorbidities were risk factors for in-hospital mortality. The combination of clinical features was sufficient to diagnose COVID-19 infection, indicating that laboratory testing is not critical in real-life clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Moscow , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Metabolites ; 11(4)2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187003

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to evaluate of serum metal levels in COVID-19 patients with different disease severity, and to investigate the independent association between serum metal profile and markers of lung damage. The cohort of COVID-19 patients consisted of groups of subjects with mild, moderate, and severe illness, 50 examinees each. Forty-four healthy subjects of the respective age were involved in the current study as the control group. Serum metal levels were evaluated using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. Examination of COVID-19 patients demonstrated that heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, C-reactive protein levels, as well as lung damage increased significantly with COVID-19 severity, whereas SpO2 decreased gradually. Increasing COVID-19 severity was also associated with a significant gradual decrease in serum Ca, Fe, Se, Zn levels as compared to controls, whereas serum Cu and especially Cu/Zn ratio were elevated. No significant group differences in serum Mg and Mn levels were observed. Serum Ca, Fe, Se, Zn correlated positively with SpO2, being inversely associated with fever, lung damage, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Opposite correlations were observed for Cu and Cu/Zn ratio. In regression models, serum Se levels were inversely associated with lung damage independently of other markers of disease severity, anthropometric, biochemical, and hemostatic parameters. Cu/Zn ratio was also considered as a significant predictor of lower SpO2 in adjusted regression models. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that metal metabolism significantly interferes with COVID-19 pathogenesis, although the causal relations as well as precise mechanisms are yet to be characterized.

11.
Int J Bioprint ; 6(4): 302, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831409

ABSTRACT

While the number of studies related to severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is constantly growing, it is essential to provide a framework of modeling viral infections. Therefore, this review aims to describe the background presented by earlier used models for viral studies and an approach to design an "ideal" tissue model for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Due to the previous successful achievements in antiviral research and tissue engineering, combining the emerging techniques such as bioprinting, microfluidics, and organoid formation are considered to be one of the best approaches to form in vitro tissue models. The fabrication of an integrated multi-tissue bioprinted platform tailored for SARS-CoV-2 infection can be a great breakthrough that can help defeat coronavirus disease in 2019.

13.
Cell J ; 22(Suppl 1): 151-154, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710738

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The goal of IBD treatment is to reduce the inflammation period and induce long-term remission. Use of anti-inflammatory drugs including corticosteroids, immunosuppressants and biologicals, is often the first step in the treatment of IBD. Therefore, IBD patients in pandemic of infectious diseases are considered a high-risk group. The public believes that IBD patients are at a higher risk in the current coronavirus 2 pandemic. Nevertheless, these patients may experience mild or moderate complications compared to healthy people. This might be because of particular anti-TNF-α treatment or any immunosuppressant that IBD patients receive. Moreover, these patients might be silent carrier for the virus.

14.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 98(6): 789-803, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505727

ABSTRACT

To date, there is no licensed treatment or approved vaccine to combat the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), and the number of new cases and mortality multiplies every day. Therefore, it is essential to develop an effective treatment strategy to control the virus spread and prevent the disease. Here, we summarized the therapeutic approaches that are used to treat this infection. Although it seems that antiviral drugs are effective in improving clinical manifestation, there is no definite treatment protocol. Lymphocytopenia, excessive inflammation, and cytokine storm followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome are still unsolved issues causing the severity of this disease. Therefore, immune response modulation and inflammation management can be considered as an essential step. There is no doubt that more studies are required to clarify immunopathogenesis and immune response; however, new therapeutic approaches including mesenchymal stromal cell and immune cell therapy showed inspiring results.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Nanomedicine/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
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