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1.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(6): 785-791, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elderly patients represent a high-risk group with increased risk of death from COVID-19. Despite the number of published studies, several unmet needs in care for older adults exist. OBJECTIVES: To discuss unmet needs of COVID-19 in this special population. SOURCES: A literature review for studies on COVID-19 in elderly patients published between December 2019 and November 2021 was performed. Clinical questions were formulated to guide the literature search. The search was conducted in the MEDLINE database, combining specific search terms. Two reviewers independently conducted the search and selected the studies according to the prespecified clinical questions. CONTENT: Elderly patients with COVID-19 have peculiar characteristics. They may have atypical clinical presentation, with no fever and with delirium or neurological manifestations as the most common signs, with potential delayed diagnosis and increased risk of death. The reported fatality rates among elderly patients with COVID-19 are extremely high. Several factors, including comorbidities, atypical presentation, and exclusion from intensive care unit care, contribute to this excess of mortality. Age alone is frequently used as a key factor to exclude the elderly from intensive care, but there is evidence that frailty rather than age better predicts the risk of poor outcome in this category. Durability of vaccine efficacy in the elderly remains debated, and the need for a third booster dose is becoming increasingly evident. Finally, efforts to care for elderly patients who have survived after acute COVID-19 should be implemented, considering the high rates of long COVID sequelae and the risk of longitudinal functional and cognitive decline. IMPLICATIONS: We highlight peculiar aspects of COVID-19 in elderly patients and factors contributing to high risk of poor outcome in this category. We also illuminated gaps in current evidence, suggesting future research directions and underlining the need for further studies on the optimal management of elderly patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316935

ABSTRACT

Introduction: High sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) is a strong predictor of adverse outcome during SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, its determinants remain partially unknown. We aimed to assess the relationship between severity of inflammatory response/coagulation abnormalities and hsTnT in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). We then explored the relevance of these pathways in defining mortality and complications risk and the potential effects of the treatments to attenuate such risk. Methods: : In this single-center, prospective, observational study we enrolled 266 consecutive patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Primary endpoint was in-hospital COVID-19 mortality. Results: hsTnT, even after adjustment for confounders, was associated with mortality. D-dimer and CRP presented stronger associations with hsTnT than PaO 2 . Changes of hsTnT, D-dimer and CRP were related but only D-dimer was associated with mortality. Moreover, low molecular weight heparin showed attenuation of the mortality in the whole population, particularly in subjects with higher hsTnT. Conclusions: : D-dimer possessed a strong relationship with hsTnT and mortality. Anticoagulation treatment showed greater benefits with regard to mortality. These findings suggest a major role of SARS-CoV-2 coagulopathy in hsTnT elevation and its related mortality in COVID-19. A better understanding of the mechanisms related to COVID-19 might pave the way to therapy tailoring in these high-risk individuals.

3.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long COVID has become a burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Research into the etiology and risk factors has been impeded by observing all diverse manifestations as part of a single entity. We aimed to determine patterns of symptoms in convalescing COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Symptomatic patients were recruited from four countries. Data were collected regarding demographics, comorbidities, acute disease and persistent symptoms. Factor analysis was performed to elucidate symptom patterns. Associations of the patterns with patients' characteristics, features of acute disease and effect on daily life were sought. RESULTS: We included 1027 symptomatic post-COVID individuals in the analysis. The majority of participants were graded as having a non-severe acute COVID-19 (N = 763, 74.3%). We identified six patterns of symptoms: cognitive, pain-syndrome, pulmonary, cardiac, anosmia-dysgeusia and headache. The cognitive pattern was the major symptoms pattern, explaining 26.2% of the variance; the other patterns each explained 6.5-9.5% of the variance. The cognitive pattern was higher in patients who were outpatients during the acute disease. The pain-syndrome pattern was associated with acute disease severity, higher in women and increased with age. The pulmonary pattern was associated with prior lung disease and severe acute disease. Only two of the patterns (cognitive and cardiac) were associated with failure to return to pre-COVID occupational and physical activity status. CONCLUSION: Long COVID diverse symptoms can be grouped into six unique patterns. Using these patterns in future research may improve our understanding of pathophysiology and risk factors of persistent COVID, provide homogenous terminology for clinical research, and direct therapeutic interventions.

4.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(4): 1140-1145, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report an outbreak of hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKp) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Prospective, observational study including consecutive COVID-19 patients with hvKp infections admitted to the University Hospital of Pisa (Italy). Clinical data and outcome of patients were collected. All patients were followed-up to 30 days from the diagnosis of infection. Mortality within 30 days of the diagnosis of hvKp infection was reported. The hypermucoviscous phenotype was determined by the 'string test'. Molecular typing was performed on three strains collected during different periods of the outbreak. The strains underwent whole genome sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq instrument. The complete circular assemblies were also obtained for the chromosome and a large plasmid using the Unicycler tool. RESULTS: From November 2020 to March 2021, hvKp has been isolated from 36 COVID-19 patients: 29/36 (80.6%) had infections (15 bloodstream infections, 8 ventilator-associated pneumonias and 6 complicated urinary tract infections), while 7/36 (19.4%) had colonization (3 urine, 2 rectal and 2 skin). The isolates belonged to ST147 and their plasmid carried three replicons of the IncFIB (Mar), IncR and IncHI1B types and several resistance genes, including the rmpADC genes encoding enhancers of capsular synthesis. The hvKp isolates displayed an ESBL phenotype, with resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam and susceptibility only to meropenem and ceftazidime/avibactam. The majority of patients were treated with meropenem alone or in combination with fosfomycin. Thirty-day mortality was 48.3% (14/29). CONCLUSIONS: ST147 ESBL-producing hvKp is associated with high mortality in COVID-19 patients. Strict microbiological surveillance and infection control measures are needed in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Klebsiella Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Prospective Studies
5.
Clin Ther ; 44(3): 364-373, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632141

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Preliminary data suggest that remdesivir may influence the course of COVID-19 according to the duration of pre-admission symptoms. We aim to evaluate whether early use of remdesivir is associated with a reduced COVID-19 progression in a homogeneous cohort of patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. METHODS: This prospective, observational study included patients with COVID-19 pneumonia treated with remdesivir at the University Hospital of Pisa (Italy) from September 2020 to January 2021. According to national recommendations, remdesivir was prescribed in patients with pneumonia who required oxygen supplementation by nasal cannula or mask but without the need for high-flow nasal cannula, non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation and had symptoms from no more than 10 days. Patients who received early (≤5 days from onset of symptoms) versus late (>5 days from onset of symptoms) remdesivir were compared. The primary outcome was a composite of high-flow nasal cannula, non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation, or death. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with the composite endpoint. FINDINGS: Among 312 consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who received remdesivir, 90 (28.8%) received early remdesivir, whereas 222 (71.2%) received late remdesivir. Twenty-nine patients (32.2%) in the early-remdesivir group versus 104 patients (46.8%) in the late-remdesivir group met the primary end point (P = 0.018). On multivariate analysis, a history of dyspnea at home (odds ratio = 2.53; 95% CI, 1.55-4.12; P < 0.001) was the strongest factor independently associated with the progression to severe COVID-19, whereas early-remdesivir use was a protective factor (odds ratio = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.87; P = 0.015). The delayed admission to the hospital was associated with a delayed administration of remdesivir. IMPLICATIONS: The early use of remdesivir (<5 days from symptoms onset) may reduce COVID-19 progression. The identification of patients who need early hospitalization and early remdesivir may provide clinical benefit in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Prospective Studies
6.
Eur Radiol ; 32(6): 4314-4323, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637024

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Computer-Aided Lung Informatics for Pathology Evaluation and Ratings (CALIPER) software has already been widely used in the evaluation of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) but has not yet been tested in patients affected by COVID-19. Our aim was to use it to describe the relationship between Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcome and the CALIPER-detected pulmonary vascular-related structures (VRS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a multicentric retrospective study enrolling 570 COVID-19 patients who performed a chest CT in emergency settings in two different institutions. Fifty-three age- and sex-matched healthy controls were also identified. Chest CTs were analyzed with CALIPER identifying the percentage of VRS over the total lung parenchyma. Patients were followed for up to 72 days recording mortality and required intensity of care. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in VRS between COVID-19-positive patients and controls (median (iqr) 4.05 (3.74) and 1.57 (0.40) respectively, p = 0.0001). VRS showed an increasing trend with the severity of care, p < 0.0001. The univariate Cox regression model showed that VRS increase is a risk factor for mortality (HR 1.17, p < 0.0001). The multivariate analysis demonstrated that VRS is an independent explanatory factor of mortality along with age (HR 1.13, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that VRS increases with the required intensity of care, and it is an independent explanatory factor for mortality. KEY POINTS: • The percentage of vascular-related structure volume (VRS) in the lung is significatively increased in COVID-19 patients. • VRS showed an increasing trend with the required intensity of care, test for trend p< 0.0001. • Univariate and multivariate Cox models showed that VRS is a significant and independent explanatory factor of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Informatics , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Software
7.
Eur J Intern Med ; 95: 13-16, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616475

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy with convalescent plasma (CP) has been used in the past in several different infectious diseases and proposed as a potential therapeutic option in patients with COVID-19. However, a clear benefit was never demonstrated and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted in different populations of COVID-19 patients showed contrasting results. In general, current evidences suggest that CP in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 does not reduce the progression to severe respiratory failure or death within 30 days. However, currently published RCTs have several limitations. The administration of plasma with low titer of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), the use of suboptimal surrogate serological tests to determine NAbs titer, the delayed administration of CP from the onset of COVID-19 symptoms and the lack of information about antibody titer of recipients before CP infusion, are all limiting factors that may have affected the study results. Thus, a potential benefit of early (within the first 72 h from onset of symptoms), high titer CP in patients with mild COVID-19 (pO2/FiO2>300) cannot be definitively excluded. However, immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies developed from CP demonstrated efficacy in reducing progression to severe COVID-19 and hospitalization and are today recommended in the early phase of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(2): 257-266, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is still unclear if patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have different rate, typology, and impact of thrombosis on survival. METHODS: In this multicenter observational cohort study, 1,138 patients, hospitalized for CAP (n = 559) or COVID-19 (n = 579) from seven clinical centers in Italy, were included in the study. Consecutive adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) with confirmed COVID-19-related pneumonia, with or without mechanical ventilation, hospitalized from March 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020, were enrolled. COVID-19 was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization interim guidance. Patients were followed-up until discharge or in-hospital death, registering the occurrence of thrombotic events including ischemic/embolic events. RESULTS: During the in-hospital stay, 11.4% of CAP and 15.5% of COVID-19 patients experienced thrombotic events (p = 0.046). In CAP patients all the events were arterial thromboses, while in COVID-19 patients 8.3% were venous and 7.2% arterial thromboses.During the in-hospital follow-up, 3% of CAP patients and 17% of COVID-19 patients died (p < 0.001). The highest mortality rate was found among COVID-19 patients with thrombotic events (47.6 vs. 13.4% in thrombotic-event-free patients; p < 0.001). In CAP, 13.8% of patients experiencing thrombotic events died versus 1.8% of thrombotic event-free ones (p < 0.001). A multivariable Cox-regression analysis confirmed a higher risk of death in COVID-19 patients with thrombotic events (hazard ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-3.3; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Compared with CAP, COVID-19 is characterized by a higher burden of thrombotic events, different thrombosis typology and higher risk of thrombosis-related in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/mortality , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis , Thrombosis/mortality
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2136246, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540039

ABSTRACT

Importance: Convalescent plasma (CP) has been generally unsuccessful in preventing worsening of respiratory failure or death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of CP plus standard therapy (ST) vs ST alone in preventing worsening respiratory failure or death in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolled (1:1 ratio) hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia to receive CP plus ST or ST alone between July 15 and December 8, 2020, at 27 clinical sites in Italy. Hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia and a partial pressure of oxygen-to-fraction of inspired oxygen (Pao2/Fio2) ratio between 350 and 200 mm Hg were eligible. Interventions: Patients in the experimental group received intravenous high-titer CP (≥1:160, by microneutralization test) plus ST. The volume of infused CP was 200 mL given from 1 to a maximum of 3 infusions. Patients in the control group received ST, represented by remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and low-molecular weight heparin, according to the Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of worsening respiratory failure (Pao2/Fio2 ratio <150 mm Hg) or death within 30 days from randomization. Results: Of the 487 randomized patients (241 to CP plus ST; 246 to ST alone), 312 (64.1%) were men; the median (IQR) age was 64 (54.0-74.0) years. The modified intention-to-treat population included 473 patients. The primary end point occurred in 59 of 231 patients (25.5%) treated with CP and ST and in 67 of 239 patients (28.0%) who received ST (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.59-1.33; P = .54). Adverse events occurred more frequently in the CP group (12 of 241 [5.0%]) compared with the control group (4 of 246 [1.6%]; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, high-titer anti-SARS-CoV-2 CP did not reduce the progression to severe respiratory failure or death within 30 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04716556.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care
10.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(2): 281-288, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513985

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this survey is to explore changes in the management of COVID-19 during the first versus the second wave, with particular emphasis on therapies, antibiotic prescriptions, and elderly care. An internet-based questionnaire survey was distributed to European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) members. Therapeutic approach to patients with mild-to-moderate (PiO2/FiO2 200-350) and severe (PiO2/FiO2 < 200) COVID-19, antibiotic use, and reasons for excluding patients from the intensive care unit (ICU) were investigated. A total of 463 from 21 countries participated in the study. Most representatives were infectious disease specialists (68.3%). During the second wave of pandemic, physicians abandoned the use of hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and azithromycin in favor of dexamethasone, low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and remdesivir in mild-to-moderate COVID-19. In critically ill patients, we detected an increased use of high-dose steroids (51%) and a decrease in tocilizumab use. The use of antibiotics at hospital admission decreased but remained high in the second wave. Age was reported to be a main consideration for exclusion of patients from ICU care by 25% of responders; a third reported that elderly were not candidates for ICU admission in their center. The decision to exclude patients from ICU care was based on the individual decision of an intensivist in 59.6% of cases. The approach of physicians to COVID-19 changed over time following evidence accumulation and guidelines. Antibiotic use at hospital admission and decision to exclude patients from ICU care remain critical aspects that should be better investigated and harmonized among clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Lopinavir , Ritonavir , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2479-2488, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505925

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of hospitalization or death in patients infected by SARS-CoV2 variants of concern (VOCs) receiving combinations of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), bamlanivimab/etesevimab or casirivimab/imdevimab. METHODS: Observational prospective study conducted in two Italian hospitals (University Hospital of Pisa and San Donato Hospital, Arezzo) including consecutive outpatients with COVID-19 who received bamlanivimab/etesevimab or casirivimab/imdevimab from March 20th to May 10th 2021. All patients were at high risk of COVID-19 progression according to FDA/AIFA recommendations. Patients were divided into two study groups according to the infecting viral strain (VOCs): Alpha and Gamma group. The primary endpoint was a composite of hospitalization or death within 30 days from mAbs infusion. A Cox regression multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the primary outcome in the overall population. RESULTS: The study included 165 patients: 105 were infected by the VOC Alpha and 43 by the VOC Gamma. In the Alpha group, no differences in the primary endpoint were observed between patients treated with bamlanivimab/etesevimab or casirivimab/imdevimab. Conversely, in the Gamma group, a higher proportion of patients treated with bamlanivimab/etesevimab met the primary endpoint compared to those receiving casirivimab/imdevimab (55% vs. 17.4%, p = 0.013). On multivariate Cox-regression analysis, the Gamma variant and days from symptoms onset to mAbs infusion were factors independently associated with higher risk of hospitalization or death, while casirivimab/imdevimab was protective (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.13-0.83, p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: In patients infected by the SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant, bamlanivimab/etesevimab should be used with caution because of the high risk of disease progression.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20239, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467128

ABSTRACT

Accurate risk stratification in COVID-19 patients consists a major clinical need to guide therapeutic strategies. We sought to evaluate the prognostic role of estimated pulse wave velocity (ePWV), a marker of arterial stiffness which reflects overall arterial integrity and aging, in risk stratification of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. This retrospective, longitudinal cohort study, analyzed a total population of 1671 subjects consisting of 737 hospitalized COVID-19 patients consecutively recruited from two tertiary centers (Newcastle cohort: n = 471 and Pisa cohort: n = 266) and a non-COVID control cohort (n = 934). Arterial stiffness was calculated using validated formulae for ePWV. ePWV progressively increased across the control group, COVID-19 survivors and deceased patients (adjusted mean increase per group 1.89 m/s, P < 0.001). Using a machine learning approach, ePWV provided incremental prognostic value and improved reclassification for mortality over the core model including age, sex and comorbidities [AUC (core model + ePWV vs. core model) = 0.864 vs. 0.755]. ePWV provided similar prognostic value when pulse pressure or hs-Troponin were added to the core model or over its components including age and mean blood pressure (p < 0.05 for all). The optimal prognostic ePWV value was 13.0 m/s. ePWV conferred additive discrimination (AUC: 0.817 versus 0.779, P < 0.001) and reclassification value (NRI = 0.381, P < 0.001) over the 4C Mortality score, a validated score for predicting mortality in COVID-19 and the Charlson comorbidity index. We suggest that calculation of ePWV, a readily applicable estimation of arterial stiffness, may serve as an additional clinical tool to refine risk stratification of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 beyond established risk factors and scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Vascular Stiffness , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology
13.
Sci Adv ; 7(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388432

ABSTRACT

Using AI, we identified baricitinib as having antiviral and anticytokine efficacy. We now show a 71% (95% CI 0.15 to 0.58) mortality benefit in 83 patients with moderate-severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with few drug-induced adverse events, including a large elderly cohort (median age, 81 years). An additional 48 cases with mild-moderate pneumonia recovered uneventfully. Using organotypic 3D cultures of primary human liver cells, we demonstrate that interferon-α2 increases ACE2 expression and SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in parenchymal cells by greater than fivefold. RNA-seq reveals gene response signatures associated with platelet activation, fully inhibited by baricitinib. Using viral load quantifications and superresolution microscopy, we found that baricitinib exerts activity rapidly through the inhibition of host proteins (numb-associated kinases), uniquely among antivirals. This reveals mechanistic actions of a Janus kinase-1/2 inhibitor targeting viral entry, replication, and the cytokine storm and is associated with beneficial outcomes including in severely ill elderly patients, data that incentivize further randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azetidines/pharmacology , COVID-19/mortality , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Liver/virology , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/metabolism , Italy , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Platelet Activation , Proportional Hazards Models , RNA-Seq , Spain , Virus Internalization/drug effects
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(11): 2021-2024, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369070

ABSTRACT

Ten critically ill patients with either bacteremia or ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, or New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae received cefiderocol. All strains had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤2 µg/mL. Thirty-day clinical success and survival rates were 70% and 90%, respectively. Two patients had a microbiological failure. Future prospective studies are warranted.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Carbapenems , Cephalosporins , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , beta-Lactamases
15.
Thromb Res ; 204: 88-94, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260871

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A derangement of the coagulation process and thromboinflammatory events has emerged as pathologic characteristics of severe COVID-19, characterized by severe respiratory failure. CC motive chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), a chemokine originally described as a chemotactic agent for monocytes, is involved in inflammation, coagulation activation and neoangiogenesis. We investigated the association of CCL2 levels with coagulation derangement and respiratory impairment in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 281 patients admitted to two hospitals in Italy with COVID-19. Among them, CCL2 values were compared in different groups (identified according to D-dimer levels and the lowest PaO2/FiO2 recorded during hospital stay, P/Fnadir) by Jonckheere-Terpstra tests; linear regression analysis was used to analyse the relationship between CCL2 and P/Fnadir. We performed Mann-Whitney test and Kaplan-Meier curves to investigate the role of CCL2 according to different clinical outcomes (survival and endotracheal intubation [ETI]). RESULTS: CCL2 levels were progressively higher in patients with increasing D-dimer levels and with worse gas exchange impairment; there was a statistically significant linear correlation between log CCL2 and log P/Fnadir. CCL2 levels were significantly higher in patients with unfavourable clinical outcomes; Kaplan-Meier curves for the composite outcome death and/or need for ETI showed a significantly worse prognosis for patients with higher (> median) CCL2 levels. CONCLUSIONS: CCL2 correlates with both indices of activation of the coagulation cascade and respiratory impairment severity, which are likely closely related in COVID-19 pathology, thus suggesting that CCL2 could be involved in the thromboinflammatory events characterizing this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Chemokine CCL2 , Chemokines, CC , Humans , Inflammation , Italy , Ligands , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6515, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147151

ABSTRACT

High sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) is a strong predictor of adverse outcome during SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, its determinants remain partially unknown. We aimed to assess the relationship between severity of inflammatory response/coagulation abnormalities and hsTnT in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). We then explored the relevance of these pathways in defining mortality and complications risk and the potential effects of the treatments to attenuate such risk. In this single-center, prospective, observational study we enrolled 266 consecutive patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Primary endpoint was in-hospital COVID-19 mortality. hsTnT, even after adjustment for confounders, was associated with mortality. D-dimer and CRP presented stronger associations with hsTnT than PaO2. Changes of hsTnT, D-dimer and CRP were related; but only D-dimer was associated with mortality. Moreover, low molecular weight heparin showed attenuation of the mortality in the whole population, particularly in subjects with higher hsTnT. D-dimer possessed a strong relationship with hsTnT and mortality. Anticoagulation treatment showed greater benefits with regard to mortality. These findings suggest a major role of SARS-CoV-2 coagulopathy in hsTnT elevation and its related mortality in COVID-19. A better understanding of the mechanisms related to COVID-19 might pave the way to therapy tailoring in these high-risk individuals.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Heart Diseases/etiology , Hemodynamics , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Inflammation , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Troponin T/blood
17.
Endocrine ; 72(2): 332-339, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103560

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) is challenging health systems all over the world. Cancer patients have a higher risk of being infected by SARS-Cov-2 and higher coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and mortality. Up to date, there were no data about COVID-19 in patients with thyroid cancer (TCs). The aim of the study was to describe the prevalence of COVID-19 in a well-characterized series of TC patients evaluated for the persistence of the neoplastic disease from March to September 2020; as secondary objective, we looked for the COVID-19 disease severity in a subgroup of multimetastatic TC patients. METHODS: We evaluated 1464 patients affected by persistent TC: 67 patients who were taking multikinase inhibitors (MKIs) and 1397 under active surveillance for a persistent but stable disease. During the clinical evaluation, all patients were specifically investigated about a positive history of Sars-Cov-2 infection. RESULTS: SARS-Cov-2 infection was identified in 4/1464 (0.3%) cases of patients affected by TC. We identified three cases among patients under active surveillance (0.2%), and one case among patients treated with MKI systemic therapy (1/67, 1.5%). This patient was taking vandetanib for metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), when he came to our attention referring severe fatigue, dyspnea for light physical activities. He presented a mild COVID-19 and he received exclusively supportive care. After a multidisciplinary consultation, we decided against the discontinuation of vandetanib. After 2 months from the infection, he did not present any signs of active infection, and the MTC metastatic disease was stable. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that COVID-19 is not more frequent in TC patients than in general population, although a relatively higher prevalence in the group of TC patients treated with MKIs. A single patient with advanced TC and SARS-Cov-2 infection during MKIs treatment had a mild COVID-19 and did not require the discontinuation of MKI therapy. In cases of more severe COVID-19, an accurate evaluation from a multidisciplinary team would consider risks and benefits in taking the decision to continue or stop MKI treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Neoplasms , Humans , Male , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology
18.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060487

ABSTRACT

The primary objective of this multicenter, observational, retrospective study was to assess the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in intensive care units (ICU). The secondary objective was to assess predictors of 30-day case-fatality of VAP. From 15 February to 15 May 2020, 586 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the participating ICU. Of them, 171 developed VAP (29%) and were included in the study. The incidence rate of VAP was of 18 events per 1000 ventilator days (95% confidence intervals [CI] 16-21). Deep respiratory cultures were available and positive in 77/171 patients (45%). The most frequent organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27/77, 35%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18/77, 23%). The 30-day case-fatality of VAP was 46% (78/171). In multivariable analysis, septic shock at VAP onset (odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% CI 1.43-7.61, p = 0.005) and acute respiratory distress syndrome at VAP onset (OR 13.21, 95% CI 3.05-57.26, p < 0.001) were associated with fatality. In conclusion, VAP is frequent in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The related high fatality is likely the sum of the unfavorable prognostic impacts of the underlying viral and the superimposed bacterial diseases.

19.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(4): 1078-1084, 2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bacterial and fungal superinfections may complicate the course of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of superinfections in COVID-19. METHODS: Prospective, observational study including patients with COVID-19 consecutively admitted to the University Hospital of Pisa, Italy, between 4 March and 30 April 2020. Clinical data and outcomes were registered. Superinfection was defined as a bacterial or fungal infection that occurred ≥48 h after hospital admission. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with superinfections. RESULTS: Overall, 315 patients with COVID-19 were hospitalized and 109 episodes of superinfections were documented in 69 (21.9%) patients. The median time from admission to superinfection was 19 days (range 11-29.75). Superinfections were caused by Enterobacterales (44.9%), non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (15.6%), Gram-positive bacteria (15.6%) and fungi (5.5%). Polymicrobial infections accounted for 18.3%. Predictors of superinfections were: intestinal colonization by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (OR 16.03, 95% CI 6.5-39.5, P < 0.001); invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.4-13.1, P < 0.001); immunomodulatory agents (tocilizumab/baricitinib) (OR 5.09, 95% CI 2.2-11.8, P < 0.001); C-reactive protein on admission >7 mg/dl (OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.7-7.7, P = 0.001); and previous treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.1-7.2, P = 0.028). Length of hospital stay was longer in patients who developed superinfections ompared with those who did not (30 versus 11 days, P < 0.001), while mortality rates were similar (18.8% versus 23.2%, P = 0.445). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of bacterial and fungal superinfections in COVID-19 is consistent. Patients who need empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunomodulant drugs should be carefully selected. Infection control rules must be reinforced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cross Infection/microbiology , Superinfection/microbiology , Superinfection/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections , Coinfection , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(12): ofaa563, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) on the outcome of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study including consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to the University Hospital of Pisa (March 4-April 30, 2020). Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were collected. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. The secondary endpoint was a composite of death or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Low-molecular-weight heparin, hydroxychloroquine, doxycycline, macrolides, antiretrovirals, remdesivir, baricitinib, tocilizumab, and steroids were evaluated as treatment exposures of interest. First, a Cox regression analysis, in which treatments were introduced as time-dependent variables, was performed to evaluate the association of exposures and outcomes. Then, a time-dependent propensity score (PS) was calculated and a PS matching was performed for each treatment variable. RESULTS: Among 315 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 70 (22.2%) died during hospital stay. The composite endpoint was achieved by 114 (36.2%) patients. Overall, 244 (77.5%) patients received LMWH, 238 (75.5%) received hydroxychloroquine, 201 (63.8%) received proteases inhibitors, 150 (47.6%) received doxycycline, 141 (44.8%) received steroids, 42 (13.3%) received macrolides, 40 (12.7%) received baricitinib, 13 (4.1%) received tocilizumab, and 13 (4.1%) received remdesivir. At multivariate analysis, LMWH was associated with a reduced risk of 30-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.6; P < .001) and composite endpoint (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39-0.95; P = .029). The PS-matched cohort of 55 couples confirmed the same results for both primary and secondary endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that LMWH might reduce the risk of in-hospital mortality and severe ARDS in coronavirus disease 2019. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these preliminary findings.

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