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Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S173-S174, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746737


Background. Communication among health care professionals during antimicrobial prescribing is critical to ensure appropriate use. This is of concern in Guatemala where physicians seldom consider guidance from other professionals during antimicrobial prescribing activities. Methods. We carried out a cross sectional questionnaire and open ended interviews with physicians from five hospitals in Guatemala to describe perceptions of communication between health care providers, and acceptance of antimicrobial guidance during prescribing. Results. From January to April 2021 an electronic questionnaire was sent to enrolled physicians of which 74% completed participation (n=107/145). Fifty-five percent participated in open ended interviews (n=79/145). Respondents perceived high levels of communication between physicians and ID specialists (94% of respondents);52%, and 54% perceived high levels of physician-pharmacist, and physician-nurse communication respectively. Significant differences in the perception of physician-pharmacist communication were detected when comparing responses between hospitals, and between respondent sex (chi2, p< 0.05). Barriers to communication between professionals included lack of local guidelines or protocols, patient overload, COVID-19 pandemic, lack of mentorship, and little room to discuss antimicrobial therapy with higher-ranking physicians. Eighty percent and 45% of physicians were open to receiving antibiotic optimization recommendations from other physicians, and pharmacists respectively. Notable barriers to accepting recommendations from pharmacists included lack of regular communication, lack of clinical experience, and concern about evidence based recommendations. Conclusion. Effective communication is perceived between physicians during antimicrobial prescribing activities. Marginal levels of communication and acceptance of prescribing recommendations have been detected between physicians and pharmacists. In this milieu, there is an opportunity to strengthen multidisciplinary teams to optimize antimicrobial use.

Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society ; 10(SUPPL 2):S19, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1402400


Introduction. Guatemala reported the first confirmed SARS-CoV-2 case on March 13th 2020. Up to now, more than 140,000 confirmed cases have been documented, with 8% of them being <20 years-old. The impact of COVID-19 in pediatric cancer in not well known, even though pediatric oncological institutions did some initial recommendations, this new disease still represents a challenge in this population. The objective of the report is to describe the moderate-severe cases of COVID-19 in pediatric cancer during the first 8 months of the pandemic in the Unidad Nacional de Oncologia Pediatrica (UNOP). Methods. This is a descriptive, prospective report of pediatric cancer patients <20 years-old and SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by nasopharyngeal swab with PCR technique at UNOP from May to December 2020. The SARS-CoV-2 test was performed to all patients who developed symptoms of infection or as screening in patients who were admitted to UNOP regardless of symptoms. Information about sex, age, primary oncological diagnosis, confirmed coinfections and treatment received at time of COVID-19 was collected. Moderate illness was considered if the patient required supplemental oxygen and severe illness if admitted to Intensive Care Unit-ICU-secondary to COVID-19. Results. Two hundred one patients with pediatric cancer with the SARS-CoV-2 infection were confirmed. Sixty four percent were male (n=128), median of age was 9.5 years (5-m to 18-y). The primary oncologic diagnosis was leukemia 65% (n=129), and other solid tumors 35% (n=72), 5% (n=10) of patients were in palliative care. In leukemia patients, 40% were receiving induction therapy (n=51), 25% consolidation (n=32), and 19% maintenance (n=25). The most common initial symptom was fever in 32% (n=64) and 33% were asymptomatic (n=67). Twenty two percent developed moderate disease (n=44) and 13% severe disease (n=26). A total of 13 patients died during COVID-19 period (6%) and 7 of them died receiving active treatment (3%). The risk of developing moderate-severe disease was not higher in leukemia patients compared to patients with other tumors who were receiving intense chemotherapy (OR=0.7), but there might be a higher risk of death (OR=1.41). In patients with leukemia, the risk of developing moderate-severe disease was higher for patients receiving induction therapy compared with those in consolidation (OR=6.7) or maintenance (OR=3.04). Mortality risk seems to be higher in patients with leukemia during induction therapy (OR=1.94). Confirmed coinfections correlated with higher risk of severe illness (OR=1.95) and death during the COVID19 period (OR=5.2). Conclusions. The mortality due to COVID-19 in pediatric cancer is low and could be related to coinfections or intensive chemotherapy. Important limitation of our report is the lack of analysis of underlying clinical conditions in moderate-severe disease (neutropenia or other comorbidities), factors that could have an impact on our data analysis.