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J Vasc Surg ; 75(2): 408-415.e1, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440240


OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 infection results in a hypercoagulable state predisposing patients to thrombotic events. We report the 3- and 6-month follow-up of 27 patients who experienced acute arterial thrombotic events in the setting of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected and maintained for all vascular surgery consultations in the Mount Sinai Health System from patients who presented between March 16 and May 5, 2020. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients experienced arterial thrombotic events. The average length of stay was 13.3 ± 15.4 days. Fourteen patients were treated with open surgical intervention, six were treated with endovascular intervention, and seven were treated with anticoagulation only. At 3-month follow-up, 11 patients (40.7%) were deceased. Nine patients who expired did so during the initial hospital stay. The 3-month cumulative primary patency rate for all interventions was 72.2%, and the 3-month primary patency rates for open surgical and endovascular interventions were 66.7 and 83.3, respectively. There were 9 (33.3%) readmissions within 3 months. Six-month follow-up was available in 25 (92.6%) patients. At 6-month follow-up, 12 (48.0%) patients were deceased, and the cumulative primary patency rate was 61.9%. The 6-month primary patency rates of open surgical and endovascular interventions were 66.7% and 55.6%, respectively. The limb-salvage rate at both 3 and 6 months was 89.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 infections who experienced thrombotic events saw high complication and mortality rates with relatively low patency rates.

COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Vascular Patency/physiology , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/physiopathology
Ann Vasc Surg ; 72: 209-215, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385038


BACKGROUND: Both arterial and venous thrombotic events of the extremities occur in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, but the etiology of these events remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate pathology specimens of COVID-19-positive patients postamputation, who were found to have Rutherford 3 acute limb ischemia requiring amputation. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all vascular surgery emergency room and inpatient consultations in patients who presented to the Mount Sinai Health System from March 26, 2020, to May 10, 2020. Pathology specimens were examined using hematoxylin and eosin stain. The specimens were assessed for the following: inflammatory cells associated with endothelium/apoptotic bodies, mononuclear cells, small vessel congestion, and lymphocytic endotheliitis. Of the specimens evaluated, 2 patients with a known history of peripheral vascular disease were excluded. RESULTS: Inflammatory cells associated with endothelium/apoptotic bodies were seen in all 4 patients and in 4 of 5 specimens. Mononuclear cells were found in 2 of 4 patients. Small vessel congestion was seen in all patients. Lymphocytic endotheliitis was seen in 1 of 4 patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows endotheliitis in amputation specimens of four patients with COVID-19 disease and Rutherford Class 3 acute limb ischemia. The findings in these patients is more likely an infectious angiitis because of COVID-19.

Amputation , COVID-19/complications , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Lower Extremity/surgery , Thrombosis/surgery , Thrombosis/virology , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
J Vasc Surg ; 73(3): 789-796, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-863656


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel coronavirus that has typically resulted in upper respiratory symptoms. However, we have encountered acute arterial and venous thrombotic events after COVID-19 infection. Managing acute thrombotic events from the novel virus has presented unprecedented challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. In our study, we have highlighted the unique treatment required for these patients and discussed the role of anticoagulation for patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: The data from 21 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 disease and acute venous or arterial thrombosis were collected. The demographics, comorbidities, home medications, laboratory markers, and outcomes were analyzed. The primary postoperative outcome of interest was mortality, and the secondary outcomes were primary patency and morbidity. To assess for significance, a univariate analysis was performed using the Pearson χ2 and Fisher exact tests for categorical variables and the Student t test for continuous variables. RESULTS: A total of 21 patients with acute thrombotic events met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Most cases were acute arterial events (76.2%), with the remainder venous cases (23.8%). The average age for all patients was 64.6 years, and 52.4% were male. The most prevalent comorbidity in the group was hypertension (81.0%). Several markers were markedly abnormal in both arterial and venous cases, including an elevated neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (8.8) and D-dimer level (4.9 µg/mL). Operative intervention included percutaneous angiography in 25.00% of patients and open surgical embolectomy in 23.8%. Most of the patients who had undergone arterial intervention had developed a postoperative complication (53.9%) compared with a 0% complication rate after venous interventions. Acute kidney injury on admission was a factor in 75.0% of those who died vs 18.2% in the survivors (P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: We have described our experience in the epicenter of the pandemic of 21 patients who had experienced major thrombotic events from infection with COVID-19. The findings from our cohort have highlighted the need for increased awareness of the vascular manifestations of COVID-19 and the important role of anticoagulation for these patients. More data are urgently needed to optimize treatment and prevent further vascular complications of COVID-19 infections.

Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Acute Disease , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2