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1.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 37(SUPPL 3):i745, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: COVID-19 in kidney transplants has a high risk of complications and mortality, especially in older recipients diagnosed during the early period after transplantation. Management of immunosuppression has been challenging during the pandemic. We investigated the impact of induction immunosuppression, either basiliximab or thymoglobulin, on the clinical evolution of kidney transplants developing COVID-19 during the early period after transplantation. METHOD: Kidney transplant recipients with <6 months with a functioning graft diagnosed of COVID-19 from the initial pandemic outbreak (March 2020) until 31 July 2021 from different Spanish centres participating in a nationwide registry. RESULTS: A total of 127 patients from 17 Spanish centres developed COVID-19 during the first 6 months after transplantation, 73 (57.5%) received basiliximab and 54 (42.5%) thymoglobulin. Demographics were not different between groups, but patients receiving thymoglobulin were more sensitized (cPRA of 32.7% ± 40.8% versus 5.6% ± 18.5%) and more frequently re-transplanted (30% versus 4%). Recipients older than 65 years treated with thymoglobulin showed the highest rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome [64.7% versus 37.1% for older recipients receiving thymoglobulin and basiliximab (P < .05), and 23.7% and 18.9% for young recipients receiving basiliximab and thymoglobulin (P > .05)] and the poorest survival [mortality rate of 64.7% and 42.9% for older recipients treated with thymoglobulin and basiliximab, respectively (P < .05), and 8.1% and 10.5% for young recipients treated with thymoglobulin and basiliximab (P > .05)]. Older recipients treated with thymoglobulin showed the poorest survival in the Cox's regression model adjusted for comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Thymoglobulin should be used with caution in older recipients during the present pandemic era.

2.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 37(SUPPL 3):i357-i358, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients on kidney replacement therapy (KRT) are at a particularly high risk of mortality from COVID-19. In this study, we investigated COVID-19 mortality in KRT patients in the first and second waves of the pandemic and potential reasons for any difference in mortality between the two waves. METHOD: Data from the European Renal Association COVID-19 Database (ERACODA) of KRT patients who presented between 1 March 2020 and 28 February 2021 with COVID-19 were analyzed. The cut-off for dividing the first and second waves was set for 1 August 2020. The primary study outcome was 28-day mortality. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the pandemic waves and mortality with follow-up time starting at the date of presentation. Dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients were analyzed separately. RESULTS: Among 3004 dialysis patients (1253 in the first and 1751 in the second wave), the 28-day mortality was 24.3% in the first wave and 19.6% in the second wave (P = .002). Compared with the first wave, in the second wave, identification of patients with limited to no symptoms was higher (14.3% versus 24.8%;P < .001), hospitalization was lower (71.3% versus 44.3%;P < .001), but in-hospital mortality was similar (30.4% versus 30.7%;P = .92) (Fig. 1). Crude hazard ratio (HR) for 28-day mortality in the second wave was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.89). However, in a fully adjusted model, when correcting for differences in patient and disease characteristics, including the reason for COVID-19 screening and disease severity, the HR for mortality in the second wave was 0.93 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.79-1.10]. When follow-up was chosen to start at the date of first symptoms to account for possible lead-time bias, crude HR for 28-day mortality in the second wave was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.75-1.07) and the fully adjusted HR was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.81-1.18). Among 1035 kidney transplant recipients (475 in the first and 560 in the second wave), results were essentially similar except that patients in the second wave were younger (55.6 years versus 58.2 years;P = .002), and crude HR for 28-day mortality from the date of first symptoms was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.47-0.93), whereas the fully adjusted HR was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.70-1.49). CONCLUSION: Among patients on KRT with COVID-19, 28-day mortality rates were lower in the second wave compared with the first wave. However, a greater proportion of patients with minimal symptoms, lead-time bias in dialysis patients, and younger age in kidney transplant recipients possibly explain the lower mortality during the second wave. Any improvement in patient management during the second wave may not be the main reason for lower mortality. (Table Presented).

3.
Clinical Kidney Journal ; : 19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1758707

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease infection (COVID-19) was declared a global pandemic in March 2020 and since then has become a major public health problem. The prevalence of COVID-19 infection and acute kidney injury (AKI) is variable depending on several factors such as race/ethnicity, and severity of illness. The pathophysiology of renal involvement in COVID-19 infection is not entirely clear but it could be in part explained by the viral tropism in the kidney parenchyma. AKI in COVID-19 infection can be either by direct invasion of the virus, or as a consequence of immunologic response. Diverse studies have focused on the effect of COVID-19 on glomerulonephritis (GN) patients or the "novo" GN;however, the effect of COVID-19 in acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) has been scarcely studied. In this article, we present five cases with different spectrums of COVID-19 infection and ATIN that may suggest that recent diagnosis of ATIN is accompanied with a worse clinical prognosis in comparison with long-term diagnosed ATIN.

6.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 36(SUPPL 1):i19-i20, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1402538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Age and chronic kidney disease have been described as mortality risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, an important percentage of patients in hemodialysis are elderly. This study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 in this population and to determine risk factors associated with mortality. METHOD: Data was obtained from the Spanish COVID-19 CKD Working Group Registry, that included patients in renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation) infected by COVID-19. From March 18, 2020, to August 27, 2020, 1165 patients on hemodialysis affected by COVID-19 were included in the Registry. A total of 328 patients were under 65 years-old and 837 were 65 years old or older (elderly group). RESULTS: Mortality was 18.6% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.8%-23.4%) in the elderly hemodialysis patients compared to the non-elderly group (see figure). Death from COVID-19 infection was increased 5.5-fold in hemodialysis patients compared to mortality in the general population for a similar period, and there was an age-associated mortality increase in both populations (see figure 1). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, age (hazard ratio (HR) 1.58, 95% CI: 1.31-1.92), dyspnea at presentation (HR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.20-2.16), pneumonia (HR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.12-2.75) and admission to hospital (HR 4.13, 95% CI: 1.92-8.88) were identified as independent mortality risk factors in the elderly hemodialysis population. Treatment with glucocorticoids reduced the risk of death (HR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.98) in aged patients on hemodialysis. CONCLUSION: Mortality is dramatically increased in elderly hemodialysis patients affected by COVID-19. Age, dyspnea at presentation, pneumonia or hospitalization are factors associated with a worse prognosis, after adjusting dialysis population to other confounding factors. Treatment with glucocorticoids could be a therapeutic option for this specific population. (Table Presented).

7.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 36(SUPPL 1):i162, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1402449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: COVID-19 infection is responsible for respiratory infection with variable clinical expression from its asymptomatic form to severe pneumonia associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. Risk factors related to higher mortality are age over 65 years, cardiovascular, pulmonary and kidney disease, hypertension, and diabetes. There is limited scientific literature on COVID-19 infection and previous kidney disease, specifically in patients with glomerular and tubular kidney disease. The aim of this study was to determine general characteristics, analytical parameters and clinical evolution of patients with kidney disease who have undergone kidney biopsy and who presented infection or high suspicion of infection by COVID-19. Identify mortality and associated risk factors. METHOD: we studied patients with high clinical suspicion of infection or confirmed infection by COVID-19 from March 2020 to May 15, 2020 of all patients who underwent percutaneous renal biopsy at the Vall d'Hebron Hospital between January 2013 and December 2019. RESULTS: 39 of the 553 patients have been diagnosed with COVID-19 infection since March 2020. The average age was 63615 years and 48.7% were male. Hypertension was present in 79.5% of patients, chronic kidney disease without renal replacement therapy in 76.9%, and cardiovascular disease in 64.1%. Nasopharyngeal swab was performed in 26 patients;older patients (p=0.01), patients with hypertension (p=0.005), immunosuppression (p=0.01), use of RAS-blocking drugs (p=0.04) and gastrointestinal symptoms (p=0.02) were more likely to be tested for COVID-19. 22 patients required hospitalization and 15.4% died. In the bivariate analysis, mortality was associated with older age (p=0.03), cardiovascular disease (p=0.05), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (p=0.05) and low hemoglobin levels (p=0.006). Adjusted Cox regression showed that low hemoglobin levels (10.12±1.89g/dL) at admission had 1.81 greater risk of mortality [1.04-3.13;p=0.04]. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 infection and kidney disease confirmed by kidney biopsy presented mortality of 15.4%. Swab test for COVID-19 was more likely to be performed in older, hypertensive, use of RAS-blocking drugs, immunosuppressed patients and those with gastrointestinal symptoms. Low hemoglobin is a risk factor for mortality.

8.
Critical Care Medicine ; 48(12):e1350-e1355, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 can induce uncontrolled systemic inflammation and multiple organ failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate if plasma exchange, through the removal of circulating mediators, can be used as rescue therapy in these patients. DESIGN: Single center case series. SETTING: Local study. SUBJECTS: Four critically ill adults with coronavirus disease 19 pneumonia that failed conventional interventions. INTERVENTIONS: Plasma exchange. Two to six sessions (1.2 plasma volumes). Human albumin (5%) was used as the main replacement fluid. Fresh frozen plasma and immunoglobulins were administered after each session to avoid coagulopathy and hypogammaglobulinemia. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Serum markers of inflammation and macrophage activation. All patients showed a dramatic reduction in inflammatory markers, including the main cytokines, and improved severity scores after plasma exchange. All survived to ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma exchange mitigates cytokine storm, reverses organ failure, and could improve survival in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 infection.

9.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 31:283, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-984755

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus currently at the centre of a global pandemic, and patients with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes are at risk of a serious complication such as hospitalization and death. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increased cardiovascular risk and >90% of CKD patients presented hypertension. The prognosis and lethality of COVID-19 in patients with biopsy-proven kidney disease has not been previously studied. Methods: Data included patients who underwent a kidney biopsy at the Vall d'Hebron Hospital between January 2013 and February 2020 with diagnostic confirmation and those with high clinical suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the period from March to May 2020. Results: Of 553 patients, 39(7%) were diagnosed with SARS-CoV2 infection. The mean age was 63.4±15 years. 48.7% were male, 31 hypertension, 19 diabetic, 12 obese and 18 patients had lung disease. The renal histological diagnosis of glomerulonephritis with extracapillary proliferation in 10.3%, allergic interstitial nephritis in 10.3 %, secondary GSFS in 8.5% and diabetic nephropathy in 10.3%. 4 patients were on hemodialysis and 6 had a kidney transplant. Creatinine before infection was 1.52mg/ dL±0,66. 17 patients were under immunosuppressive treatment (14 with prednisone, 8 mycophenolate, 6 tacrolimus, 1 rituximab). 26 patients had confirmation of SARS-CoV2 infection with RT PCR obtained from nasopharyngeal swab. 22 patients required hospital admission [average hospital stay was 16 days±11], of which 4 in the ICU and 6 (15%) died. 15 patients received lopinavir/ritornavir;23 patients, azithromycin;20 patients, hydroxychloroquine;6 patients, tocilizumab;9 patients, intravenous corticosteroids. 11 patients presented impaired renal function, of which 3 were transplanted and 8 with CKD. CKD patients under RAS blockade had less mortality than patients without RAS blockade treatment (29% vs 0%, p=0.014). Conclusions: COVID-19 was diagnosed in 7% of our CKD patients with kidney biopsy. The mortality was 15%, lower than the reported in hemodialysis patients. RAS blockade is not exerting a deleterious effect in our CKD patients with COVID-19 infection, suggesting that they should not be withdrawn.

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