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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a severe condition temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we applied the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition to identify diagnosed and undiagnosed MIS-A cases among adults discharged April 2020-January 2021 from four Atlanta, Georgia hospitals affiliated with a single medical center. Non-MIS-A COVID-19 hospitalizations were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision encounter code U07.1. We calculated the ratio of MIS-A to COVID-19 hospitalizations, compared demographic characteristics of the two cohorts, and described clinical characteristics of MIS-A patients. RESULTS: We identified 11 MIS-A cases, none of which were diagnosed by the treatment team, and 5,755 COVID-19 hospitalizations (ratio 1: 523). Compared with patients with COVID-19, patients with MIS-A were more likely to be younger than 50 years (72.7% vs. 26.1%, p < 0.01) and to be non-Hispanic Black persons (81.8% vs. 50.0%, p = 0.04). Ten patients with MIS-A (90.9%) had at least one underlying medical condition. Two MIS-A patients (18.2%) had a previous episode of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, occurring 37 and 55 days prior to admission. All MIS-A patients developed left ventricular systolic dysfunction. None had documented mucocutaneous involvement. All required intensive care, all received systemic corticosteroids, eight (72.7%) required mechanical ventilation, two (18.2%) required mechanical cardiovascular circulatory support, and none received intravenous immunoglobulin. Two (18.2%) died or were discharged to hospice. CONCLUSIONS: MIS-A is severe but likely underrecognized complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Improved recognition of MIS-A is needed to quantify its burden and identify populations at highest risk.

2.
Kidney360 ; 2(12): 1917-1927, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789955

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with ESKD on maintenance dialysis receive dialysis in common spaces with other patients and have a higher risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. They may have persistently or intermittently positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests after infection. We describe the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the serologic response in a convenience sample of patients with ESKD to understand the duration of infectivity. Methods: From August to November 2020, we enrolled patients on maintenance dialysis with SARS-CoV-2 infections from outpatient dialysis facilities in Atlanta, Georgia. We followed participants for approximately 42 days. We assessed COVID-19 symptoms and collected specimens. Oropharyngeal (OP), anterior nasal (AN), and saliva (SA) specimens were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, using RT-PCR, and sent for viral culture. Serology, including neutralizing antibodies, was measured in blood specimens. Results: Fifteen participants, with a median age of 58 (range, 37‒77) years, were enrolled. Median duration of RT-PCR positivity from diagnosis was 18 days (interquartile range [IQR], 8‒24 days). Ten participants had at least one, for a total of 41, positive RT-PCR specimens ≥10 days after symptoms onset. Of these 41 specimens, 21 underwent viral culture; one (5%) was positive 14 days after symptom onset. Thirteen participants developed SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, 11 of which included neutralizing antibodies. RT-PCRs remained positive after seroconversion in eight participants and after detection of neutralizing antibodies in four participants; however, all of these samples were culture negative. Conclusions: Patients with ESKD on maintenance dialysis remained persistently and intermittently SARS-CoV-2-RT-PCR positive. However, of the 15 participants, only one had infectious virus, on day 14 after symptom onset. Most participants mounted an antibody response, including neutralizing antibodies. Participants continued having RT-PCR-positive results in the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, but without replication-competent virus detected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Middle Aged , Outpatients , RNA, Viral , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4141-e4151, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can cause severe illness and death. Predictors of poor outcome collected on hospital admission may inform clinical and public health decisions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort investigation of 297 adults admitted to 8 academic and community hospitals in Georgia, United States, during March 2020. Using standardized medical record abstraction, we collected data on predictors including admission demographics, underlying medical conditions, outpatient antihypertensive medications, recorded symptoms, vital signs, radiographic findings, and laboratory values. We used random forest models to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for predictors of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and death. RESULTS: Compared with age <45 years, ages 65-74 years and ≥75 years were predictors of IMV (aORs, 3.12 [95% CI, 1.47-6.60] and 2.79 [95% CI, 1.23-6.33], respectively) and the strongest predictors for death (aORs, 12.92 [95% CI, 3.26-51.25] and 18.06 [95% CI, 4.43-73.63], respectively). Comorbidities associated with death (aORs, 2.4-3.8; P < .05) included end-stage renal disease, coronary artery disease, and neurologic disorders, but not pulmonary disease, immunocompromise, or hypertension. Prehospital use vs nonuse of angiotensin receptor blockers (aOR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.03-3.96]) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (aOR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.03-3.55]) were associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for patient and clinical characteristics, older age was the strongest predictor of death, exceeding comorbidities, abnormal vital signs, and laboratory test abnormalities. That coronary artery disease, but not chronic lung disease, was associated with death among hospitalized patients warrants further investigation, as do associations between certain antihypertensive medications and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1332-1336, 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468850

ABSTRACT

Foodborne illnesses are a substantial and largely preventable public health problem; before 2020 the incidence of most infections transmitted commonly through food had not declined for many years. To evaluate progress toward prevention of foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food reported by 10 U.S. sites.* FoodNet is a collaboration among CDC, 10 state health departments, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS), and the Food and Drug Administration. This report summarizes preliminary 2020 data and describes changes in incidence with those during 2017-2019. During 2020, observed incidences of infections caused by enteric pathogens decreased 26% compared with 2017-2019; infections associated with international travel decreased markedly. The extent to which these reductions reflect actual decreases in illness or decreases in case detection is unknown. On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. After the declaration, state and local officials implemented stay-at-home orders, restaurant closures, school and child care center closures, and other public health interventions to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Federal travel restrictions were declared (1). These widespread interventions as well as other changes to daily life and hygiene behaviors, including increased handwashing, have likely changed exposures to foodborne pathogens. Other factors, such as changes in health care delivery, health care-seeking behaviors, and laboratory testing practices, might have decreased the detection of enteric infections. As the pandemic continues, surveillance of illness combined with data from other sources might help to elucidate the factors that led to the large changes in 2020; this understanding could lead to improved strategies to prevent illness. To reduce the incidence of these infections concerted efforts are needed, from farm to processing plant to restaurants and homes. Consumers can reduce their risk of foodborne illness by following safe food-handling and preparation recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Microbiology/statistics & numerical data , Food Parasitology/statistics & numerical data , Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Watchful Waiting , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Foodborne Diseases/parasitology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , United States/epidemiology
5.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, and hospital course among persons <21 years of age with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated death. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series of suspected SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths in the United States in persons <21 years of age during February 12 to July 31, 2020. All states and territories were invited to participate. We abstracted demographic and clinical data, including laboratory and treatment details, from medical records. RESULTS: We included 112 SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths from 25 participating jurisdictions. The median age was 17 years (IQR 8.5-19 years). Most decedents were male (71, 63%), 31 (28%) were Black (non-Hispanic) persons, and 52 (46%) were Hispanic persons. Ninety-six decedents (86%) had at least 1 underlying condition; obesity (42%), asthma (29%), and developmental disorders (22%) were most commonly documented. Among 69 hospitalized decedents, common complications included mechanical ventilation (75%) and acute respiratory failure (82%). The sixteen (14%) decedents who met multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) criteria were similar in age, sex, and race and/or ethnicity to decedents without MIS-C; 11 of 16 (69%) had at least 1 underlying condition. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths among persons <21 years of age occurred predominantly among Black (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic persons, male patients, and older adolescents. The most commonly reported underlying conditions were obesity, asthma, and developmental disorders. Decedents with coronavirus disease 2019 were more likely than those with MIS-C to have underlying medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , United States/epidemiology
6.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(10): 1318-1321, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347469

ABSTRACT

Facility-wide testing performed at 4 outpatient hemodialysis facilities in the absence of an outbreak or escalating community incidence did not identify new SARS-CoV-2 infections and illustrated key logistical considerations essential to successful implementation of SARS-CoV-2 screening. Facilities could consider prioritizing facility-wide SARS-CoV-2 testing during suspicion of an outbreak in the facility or escalating community spread without robust infection control strategies in place. Being prepared to address operational considerations will enhance implementation of facility-wide testing in the outpatient dialysis setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Outpatients , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2116420, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263038

ABSTRACT

Importance: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is associated with recent or current SARS-CoV-2 infection. Information on MIS-C incidence is limited. Objective: To estimate population-based MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 person-months and to estimate MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections in persons younger than 21 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used enhanced surveillance data to identify persons with MIS-C during April to June 2020, in 7 jurisdictions reporting to both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention national surveillance and to Overcoming COVID-19, a multicenter MIS-C study. Denominators for population-based estimates were derived from census estimates; denominators for incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections were estimated by applying published age- and month-specific multipliers accounting for underdetection of reported COVID-19 case counts. Jurisdictions included Connecticut, Georgia, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York (excluding New York City), and Pennsylvania. Data analyses were conducted from August to December 2020. Exposures: Race/ethnicity, sex, and age group (ie, ≤5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-20 years). Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall and stratum-specific adjusted estimated MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 person-months and per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections. Results: In the 7 jurisdictions examined, 248 persons with MIS-C were reported (median [interquartile range] age, 8 [4-13] years; 133 [53.6%] male; 96 persons [38.7%] were Hispanic or Latino; 75 persons [30.2%] were Black). The incidence of MIS-C per 1 000 000 person-months was 5.1 (95% CI, 4.5-5.8) persons. Compared with White persons, incidence per 1 000 000 person-months was higher among Black persons (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR], 9.26 [95% CI, 6.15-13.93]), Hispanic or Latino persons (aIRR, 8.92 [95% CI, 6.00-13.26]), and Asian or Pacific Islander (aIRR, 2.94 [95% CI, 1.49-5.82]) persons. MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections was 316 (95% CI, 278-357) persons and was higher among Black (aIRR, 5.62 [95% CI, 3.68-8.60]), Hispanic or Latino (aIRR, 4.26 [95% CI, 2.85-6.38]), and Asian or Pacific Islander persons (aIRR, 2.88 [95% CI, 1.42-5.83]) compared with White persons. For both analyses, incidence was highest among children aged 5 years or younger (4.9 [95% CI, 3.7-6.6] children per 1 000 000 person-months) and children aged 6 to 10 years (6.3 [95% CI, 4.8-8.3] children per 1 000 000 person-months). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, MIS-C was a rare complication associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Estimates for population-based incidence and incidence among persons with infection were higher among Black, Hispanic or Latino, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons. Further study is needed to understand variability by race/ethnicity and age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(8): 837-845, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168812

ABSTRACT

Importance: Multiple inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs in association with the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and geographic and temporal distribution of the largest cohort of patients with MIS-C in the United States to date. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on clinical and laboratory data collected from patients with MIS-C. The analysis included patients with illness onset from March 2020 to January 2021 and met MIS-C case definition. Main Outcomes and Measures: Geographic and temporal distribution of MIS-C was compared with that of COVID-19 nationally, by region, and level of urbanicity by county. Clinical and laboratory findings and changes over time were described by age group and by presence or absence of preceding COVID-19. Results: A total of 1733 patients with MIS-C were identified; 994 (57.6%) were male and 1117 (71.3%) were Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black. Gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, and conjunctival hyperemia were reported by 53% (n = 931) to 67% (n = 1153) of patients. A total of 937 patients (54%) had hypotension or shock, and 1009 (58.2%) were admitted for intensive care. Cardiac dysfunction was reported in 484 patients (31.0%), pericardial effusion in 365 (23.4%), myocarditis in 300 (17.3%), and coronary artery dilatation or aneurysms in 258 (16.5%). Patients aged 0 to 4 years had the lowest proportion of severe manifestations, although 171 patients (38.4%) had hypotension or shock and 197 (44.3%) were admitted for intensive care. Patients aged 18 to 20 years had the highest proportions with myocarditis (17 [30.9%]), pneumonia (20 [36.4%]), acute respiratory distress syndrome (10 [18.2%]), and polymerase chain reaction positivity (39 [70.9%]). These older adolescents also had the highest proportion reporting preceding COVID-19-like illness (63%). Nationally, the first 2 MIS-C peaks followed the COVID-19 peaks by 2 to 5 weeks. The cumulative MIS-C incidence per 100 000 persons younger than 21 years was 2.1 and varied from 0.2 to 6.3 by state. Twenty-four patients (1.4%) died. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of a large cohort of patients with MIS-C, 2 peaks that followed COVID-19 peaks by 2 to 5 weeks were identified. The geographic and temporal association of MIS-C with the COVID-19 pandemic suggested that MIS-C resulted from delayed immunologic responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical manifestations varied by age and by presence or absence of preceding COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1164-1168, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146202

ABSTRACT

We compared the characteristics of hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients who had coronavirus disease in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. We found that risk for hospitalization increased with a patient's age and number of concurrent conditions. We also found a potential association between hospitalization and high hemoglobin A1c levels in persons with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension , Obesity , Patient Care Management , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/standards , Patient Care Management/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1324-1329, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782537

ABSTRACT

Since February 12, 2020, approximately 6.5 million cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and 190,000 SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths have been reported in the United States (1,2). Symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection are milder in children compared with adults (3). Persons aged <21 years constitute 26% of the U.S. population (4), and this report describes characteristics of U.S. persons in that population who died in association with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as reported by public health jurisdictions. Among 121 SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths reported to CDC among persons aged <21 years in the United States during February 12-July 31, 2020, 63% occurred in males, 10% of decedents were aged <1 year, 20% were aged 1-9 years, 70% were aged 10-20 years, 45% were Hispanic persons, 29% were non-Hispanic Black (Black) persons, and 4% were non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons. Among these 121 decedents, 91 (75%) had an underlying medical condition,* 79 (65%) died after admission to a hospital, and 39 (32%) died at home or in the emergency department (ED).† These data show that nearly three quarters of SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths among infants, children, adolescents, and young adults have occurred in persons aged 10-20 years, with a disproportionate percentage among young adults aged 18-20 years and among Hispanics, Blacks, AI/ANs, and persons with underlying medical conditions. Careful monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 infections, deaths, and other severe outcomes among persons aged <21 years remains particularly important as schools reopen in the United States. Ongoing evaluation of effectiveness of prevention and control strategies will also be important to inform public health guidance for schools and parents and other caregivers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Cause of Death/trends , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(18): 545-550, 2020 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-142205

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first detected in the United States during January 2020 (1). Since then, >980,000 cases have been reported in the United States, including >55,000 associated deaths as of April 28, 2020 (2). Detailed data on demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, and clinical outcomes for persons hospitalized with COVID-19 are needed to inform prevention strategies and community-specific intervention messages. For this report, CDC, the Georgia Department of Public Health, and eight Georgia hospitals (seven in metropolitan Atlanta and one in southern Georgia) summarized medical record-abstracted data for hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed* COVID-19 who were admitted during March 2020. Among 305 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 61.6% were aged <65 years, 50.5% were female, and 83.2% with known race/ethnicity were non-Hispanic black (black). Over a quarter of patients (26.2%) did not have conditions thought to put them at higher risk for severe disease, including being aged ≥65 years. The proportion of hospitalized patients who were black was higher than expected based on overall hospital admissions. In an adjusted time-to-event analysis, black patients were not more likely than were nonblack patients to receive invasive mechanical ventilation† (IMV) or to die during hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-1.13). Given the overrepresentation of black patients within this hospitalized cohort, it is important for public health officials to ensure that prevention activities prioritize communities and racial/ethnic groups most affected by COVID-19. Clinicians and public officials should be aware that all adults, regardless of underlying conditions or age, are at risk for serious illness from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Georgia/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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