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1.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 46: 491-498, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are at high risk of malnutrition, and their doctors are part of a multidisciplinary team, including nutritionists. However, adherence to nutritional guidelines may be difficult in the context of capacity constraints during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to doctors' adherence to nutritional guidelines and the impacts of guideline adherence on the outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A multinational electronic survey involving 51 doctors was conducted between November 2020 and January 2021 from 17 COVID-19-designated hospitals in countries with high (Indonesia) and low (Vietnam) numbers of confirmed COVID-19 cases. RESULTS: In general, doctors reported concerns related to nutritional practices in patients with Covid-19 which included feeling stress when performing medical nutritional therapy (65%), lacking self-efficacy or confidence in performing nutritional care (49%), lacking clear nutritional guidelines (45%), and experiencing budget limitations (33%). A regression analysis adjusted for age, country, and the number of hospitalized COVID-19 cases revealed that guideline knowledge (ß: -1.01 (-1.78, -0.23); p = 0.012) and awareness of guidelines (ß: -1.37 (-2.66, -0.09); p = 0.037) were negatively correlated with the length of stay of critically ill COVID-19 patients, but non-significant after adjusting for specialization of the doctor. When stratified according to country, a significant relationship between guideline adherence and length of stay of critically ill patients was only found in Vietnam [guideline adherence: ß: -0.55 (-1.08, -0.03); p = 0.038; guideline knowledge: ß: -1.01 (-1.9, -0.13); p = 0.027] after adjusting for age, specialty, and number of hospitalized COVID-19 cases. In Indonesia, the significant relationship between guideline adherence and mortality of COVID-19 patients remained strong (ß: -14 (-27, -1); p = 0.033) after adjusting for age, specialty, and number of hospitalized COVID-19 cases CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate nutritional knowledge is a key barrier to guideline adherence, and this was international and may be related to doctors' specialties and the COVID-19 pandemic. Adherence to nutritional guidelines may represent a prognostic factor for survival in COVID-19 patients.

2.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 85(1): 14-28, 2022 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390330

ABSTRACT

Meteorological parameters modulate transmission of the SARS-Cov-2 virus, the causative agent related to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) development. However, findings across the globe have been inconsistent attributed to several confounding factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between reported meteorological parameters from July 1 to October 31, 2020, and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in 4 Brazilian cities: São Paulo, the largest city with the highest number of cases in Brazil, and the cities with greater number of cases in the state of Parana during the study period (Curitiba, Londrina and Maringa). The assessment of meteorological factors with confirmed COVID-19 cases included atmospheric pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar irradiation, sunlight, dew point temperature, and total precipitation. The 7- and 15-day moving averages of confirmed COVID-19 cases were obtained for each city. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed significant correlations between COVID-19 cases and all meteorological parameters, except for total precipitation, with the strongest correlation with maximum wind speed (0.717, <0.001) in São Paulo. Regression tree analysis demonstrated that the largest number of confirmed COVID-19 cases was associated with wind speed (between ≥0.3381 and <1.173 m/s), atmospheric pressure (<930.5mb), and solar radiation (<17.98e+3). Lower number of cases was observed for wind speed <0.3381 m/s and temperature <23.86°C. Our results encourage the use of meteorological information as a critical component in future risk assessment models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Meteorological Concepts , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 96: 251-310, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240122

ABSTRACT

Since the discovery of manifest Zn deficiency in 1961, the increasing number of studies demonstrated the association between altered Zn status and multiple diseases. In this chapter, we provide a review of the most recent advances on the role of Zn in health and disease (2010-20), with a special focus on the role of Zn in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, diabetes and obesity, male and female reproduction, as well as COVID-19. In parallel with the revealed tight association between ASD risk and severity and Zn status, the particular mechanisms linking Zn2+ and ASD pathogenesis like modulation of synaptic plasticity through ProSAP/Shank scaffold, neurotransmitter metabolism, and gut microbiota, have been elucidated. The increasing body of data indicate the potential involvement of Zn2+ metabolism in neurodegeneration. Systemic Zn levels in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease were found to be reduced, whereas its sequestration in brain may result in modulation of amyloid ß and α-synuclein processing with subsequent toxic effects. Zn2+ was shown to possess adipotropic effects through the role of zinc transporters, zinc finger proteins, and Zn-α2-glycoprotein in adipose tissue physiology, underlying its particular role in pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. Recent findings also contribute to further understanding of the role of Zn2+ in spermatogenesis and sperm functioning, as well as oocyte development and fertilization. Finally, Zn2+ was shown to be the potential adjuvant therapy in management of novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19), underlining the perspectives of zinc in management of old and new threats.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Reproduction , Zinc/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/metabolism , Nutritional Status , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Zinc/deficiency , Zinc/therapeutic use
4.
Metabolites ; 11(4)2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187003

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to evaluate of serum metal levels in COVID-19 patients with different disease severity, and to investigate the independent association between serum metal profile and markers of lung damage. The cohort of COVID-19 patients consisted of groups of subjects with mild, moderate, and severe illness, 50 examinees each. Forty-four healthy subjects of the respective age were involved in the current study as the control group. Serum metal levels were evaluated using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. Examination of COVID-19 patients demonstrated that heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, C-reactive protein levels, as well as lung damage increased significantly with COVID-19 severity, whereas SpO2 decreased gradually. Increasing COVID-19 severity was also associated with a significant gradual decrease in serum Ca, Fe, Se, Zn levels as compared to controls, whereas serum Cu and especially Cu/Zn ratio were elevated. No significant group differences in serum Mg and Mn levels were observed. Serum Ca, Fe, Se, Zn correlated positively with SpO2, being inversely associated with fever, lung damage, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Opposite correlations were observed for Cu and Cu/Zn ratio. In regression models, serum Se levels were inversely associated with lung damage independently of other markers of disease severity, anthropometric, biochemical, and hemostatic parameters. Cu/Zn ratio was also considered as a significant predictor of lower SpO2 in adjusted regression models. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that metal metabolism significantly interferes with COVID-19 pathogenesis, although the causal relations as well as precise mechanisms are yet to be characterized.

6.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983023

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 disease (COVID)-19 is having profound effects on the global economy and food trade. Limited data are available on how this pandemic is affecting our dietary and lifestyle-related behaviors at the global level. Google Trends was used to obtain worldwide relative search volumes (RSVs) covering a timeframe from before the COVID-19 pandemic 1 June 2019 to 27 April 2020. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients were used to measure relationships between daily confirmed cases and aforementioned RSVs between 31 December 2019 and 15 April 2020. RSV curves showed increased interest in multiple keywords related to dietary and lifestyle behaviors during the COVID-19 lockdown period in March and April 2020. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that the strongest variables in each keyword category were (1) food security (food shortage: r = 0.749, food bank: r = 0.660, and free food: r = 0.555; all p < 0.001), (2) dietary behaviors (delivery: r = 0.780, restaurant: r = -0.731, take-away: r = 0.731, and food-delivery: r = 0.693; all p < 0.001), (3) outdoor-related behaviors (resort: r = -0.922, hotel: r = -0.913, cinema: r = -0.844, park: r = -0.827, fitness: r = -0.817, gym: r = -0.811; plant: r = 0.749, sunbathing: r = 0.668, and online: r = 0.670; all p < 0.001), and (4) immune-related nutrients/herbs/foods (vitamin C: r = 0.802, vitamin A: r = 0.780, zinc: r = 0.781, immune: r = 0.739, vitamin E: r = 0.707, garlic: r = 0.667, omega-3 fatty acid: r = -0.633, vitamin D: r = 0.549, and turmeric: r = 0.545; all p < 0.001). Restricted movement has affected peoples' dietary and lifestyle behaviors as people tend to search for immune-boosting nutrients/herbs and have replaced outdoor activities with sedentary indoor behaviors.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Food Supply , Life Style , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Social Isolation , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Curcuma , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Garlic , Health Behavior , Humans , Information Seeking Behavior , Nutrients , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Restaurants , SARS-CoV-2 , Search Engine , Sedentary Behavior , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Trace Elements , Vitamins
7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 146: 111809, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866691

ABSTRACT

Multiple medical, lifestyle, and environmental conditions, including smoking and particulate pollution, have been considered as risk factors for COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility and severity. Taking into account the high level of toxic metals in both particulate matter (PM2.5) and tobacco smoke, the objective of this review is to discuss recent data on the role of heavy metal exposure in development of respiratory dysfunction, immunotoxicity, and severity of viral diseases in epidemiological and experimental studies, as to demonstrate the potential crossroads between heavy metal exposure and COVID-19 severity risk. The existing data demonstrate that As, Cd, Hg, and Pb exposure is associated with respiratory dysfunction and respiratory diseases (COPD, bronchitis). These observations corroborate laboratory findings on the role of heavy metal exposure in impaired mucociliary clearance, reduced barrier function, airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. The association between heavy metal exposure and severity of viral diseases, including influenza and respiratory syncytial virus has been also demonstrated. The latter may be considered a consequence of adverse effects of metal exposure on adaptive immunity. Therefore, reduction of toxic metal exposure may be considered as a potential tool for reducing susceptibility and severity of viral diseases affecting the respiratory system, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Heavy Metal Poisoning/epidemiology , Metals, Heavy/adverse effects , Smoking/adverse effects , Animals , Arsenic/adverse effects , COVID-19/virology , Cadmium/adverse effects , Heavy Metal Poisoning/etiology , Humans , Lead/adverse effects , Mercury/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Nutrients ; 12(10):3103, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-845141

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 disease (COVID)-19 is having profound effects on the global economy and food trade. Limited data are available on how this pandemic is affecting our dietary and lifestyle-related behaviors at the global level. Google Trends was used to obtain worldwide relative search volumes (RSVs) covering a timeframe from before the COVID-19 pandemic 1 June 2019 to 27 April 2020. Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficients were used to measure relationships between daily confirmed cases and aforementioned RSVs between 31 December 2019 and 15 April 2020. RSV curves showed increased interest in multiple keywords related to dietary and lifestyle behaviors during the COVID-19 lockdown period in March and April 2020. Spearman’s correlation analysis showed that the strongest variables in each keyword category were (1) food security (food shortage: r = 0.749, food bank: r = 0.660, and free food: r = 0.555;all p <0.001), (2) dietary behaviors (delivery: r = 0.780, restaurant: r = −0.731, take-away: r = 0.731, and food-delivery: r = 0.693;all p <0.001), (3) outdoor-related behaviors (resort: r = −0.922, hotel: r = −0.913, cinema: r = −0.844, park: r = −0.827, fitness: r = −0.817, gym: r = −0.811;plant: r = 0.749, sunbathing: r = 0.668, and online: r = 0.670;all p <0.001), and (4) immune-related nutrients/herbs/foods (vitamin C: r = 0.802, vitamin A: r = 0.780, zinc: r = 0.781, immune: r = 0.739, vitamin E: r = 0.707, garlic: r = 0.667, omega-3 fatty acid: r = −0.633, vitamin D: r = 0.549, and turmeric: r = 0.545;all p <0.001). Restricted movement has affected peoples’dietary and lifestyle behaviors as people tend to search for immune-boosting nutrients/herbs and have replaced outdoor activities with sedentary indoor behaviors.

9.
Int J Mol Med ; 46(1): 17-26, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-164754

ABSTRACT

In view of the emerging COVID­19 pandemic caused by SARS­CoV­2 virus, the search for potential protective and therapeutic antiviral strategies is of particular and urgent interest. Zinc is known to modulate antiviral and antibacterial immunity and regulate inflammatory response. Despite the lack of clinical data, certain indications suggest that modulation of zinc status may be beneficial in COVID­19. In vitro experiments demonstrate that Zn2+ possesses antiviral activity through inhibition of SARS­CoV RNA polymerase. This effect may underlie therapeutic efficiency of chloroquine known to act as zinc ionophore. Indirect evidence also indicates that Zn2+ may decrease the activity of angiotensin­converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), known to be the receptor for SARS­CoV­2. Improved antiviral immunity by zinc may also occur through up­regulation of interferon α production and increasing its antiviral activity. Zinc possesses anti­inflammatory activity by inhibiting NF­κB signaling and modulation of regulatory T­cell functions that may limit the cytokine storm in COVID­19. Improved Zn status may also reduce the risk of bacterial co­infection by improving mucociliary clearance and barrier function of the respiratory epithelium, as well as direct antibacterial effects against S. pneumoniae. Zinc status is also tightly associated with risk factors for severe COVID­19 including ageing, immune deficiency, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, since these are known risk groups for zinc deficiency. Therefore, Zn may possess protective effect as preventive and adjuvant therapy of COVID­19 through reducing inflammation, improvement of mucociliary clearance, prevention of ventilator­induced lung injury, modulation of antiviral and antibacterial immunity. However, further clinical and experimental studies are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Zinc/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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