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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1606, 2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Managing children's screen time is challenging for most families. Interventions have had limited success in reducing screen time, potentially due to a lack of understanding of the experiences, needs and recommendations of families. This study aimed to 1) understand the screen time experiences of families, particularly during COVID-19 lockdowns; and 2) explore parent and child suggestions for the design, components, and content of a screen time management program. METHODS: Parents and children from 30 families living in Victoria, Australia completed a semi-structured interview (63 interviews) via Zoom in October-November 2021. Parents were maged 40.8 (± 8.9) years and predominantly female (90%). Children were maged 11.4 (± 2.4) years and 47% female. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive thematic analysis combined with a summative content analysis approach. RESULTS: Three themes under Aim 1 emerged. Theme 1) 'Screen time management experiences and practices', including rules and strategies, challenges, and the impact of COVID-19 lockdowns. Theme 2) 'Impact of screens on family interaction and communication' including conflicts within the family, reduced face-to-face interactions, and negative impact on child's behaviour and wellbeing. Theme 3) 'Benefits of increased screen time due to COVID-19 lockdowns' including continuation of social interactions, extracurricular activities, improved technology skills and using screens as a 'babysitter'. Findings from Aim 2 suggest that families want a screen time management program delivered online to parents and children, which includes static and interactive content that incorporates health information, alternative activities, cyber-safety information, tips for goal setting and rewards, screen monitoring tools, links to reputable information, and parent social connections. Reminders via text message or through the online platform would help maintain engagement in the program. CONCLUSIONS: Families are experiencing challenges in managing the complex balance between the increased need for screens and the impact it has on the family. These findings provide valuable parent and child insights to assist in developing screen time management programs that are created with an understanding of the needs and challenges of families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Family , Female , Humans , Male , Parents , Qualitative Research , Technology , Victoria
2.
J Sports Sci ; 40(8): 899-907, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642109

ABSTRACT

This study examined adolescent muscle-strengthening exercise (MSE) participation at home and associated socioecological correlates during Australia's initial COVID-19 lockdown restrictions. Adolescents (N = 731, Mage = 16.3, SD = 1.2 years, 73% female) self-reported their MSE participation in February 2020 (pre-lockdown; at a gym or at home) and April/May (during lockdown; at home only as gyms were closed). They also reported a range of potential individual, family, and home environment correlates. Remoteness and area-level socioeconomic disadvantage were also considered. Logistic regression models examined potential correlates of participation in any MSE and MSE engagement ≥3 times/week during April/May. Fewer adolescents participated in MSE during April/May (48%) than February (54%), however, the proportions that engaged in MSE ≥3 times/week were the same (30%). Prioritising being active every day (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.52, 3.90), being active with sibling/s ≥ 5 days/week (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.00, 5.00) and access to weights at home (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.94, 4.57) were associated with higher odds of any MSE participation at home during April/May. These variables were also positively associated with MSE participation at home ≥3 times/week. Understanding how to support adolescents to prioritise being active, engage in MSE with siblings, and provide equipment may assist adolescents to engage in home-based MSE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Muscles , Self Report
3.
J Sci Med Sport ; 25(3): 235-241, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525863

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of COVID-19 related 'lockdown restrictions' on Australian's (5-75 years) physical activity recommendation achievement and active recreation participation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey with self and proxy-report items (where the participant was a parent). METHODS: Adults (n = 1360) and adolescents (n = 1292) reported the frequency they performed 30- or 60-min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), muscle-strengthening exercises, and participation in 11 active recreation behaviours in February 2020 (pre-COVID-19) and in April/May (during lockdown restrictions). Parents also proxy-reported activity for their child (n = 147, 5-12 years). Mixed effects logistic regressions or a logistic regression (with robust sandwich estimation for variance) assessed recall differences pre- and during lockdown, and interaction by sex. RESULTS: Compared to February, in April/May children were less likely to meet MVPA recommendations (OR = 0.27, 95%CI = 0.12-0.64); adolescents males, but not females, were less likely to meet MVPA (OR = 0.71, 95%CI 0.43, 1.17) and both recommendations (OR = 0.12, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.79); and adults were more likely to meet MVPA (OR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.01, 1.57) but less likely to meet muscle-strengthening exercise recommendations (OR = 0.76, 9%CI = 0.65, 0.89). Across age groups more participants reported walking, muscle strengthening exercises at home, and yoga/Pilates/stretching at home, and fewer performed informal sport practice and play, and recreational activities. CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown restrictions had different effects on physical activity and active recreation among age groups and by sex. Physical activity promotion strategies that target children and adolescents, at home physical activity options, active neighbourhoods, and (re)engagement in informal sport and recreational activities post-COVID-19 are critical for (re)engaging Australians in health-enhancing behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sports , Adolescent , Adult , Australia , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise/physiology , Humans , Male , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488568

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to understand differences in leisure, educational/work and social screen time behaviours experienced by parents and children due to COVID-19 lockdown restrictions, which may inform behaviour change strategies and policy in the transition to a COVID-normal life. Participants in the "Our Life at Home" study (n = 218 parents from Australia, 43.4 ± 6.8 years, 88% female) completed a cross-sectional online survey in April/May 2020. Parents recalled their own and their child (8.7 ± 2.0 years, 42% female) or adolescents (15.0 ± 1.5 years, 50% female) participation in nine screen time behaviours in the past month (during lockdown) and retrospectively for February 2020 (pre-lockdown), providing data on 436 individuals. Screen time behaviours included leisure (computer/laptop and tablet/smartphone for leisure, TV/videos/DVDs and game consoles); education/work (computer/laptop and tablet/smartphone for work/education); and social screen time (computer/tablet/smartphone for social communication with friends, family and work (parents only)). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and effect sizes (r) compared the time spent in each behaviour pre-lockdown and during lockdown. Large differences were observed in social (parents: r = 0.41-0.57; children: r = 0.55-0.65; adolescents: r = 0.28-0.43) and education (children: r = 0.50-0.65 and adolescents: r = 0.25-0.37) behaviours. There were small or no differences in leisure time screen use. COVID-19 lockdown restrictions have impacted parent's and children's screen time, and future research and policy should consider strategies to support families to manage screen time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Screen Time , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Leisure Activities , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Television
5.
Med J Aust ; 214 Suppl 8: S5-S40, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256945

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER 1: HOW AUSTRALIA IMPROVED HEALTH EQUITY THROUGH ACTION ON THE SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: Do not think that the social determinants of health equity are old hat. In reality, Australia is very far away from addressing the societal level drivers of health inequity. There is little progressive policy that touches on the conditions of daily life that matter for health, and action to redress inequities in power, money and resources is almost non-existent. In this chapter we ask you to pause this reality and come on a fantastic journey where we envisage how COVID-19 was a great disruptor and accelerator of positive progressive action. We offer glimmers of what life could be like if there was committed and real policy action on the social determinants of health equity. It is vital that the health sector assists in convening the multisectoral stakeholders necessary to turn this fantasy into reality. CHAPTER 2: ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER CONNECTION TO CULTURE: BUILDING STRONGER INDIVIDUAL AND COLLECTIVE WELLBEING: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have long maintained that culture (ie, practising, maintaining and reclaiming it) is vital to good health and wellbeing. However, this knowledge and understanding has been dismissed or described as anecdotal or intangible by Western research methods and science. As a result, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture is a poorly acknowledged determinant of health and wellbeing, despite its significant role in shaping individuals, communities and societies. By extension, the cultural determinants of health have been poorly defined until recently. However, an increasing amount of scientific evidence supports what Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have always said - that strong culture plays a significant and positive role in improved health and wellbeing. Owing to known gaps in knowledge, we aim to define the cultural determinants of health and describe their relationship with the social determinants of health, to provide a full understanding of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander wellbeing. We provide examples of evidence on cultural determinants of health and links to improved Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and wellbeing. We also discuss future research directions that will enable a deeper understanding of the cultural determinants of health for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. CHAPTER 3: PHYSICAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: HEALTHY, LIVEABLE AND SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES: Good city planning is essential for protecting and improving human and planetary health. Until recently, however, collaboration between city planners and the public health sector has languished. We review the evidence on the health benefits of good city planning and propose an agenda for public health advocacy relating to health-promoting city planning for all by 2030. Over the next 10 years, there is an urgent need for public health leaders to collaborate with city planners - to advocate for evidence-informed policy, and to evaluate the health effects of city planning efforts. Importantly, we need integrated planning across and between all levels of government and sectors, to create healthy, liveable and sustainable cities for all. CHAPTER 4: HEALTH PROMOTION IN THE ANTHROPOCENE: THE ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: Human health is inextricably linked to the health of the natural environment. In this chapter, we focus on ecological determinants of health, including the urgent and critical threats to the natural environment, and opportunities for health promotion arising from the human health co-benefits of actions to protect the health of the planet. We characterise ecological determinants in the Anthropocene and provide a sobering snapshot of planetary health science, particularly the momentous climate change health impacts in Australia. We highlight Australia's position as a major fossil fuel producer and exporter, and a country lacking cohesive and timely emissions reduction policy. We offer a roadmap for action, with four priority directions, and point to a scaffold of guiding approaches - planetary health, Indigenous people's knowledge systems, ecological economics, health co-benefits and climate-resilient development. Our situation requires a paradigm shift, and this demands a recalibration of health promotion education, research and practice in Australia over the coming decade. CHAPTER 5: DISRUPTING THE COMMERCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: Our vision for 2030 is an Australian economy that promotes optimal human and planetary health for current and future generations. To achieve this, current patterns of corporate practice and consumption of harmful commodities and services need to change. In this chapter, we suggest ways forward for Australia, focusing on pragmatic actions that can be taken now to redress the power imbalances between corporations and Australian governments and citizens. We begin by exploring how the terms of health policy making must change to protect it from conflicted commercial interests. We also examine how marketing unhealthy products and services can be more effectively regulated, and how healthier business practices can be incentivised. Finally, we make recommendations on how various public health stakeholders can hold corporations to account, to ensure that people come before profits in a healthy and prosperous future Australia. CHAPTER 6: DIGITAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: THE DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION: We live in an age of rapid and exponential technological change. Extraordinary digital advancements and the fusion of technologies, such as artificial intelligence, robotics, the Internet of Things and quantum computing constitute what is often referred to as the digital revolution or the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0). Reflections on the future of public health and health promotion require thorough consideration of the role of digital technologies and the systems they influence. Just how the digital revolution will unfold is unknown, but it is clear that advancements and integrations of technologies will fundamentally influence our health and wellbeing in the future. The public health response must be proactive, involving many stakeholders, and thoughtfully considered to ensure equitable and ethical applications and use. CHAPTER 7: GOVERNANCE FOR HEALTH AND EQUITY: A VISION FOR OUR FUTURE: Coronavirus disease 2019 has caused many people and communities to take stock on Australia's direction in relation to health, community, jobs, environmental sustainability, income and wealth. A desire for change is in the air. This chapter imagines how changes in the way we govern our lives and what we value as a society could solve many of the issues Australia is facing - most pressingly, the climate crisis and growing economic and health inequities. We present an imagined future for 2030 where governance structures are designed to ensure transparent and fair behaviour from those in power and to increase the involvement of citizens in these decisions, including a constitutional voice for Indigenous peoples. We imagine that these changes were made by measuring social progress in new ways, ensuring taxation for public good, enshrining human rights (including to health) in legislation, and protecting and encouraging an independent media. Measures to overcome the climate crisis were adopted and democratic processes introduced in the provision of housing, education and community development.


Subject(s)
Health Equity/trends , Health Promotion/trends , Australia , Commerce , Community Health Planning/trends , Digital Technology/trends , Environmental Health/trends , Forecasting , Health Services, Indigenous/trends , Humans , Social Determinants of Health/trends
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23389, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Government responses to managing the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted the way individuals were able to engage in physical activity. Digital platforms are a promising way to support physical activity levels and may have provided an alternative for people to maintain their activity while at home. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine associations between the use of digital platforms and adherence to the physical activity guidelines among Australian adults and adolescents during the COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions in April and May 2020. METHODS: A national online survey was distributed in May 2020. Participants included 1188 adults (mean age 37.4 years, SD 15.1; 980/1188, 82.5% female) and 963 adolescents (mean age 16.2 years, SD 1.2; 685/963, 71.1% female). Participants reported demographic characteristics, use of digital platforms for physical activity over the previous month, and adherence to moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and muscle-strengthening exercise (MSE) guidelines. Multilevel logistic regression models examined differences in guideline adherence between those who used digital platforms (ie, users) to support their physical activity compared to those who did not (ie, nonusers). RESULTS: Digital platforms include streaming services for exercise (eg, YouTube, Instagram, and Facebook); subscriber fitness programs, via an app or online (eg, Centr and MyFitnessPal); facilitated online live or recorded classes, via platforms such as Zoom (eg, dance, sport training, and fitness class); sport- or activity-specific apps designed by sporting organizations for participants to keep up their skills (eg, TeamBuildr); active electronic games (eg, Xbox Kinect); and/or online or digital training or racing platforms (eg, Zwift, FullGaz, and Rouvy). Overall, 39.5% (469/1188) of adults and 26.5% (255/963) of adolescents reported using digital platforms for physical activity. Among adults, MVPA (odds ratio [OR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.7), MSE (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.5-4.5), and combined (OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0-3.8) guideline adherence were higher among digital platform users relative to nonusers. Adolescents' MVPA (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.3), MSE (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.1-4.4), and combined (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.1-9.0) guideline adherence were also higher among users of digital platforms relative to nonusers. CONCLUSIONS: Digital platform users were more likely than nonusers to meet MVPA and MSE guidelines during the COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions in April and May 2020. Digital platforms may play a critical role in helping to support physical activity engagement when access to facilities or opportunities for physical activity outside the home are restricted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Guideline Adherence , Resistance Training , Social Media , Video Games , Webcasts as Topic , Adolescent , Adult , Australia , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Multilevel Analysis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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