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Science & Healthcare ; 25(1):42-49, 2023.
Article in Russian | GIM | ID: covidwho-2326704


Relevance: Despite the undoubted successes achieved in the fight against infectious diseases, the importance of pathogens in human pathology not only does not decrease, but also shows a tendency to increase. Thousands of people die from complications every year. This is due to the fact that viruses, primarily influenza viruses and coronaviruses, have the ability to change their structure and the mutated virus is able to infect a person again. So, a person who has had the flu has a good immune barrier, but nevertheless a new modified virus is able to easily penetrate it, since the body has not yet developed immunity against this type of virus. To date, the most effective measure of protection against viral infections is vaccination. Aim: Analysis of literature data on the role of vaccination in the system of anti-epidemic and preventive measures in the fight against viral infections, including COVID-19. Search strategy: Scientific publications were searched in the following databases: PubMed, Medline, e-Library, using the Google Scholar scientific search engine. The search depth is 3 years. Criteria for inclusion: publications in Russian and English by thematic requests: vaccination, COVID-19, pandemic;publications included in the PubMed, Medline, e-Library databases;publications for the last 3 years. Criteria for excluding: articles with paid access;s. A total of 168 sources were found. 62 articles passed the selection algorithm, accepted for analysis. Results: Analysis of the literature data has shown that today vaccination is an effective and beneficial measure against various infections worldwide. Vaccines save millions of lives every year. The development of safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19 is a huge step forward towards ending the pandemic and returning to a normal lifestyle. Conclusions: Based on the literature review, it became known that with the help of vaccines, humanity managed to get rid of a number of dangerous infections, and today, in the confrontation with the coronavirus pandemic, great hope is placed on them. A lot of research teams in different countries have joined in the search for a reliable vaccine.

Science & Healthcare ; 25(1):26-32, 2023.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2325345


Introduction: Coronavirus infection (COVID-19), first reported at the end of 2019, which has spilled over into a worldwide pandemic and has affected all aspects of our modern lives. The aim is to study and analyze the epidemiological features of COVID-19 in the Pavlodar region. Materials and methods: Study design is a descriptive retrospective study analysis. The data were obtained from official sources of the Republican Center for e-Health of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The study includes patients from June 30, 2020 to October 31, 2021 who received outpatient and inpatient treatment for coronavirus infection in medical institutions of the Pavlodar region. Study materials - uploading reports from the Republican Center for e-Health of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Results: This article presents epidemiological data on the incidence of coronavirus infection in the population of Pavlodar region. The number of detected cases of COVID-19 from June 30, 2020 to October 31, 2021 was 29,443. Distribution of patients by sex predominated women - 17,831 (60.56%), than men - 11,612 (39.44%). The majority of cases were in the age group from 61 to 70 years old, with a male to female ratio of 1:1.54. Statistical significance was found between duration of stay and type of inpatient care (p < 0.001, VS-MPR*=2.135 x 10+22). Conclusion: The study showed that the number of women who fell ill prevailed over the number of men who fell ill, although the number of deaths among men prevailed over the number of deaths among women. In the study, there was no significant difference in the duration of stay for men and women in home care, compared to patients under 24-hour observation.

Science & Healthcare ; 23(2):31-50, 2021.
Article in Russian | GIM | ID: covidwho-1308930


Relevance. According to the World Health Organization, a tense epidemic situation with regard to quarantine and especially dangerous infections remains in the world. The list of such dangerous diseases that are relevant for Kazakhstan has been replenished with the coronavirus infection that has recently spread throughout the world. Epidemiological surveillance and control of dangerous diseases in modern conditions are undergoing changes in connection with the setting of more complex tasks to create a global surveillance network and early detection of infectious pathogens that can cause epidemics and the development of response measures. Purpose. Analysis of the activities of the sanitary and epidemiological service of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the context of the spread of especially dangerous infections, including coronavirus infection for the period from 1991 to 2020, according to the literature. Search strategy. A search for scientific publications was carried out in the search engines PubMed, BMC, Medline, GoogleScholar, e-Library. The depth is 30 years. Inclusion criteria: publications corresponding to the depth of search (1991-2020), in Kazakh, Russian and English;full-text epidemiological studies. Exclusion criteria: publications with fuzzy conclusions, recurring publications, abstracts and conference proceedings, articles with paid access. A total of 144 publications were analyzed, of which 70 are included in this review. Results. The analysis of literary sources showed that the anti-epidemiological service of Kazakhstan needs to further improve its structure with the introduction of new strategies based on a clear vision of promising goals, based on the use of modern scientific and institutional development technologies. The results of the analysis also showed that in recent years there has been a positive trend in the state of the sanitary and epidemiological situation for especially dangerous infections - a decrease has been registered in a number of significant dangerous diseases, and for some vaccine-controlled diseases, the priority goal is to completely eliminate or eliminate them. Conclusions. Based on the analysis carried out, it can be concluded that the system of the anti-epidemic service in Kazakhstan, as a whole, is at a good level, has a high sensitivity, is sufficiently timely and representative. However, against the background of massive human disease with coronavirus infection, there is a need to continue to modify the surveillance system. Therefore, further scientific developments in this direction will be of particular relevance and will allow identifying priority areas for improving the sanitary and epidemiological system.