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J Epidemiol ; 2023 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259923


BACKGROUND: Despite the robust evidence of an excess risk of COVID-19 severity and mortality in ever smokers, the debate on the role of current and ex-smokers on COVID-19 progression remains open. Limited or no data are available on the link between electronic-cigarette (e-cigarette), heated tobacco product (HTP) and second-hand-smoke (SHS) exposure and COVID-19 progression. To fill this knowledge gap, we undertook the COvid19 and SMOking in ITaly (COSMO-IT) study. METHODS: A multi-centre longitudinal study was conducted in 2020-2021 in 24 Italian hospitals on a total of 1820 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients. We estimated multivariable odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), to quantify the association between smoking-related behaviours (i.e., smoking status, e-cigarette and HTP use, and SHS exposure) and COVID-19 severity (composite outcome: intubation, intensive care unit admission and death), and mortality. RESULTS: Compared to never smokers, current smokers had an increased risk of COVID-19 mortality (OR=2.17; 95% CI=1.06-4.41). E-cigarette use was non-significantly associated to an increased risk of COVID-19 severity (OR=1.60; 95% CI=0.96-2.67). An increased risk of mortality was observed for exposure to SHS among non-smokers (OR=1.67; 95% CI=1.04-2.68), the risk being particularly evident for exposures of ≥6 hours/day (OR=1.99; 95% CI=1.15-3.44). CONCLUSIONS: This multicentric study from Italy shows a dismal COVID-19 progression in current smokers and, for the first time, in SHS exposed non-smokers. These data represent an additional reason to strengthen and enforce effective tobacco control measures and to support smokers in quitting.

BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1046, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865291


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown period lasted from March to May 2020, resulted in a highly stressful situation yielding different negative health consequences, including the worsening of smoking habit. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional study on a convenient sample of 1013 Italian ever smokers aged 18 years or more was conducted. Data were derived from surveys compiled by three different groups of people: subjects belonging to Smoking Cessation Services, Healthcare Providers and Nursing Sciences' students. All institutions were from Northern Italy. The primary outcome self-reported worsening (relapse or increase) or improvement (quit or reduce) of smoking habit during lockdown period. Multiple unconditional (for worsening) and multinomial (for improving) logistic regressions were carried out. RESULTS: Among 962 participants, 56.0% were ex-smokers. Overall, 13.2% of ex-smokers before lockdown reported relapsing and 32.7% of current smokers increasing cigarette intake. Among current smokers before lockdown, 10.1% quit smoking and 13.5% decreased cigarette intake. Out of 7 selected stressors related to COVID-19, four were significantly related to relapse (OR for the highest vs. the lowest tertile ranging between 2.24 and 3.62): fear of being infected and getting sick; fear of dying due to the virus; anxiety in listening to news of the epidemic; sense of powerlessness in protecting oneself from contagion. In addition to these stressors, even the other 3 stressors were related with increasing cigarette intensity (OR ranging between 1.90 and 4.18): sense of powerlessness in protecting loved ones from contagion; fear of losing loved ones due to virus; fear of infecting other. CONCLUSION: The lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with both self-reported relapse or increase smoking habit and also quitting or reduction of it.

COVID-19 , Smokers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Recurrence , Smoking/epidemiology
J Behav Addict ; 10(3): 711-721, 2021 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318339


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few preliminary studies have shown an impact of COVID-19 confinement on gambling habits. We aim to evaluate short-term effects of lockdown restrictions on gambling behaviors in Italy. METHODS: Within the project Lost in Italy, a web-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative sample of 6,003 Italians aged 18-74 years, enrolled during April 27-May 3 2020, and were asked to report gambling activity before the lockdown and at the time of interview. RESULTS: The prevalence of participants reporting any gambling decreased from 16.3% before lockdown to 9.7% during lockdown. Traditional gambling decreased from 9.9 to 2.4% and online gambling from 9.9 to 8.0%. Among gamblers, median time of gambling grew from 4.5 to 5.1 h/month. Among non-players before lockdown, 1.1% started playing. Among players before lockdown, 19.7% increased gambling activity. Multivariate analysis showed an increase in gambling activity in younger generations (p for trend = 0.001), current smokers (odds ratio, OR 1.48), users of electronic cigarettes (OR 1.63), heated tobacco products (OR 1.82), cannabis (OR 5.16), psychotropic drugs (OR 3.93), and subjects having hazardous alcohol drinking (OR 1.93). Self-reported low quality of life (OR 1.97), low sleep quantity (OR 2.00), depressive symptoms (OR 3.06) and anxiety symptoms (OR 2.93) were significantly related to an increase in total gambling activity during lockdown. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Although gambling substantially decreased during lockdown, time spent in gambling slightly increased. The strong relationship found between compromised mental health and addictive behaviors calls for urgent policies to prevent vulnerable populations from increasing and developing severe gambling addiction.

COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Gambling , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gambling/epidemiology , Habits , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2