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1.
Environ Res ; 191: 110052, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects, including increased risk of respiratory infection. However, evidence specifically related to novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is limited. METHODS: COVID-19 case counts for 111 Canadian health regions were obtained from the COVID-19 Canada Open Data portal. Annual PM2.5 data for 2000-2016 were estimated from a national exposure surface based on remote sensing, chemical transport modelling and ground observations, and minimum and maximum temperature data for 2000-2015 were based on a national interpolated surface derived from thin-plate smoothing splines. Population counts and sociodemographic data by health region were obtained from the 2016 census, and health data (self-rated health and prevalence of smoking, obesity, and selected chronic diseases) by health region, were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Data on total number of COVID-19 tests and changes in mobility comparing post-vs. pre-introduction of social distancing measures were available by province. Data were analyzed using negative binomial regression models. RESULTS: After controlling for province, temperature, demographic and health characteristics and days since peak incidence by health region, long-term PM2.5 exposure exhibited a positive association with COVID-19 incidence (incidence rate ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.18 per µg/m3). This association was larger in magnitude and statistically significant in analyses excluding provinces that reported cases only for aggregated health regions, excluding health regions with less than median population density, and restricted to the most highly affected provinces (Quebec and Ontario). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a positive association between COVID-19 incidence and long-term PM2.5 exposure in Canadian health regions. The association was larger in magnitude and statistically significant in more highly affected health regions and those with potentially less exposure measurement error. While our results generate hypotheses for further testing, they should be interpreted with caution and require further examination using study designs less prone to bias.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141484, 2020 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693584

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus identified as the cause of COVID-19 and, as the pandemic evolves, many have made parallels to previous epidemics such as SARS-CoV (the cause of an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]) in 2003. Many have speculated that, like SARS, the activity of SARS-CoV-2 will subside when the climate becomes warmer. We sought to determine the relationship between ambient temperature and COVID-19 incidence in Canada. We analyzed over 77,700 COVID-19 cases from four Canadian provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec) from January to May 2020. After adjusting for precipitation, wind gust speed, and province in multiple linear regression models, we found a positive, but not statistically significant, association between cumulative incidence and ambient temperature (14.2 per 100,000 people; 95%CI: -0.60-29.0). We also did not find a statistically significant association between total cases or effective reproductive number of COVID-19 and ambient temperature. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that higher temperatures will reduce transmission of COVID-19 and warns the public not to lose vigilance and to continue practicing safety measures such as hand washing, social distancing, and use of facial masks despite the warming climates.

3.
Chest ; 2020 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635120

ABSTRACT

To reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, many pulmonary function testing (PFT) laboratories have been closed or have significantly reduced their testing capacity. Because these mitigation strategies may be necessary for the next 6 to 18 months to prevent recurrent peaks in disease prevalence, fewer objective measurements of lung function will alter the diagnosis and care of patients with chronic respiratory diseases. PFT, which includes spirometry, lung volume, and diffusion capacity measurement, is essential to the diagnosis and management of patients with asthma, COPD, and other chronic lung conditions. Both traditional and innovative alternatives to conventional testing must now be explored. These may include peak expiratory flow devices, electronic portable spirometers, portable exhaled nitric oxide measurement, airwave oscillometry devices, and novel digital health tools such as smartphone microphone spirometers and mobile health technologies along with integration of machine learning approaches. The adoption of some novel approaches may not merely replace but could improve existing management strategies and alter common diagnostic paradigms. With these options comes important technical, privacy, ethical, financial, and medicolegal barriers that must be addressed. However, the coronavirus disease 19 pandemic also presents a unique opportunity to augment conventional testing by including innovative and emerging approaches to measuring lung function remotely in patients with respiratory disease. The benefits of such an approach have the potential to enhance respiratory care and empower patient self-management well beyond the current global pandemic.

5.
Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep M.; Iaccarino, Guido; Czarlewski, Wienczyslawa; Haahtela, Tari; Anto, Aram; Akdis, Cezmi A.; Blain, Hubert; Canonica, G. Walter; Cardona, Victoria; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Illario, Maddalena; Ivancevich, Juan Carlos; Jutel, Marek; Klimek, Ludger; Kuna, Piotr; Laune, Daniel; Larenas-Linnemann, Désirée; Mullol, Joaquim; Papadopoulos, Nikos G.; Pfaar, Oliver; Samolinski, Boleslaw; Valiulis, Arunas; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Zuberbier, Torsten; Abdul Latiff, Amir Hamzah; Abdullah, Baharudin; Aberer, Werner; Abusada, Nancy; Adcock, Ian; Afani, Alejandro; Agache, Ioana; Aggelidis, Xenofon; Agustin, Jenifer; Akdis, Cezmi; Akdis, Mübeccel; Al-Ahmad, Mona; Al-Zahab Bassam, Abou; Aldrey-Palacios, Oscar; Alvarez Cuesta, Emilio; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Amad, Salma; Ambrocio, Gene; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Ansotegui, Ignacio; Anto, Josep; Arshad, Hasan; Artesani, Maria Cristina; Asayag, Estrella; Avolio, Francesca; Azhari, Khuzama; Baiardini, Ilaria; Bajrović, Nissera; Bakakos, Petros; Bakeyala Mongono, Sergio; Balotro-Torres, Christine; Barba, Sergio; Barbara, Cristina; Barbosa, Elsa; Barreto, Bruno; Bartra, Joan; Bateman, Eric D.; Battur, Lkhagvaa; Bedbrook, Anna; Bedolla Barajas, Martín; Beghé, Bianca; Bel, Elizabeth; Ben Kheder, Ali; Benson, Mikael; Berghea, Camelia; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bernstein, David; Bewick, Mike; Bialek, Slawomir; Białoszewski, Artur; Bieber, Thomas; Billo, Nils; Bilo, Maria Beatrice; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Bjermer, Leif; Blain, Hubert; Bochenska Marciniak, Malgorzata; Bond, Christine; Boner, Attilio; Bonini, Matteo; Bonini, Sergio; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Bosse, Isabelle; Botskariova, Sofia; Bouchard, Jacques; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Bourret, Rodolphe; Bousquet, Philippe; Braido, Fulvio; Briggs, Andrew; Brightling, Christopher; Brozek, Jan; Buhl, Roland; Bumbacea, Roxana; Burguete Cabañas, María Teresa; Bush, Andrew; Busse, William W.; Buters, Jeroen; Caballero-Fonseca, Fernan; Calderon, Moïses A.; Calvo, Mario; Camargos, Paulo; Camuzat, Thierry; Cano, Antonio; Canonica, G. Walter; Capriles-Hulett, Arnaldo; Caraballo, Luis; Cardona, Vicky; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Caro, Jorge; Carr, Warner; Carreon-Asuncion, Fredelita; Carriazo, Ana Maria; Casale, Thomas; Castor, Mary Ann; Castro, Elizabeth; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Cepeda Sarabia, Alfonso; Chandrasekharan, Ramanathan; Chang, Yoon-Suk; Chato-Andeza, Victoria; Chatzi, Lida; Chatzidaki, Christina; Chavannes, Niels H.; Chen, Yuzhi; Cheng, Lei; Chivato, Tomas; Chkhartishvili, Ekaterine; Christoff, George; Chrystyn, Henry; Chu, Derek K.; Chua, Antonio; Chuchalin, Alexander; Chung, Kian Fan; Cicerán, Alberto; Cingi, Cemal; Ciprandi, Giorgio; Cirule, Ieva; Coelho, Ana Carla; Constantinidis, Jannis; Correia De Sousa, Jaime; Costa, Elisio; Costa, David; Costa Domínguez, María Del Carmen; Coste, André; Cox, Linda; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Cullen, John; Custovic, Adnan; Cvetkovski, Biljana; Czarlewski, Wienczyslawa; D'Amato, Gennaro; Da Silva, Jane; Dahl, Ronald; Dahlen, Sven-Erik; Daniilidis, Vasilis; Darjazini Nahhas, Louei; Darsow, Ulf; De Blay, Frédéric; De Guia, Eloisa; De Los Santos, Chato; De Manuel Keenoy, Esteban; De Vries, Govert; Deleanu, Diana; Demoly, Pascal; Denburg, Judah; Devillier, Philippe; Didier, Alain; Dimou, Maria; Dinh-Xuan, Anh Tuan; Djukanovic, Ratko; Dokic, Dejan; Domínguez Silva, Margarita Gabriela; Douagui, Habib; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Doulaptsi, Maria; Dray, Gérard; Dubakiene, Ruta; Durham, Stephen; Dykewicz, Mark; Ebo, Didier; Edelbaher, Natalija; Eklund, Patrik; El-Gamal, Yehia; El-Sayed, Zeinab A.; El-Sayed, Shereen S.; El-Seify, Magda; Emuzyte, Regina; Enecilla, Lourdes; Espinoza, Heidilita; Espinoza Contreras, Jesús Guillermo; Farrell, John; Fernandez, Lenora; Fink Wagner, Antje; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Fokkens, Wytske J.; Fontaine, Jean-François; Forastiere, Francesco; Fuentes Pèrez, Jose Miguel; Gaerlan-Resureccion, Emily; Gaga, Mina; Gálvez Romero, José Luis; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Garcia, Alexis; García Cobas, Cecilia Yvonne; García Cruz, María De La Luz Hortensia; Gayraud, Jacques; Gemicioglu, Bilun; Genova, Sonya; Gereda, José; Gerth Van Wijk, Roy; Gomez, Maximiliano; González Diaz, Sandra; Gotua, Maia; Grigoreas, Christos; Grisle, Ineta; Guidacci, Marta; Guldemond, Nick; Gutter, Zdenek; Guzmán, Antonieta; Haahtela, Tari; Halloum, Ramsa; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hammadi, Suleiman; Harvey, Richard; Heinrich, Joachim; Hejjaoui, Adnan; Hellquist-Dahl, Birthe; Hernández Velázquez, Luiana; Hew, Mark; Hossny, Elham; Howarth, Peter; Hrubiško, Martin; Huerta Villalobos, Yunuen Rocío; Humbert, Marc; Hyland, Michael; Iaccarino, Guido; Ibrahim, Moustafa; Illario, Maddalena; Ilyina, Natalia; Irani, Carla; Ispayeva, Zhanat; Ivancevich, Juan Carlos; Jares, Edgardo; Jarvis, Deborah; Jassem, Ewa; Jenko, Klemen; Jiméneracruz Uscanga, Rubén Darío; Johnston, Sebastian; Joos, Guy; Jošt, Maja; Julge, Kaja; Jung, Ki-Suck; Just, Jocelyne; Jutel, Marek; Kaidashev, Igor; Kalayci, Omer; Kalyoncu, Fuat; Kapsali, Jeni; Kardas, Przemyslaw; Karjalainen, Jussi; Kasala, Carmela A.; Katotomichelakis, Michael; Kazi, Bennoor; Keil, Thomas; Keith, Paul; Khaitov, Musa; Khaltaev, Nikolai; Kim, You-Young; Kleine-Tebbe, Jorg; Klimek, Ludger; Koffi N'Goran, Bernard; Kompoti, Evangelia; Kopač, Peter; Koppelman, Gerard; Koren Jeverica, Anja; Košnik, Mitja; Kostov, Kosta V.; Kowalski, Marek L.; Kralimarkova, Tanya; Kramer Vrščaj, Karmen; Kraxner, Helga; Kreft, Samo; Kritikos, Vicky; Kudlay, Dmitry; Kull, Inger; Kuna, Piotr; Kupczyk, Maciej; Kvedariene, Violeta; Kyriakakou, Marialena; Lalek, Nika; Lane, Stephen; Larenas-Linnemann, Désiree; Latiff, Amir; Lau, Susanne; Laune, Daniel; Lavrut, Jorge; Le, Lan; Lessa, Marcus; Levin, Michael; Li, Jing; Lieberman, Philip; Liotta, Giuseppe; Lipworth, Brian; Liu, Xuandao; Lobo, Rommel; Lodrup Carlsen, Karin C.; Lombardi, Carlo; Louis, Renaud; Loukidis, Stelios; Lourenço, Olga; Luna Pech, Jorge A.; Madjar, Bojan; Magnan, Antoine; Mahboub, Bassam; Mair, Alpana; Mais, Yassin; Maitland Van Der Zee, Anke-Hilse; Makela, Mika; Makris, Michael; Malling, Hans-Jorgen; Mandajieva, Mariana; Manning, Patrick; Manousakis, Manolis; Maragoudakis, Pavlos; Marshall, Gailen; Martinsmartins, Pedro; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Máspero, Jorge F.; Matta Campos, Juan José; Maurer, Marcus; Mavale-Manuel, Sandra; Meço, Cem; Melén, Erik; Melo-Gomes, Elisabete; Meltzer, Eli O.; Menditto, Enrica; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Merk, Hans; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Miculinic, Neven; Midão, Luís; Mihaltan, Florin; Mikael, Kuitunen; Mikos, Nikolaos; Milenkovic, Branislava; Mitsias, Dimitrios; Moalla, Bassem; Moda, Giuliana; Mogica Martínez, María Dolores; Mohammad, Yousser; Moin, Mostafa; Molimard, Mathieu; Momas, Isabelle; Monaco, Alessandro; Montefort, Steve; Mora, Dory; Morais-Almeida, Mario; Mösges, Ralph; Mostafa, Badr Eldin; Mullol, Joaquim; Münter, Lars; Muraro, Antonella; Murray, Ruth; Mustakov, Tihomir; Naclerio, Robert; Nadif, Rachel; Nakonechna, Alla; Namazova-Baranova, Leyla; Navarro-Locsin, Gretchen; Neffen, Hugo; Nekam, Kristof; Neou, Angelos; Nicod, Laurent; Niederberger-Leppin, Verena; Niedoszytko, Marek; Nieto, Antonio; Novellino, Ettore; Nunes, Elizabete; Nyembue, Dieudonné; O'Hehir, Robyn; Odjakova, Cvetanka; Ohta, Ken; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Okubo, Kimi; Oliver, Brian; Onorato, Gabrielle L.; Orru, Maria Pia; Ouédraogo, Solange; Ouoba, Kampadilemba; Paggiaro, Pier Luigi; Pagkalos, Aris; Palaniappan, S.P.; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Palkonen, Susanna; Palmer, Stephen; Panaitescu Bunu, Carmen; Panzner, Petr; Papadopoulos, Nikos G.; Papanikolaou, Vasilis; Papi, Alberto; Paralchev, Bojidar; Paraskevopoulos, Giannis; Park, Hae Sim; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Patella, Vincenzo; Pavord, Ian; Pawankar, Ruby; Pedersen, Soren; Peleve, Susete; Pereira, Ana; Pérez, Tamara; Pfaar, Oliver; Pham-Thi, Nhân; Pigearias, Bernard; Pin, Isabelle; Piskou, Konstantina; Pitsios, Constantinos; Pitsios, Kostas; Plavec, Davor; Poethig, Dagmar; Pohl, Wolfgang; Poplas Susic, Antonija; Popov, Todor A.; Portejoie, Fabienne; Potter, Paul; Poulsen, Lars; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Prarros, Fotis; Price, David; Prokopakis, Emmanuel; Puy, Robert; Rabe, Klaus; Raciborski, Filip; Ramos, Josephine; Recto, Marysia T.; Reda, Shereen M.; Regateiro, Frederico; Reider, Norbert; Reitsma, Sietze; Repka-Ramirez, Susana; Rimmer, Janet; Rivero Yeverino, Daniela; Rizzo, José Angelo; Robalo-Cordeiro, Carlos; Roberts, Graham; Roche, Nicolas; Rodríguez González, Mónica; Rodríguez Zagal, Eréndira; Rolland, Christine; Roller-Wirnsberger, Regina; Roman Rodriguez, Miguel; Romano, Antonino; Rombaux, Philippe; Romualdez, Joel; Rosado-Pinto, Jose; Rosario, Nelson; Rosenwasser, Lanny; Rottem, Menachem; Rouadi, Philip; Rovina, Nikoleta; Rozman Sinur, Irma; Ruiz, Mauricio; Ruiz Segura, Lucy Tania; Ryan, Dermot; Sagara, Hironori; Sakai, Daiki; Sakurai, Daiju; Saleh, Wafaa; Salimaki, Johanna; Salina, Husain; Samitas, Konstantinos; Samolinski, Boleslaw; Sánchez Coronel, María Guadalupe; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Sanchez-Lopez, Jaime; Sarafoleanu, Codrut; Sarquis Serpa, Faradiba; Sastre-Dominguez, Joaquin; Scadding, Glenis; Scheire, Sophie; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Schuhl, Juan Francisco; Schunemann, Holger; Schvalbová, Maria; Scichilone, Nicola; Sepúlveda, Cecilia; Serrano, Elie; Sheikh, Aziz; Shields, Mike; Shishkov, Vasil; Siafakas, Nikos; Simeonov, Alexander; Simons, Estelle F.; Sisul, Juan Carlos; Sitkauskiene, Brigita; Skrindo, Ingelbjorg; Soklič Košak, Tanja; Solé, Dirceu; Sooronbaev, Talant; Soto-Martinez, Manuel; Sova, Milan; Spertini, François; Spranger, Otto; Stamataki, Sofia; Stefanaki, Lina; Stellato, Cristiana; Stelmach, Rafael; Sterk, Peter; Strandberg, Timo; Stute, Petra; Subramaniam, Abirami; Suppli Ulrik, Charlotte; Sutherland, Michael; Sylvestre, Silvia; Syrigou, Aikaterini; Taborda Barata, Luis; Takovska, Nadejda; Tan, Rachel; Tan, Frances; Tan, Vincent; Tang, Ing Ping; Taniguchi, Masami; Tannert, Line; Tattersall, Jessica; Teixeira, Maria Do Ceu; Thijs, Carel; Thomas, Mike; To, Teresa; Todo-Bom, Ana Maria; Togias, Alkis; Tomazic, Peter-Valentin; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna; Toskala, Elina; Triggiani, Massimo; Triller, Nadja; Triller, Katja; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra; Urbancic, Jure; Urrutia Pereira, Marilyn; Vachova, Martina; Valdés, Felipe; Valenta, Rudolf; Valentin Rostan, Marylin; Valero, Antonio; Valiulis, Arunas; Vallianatou, Mina; Valovirta, Erkka; Van Eerd, Michiel; Van Ganse, Eric; Van Hage, Marianne; Vandenplas, Olivier; Vasankari, Tuula; Vassileva, Dafina; Ventura, Maria Teresa; Vera-Munoz, Cécilia; Vicheva, Dilyana; Vichyanond, Pakit; Vidgren, Petra; Viegi, Giovanni; Vogelmeier, Claus; Von Hertzen, Leena; Vontetsianos, Theodoros; Vourdas, Dimitris; Wagenmann, Martin; Walker, Samantha; Wallace, Dana; Wang, De Yun; Waserman, Susan; Wickman, Magnus; Williams, Sian; Williams, Dennis; Wilson, Nicola; Woo, Kent; Wright, John; Wroczynski, Piotr; Xepapadaki, Paraskevi; Yakovliev, Plamen; Yamaguchi, Masao; Yan, Kwok; Yap, Yoke Yeow; Yawn, Barbara; Yiallouros, Panayiotis; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Yoshihara, Shigemi; Young, Ian; Yusuf, Osman B.; Zaidi, Asghar; Zaitoun, Fares; Zar, Heather; Zernotti, Mario; Zhang, Luo; Zhong, Nanshan; Zidarn, Mihaela; Zuberbier, Torsten; Zubrinich, Celia.
Clin. Transl. Allergy ; 1(10)20200527.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-378138

ABSTRACT

Reported COVID-19 deaths in Germany are relatively low as compared to many European countries. Among the several explanations proposed, an early and large testing of the population was put forward. Most current debates on COVID-19 focus on the differences among countries, but little attention has been given to regional differences and diet. The low-death rate European countries (e.g. Austria, Baltic States, Czech Republic, Finland, Norway, Poland, Slovakia) have used different quarantine and/or confinement times and methods and none have performed as many early tests as Germany. Among other factors that may be significant are the dietary habits. It seems that some foods largely used in these countries may reduce angiotensin-converting enzyme activity or are anti-oxidants. Among the many possible areas of research, it might be important to understand diet and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) levels in populations with different COVID-19 death rates since dietary interventions may be of great benefit.

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