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1.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.04.08.22273602

ABSTRACT

ImportanceIn patients with hematologic malignancies, the immunogenicity of the standard 2-dose mRNA-1273 coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) vaccination schedule is often insufficient due to underlying disease and current or recent therapy. ObjectiveTo determine whether a 3rd mRNA-1273 vaccination raises antibody concentrations in immunocompromised hematology patients to levels obtained in healthy individuals after the standard 2-dose mRNA-1273 vaccination schedule. DesignProspective observational cohort study. SettingFour academic hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants584 evaluable immunocompromised hematology patients, all grouped in predefined cohorts spanning the spectrum of hematologic malignancies. ExposureOne additional vaccination with mRNA-1273 5 months after completion of the standard 2-dose mRNA-1273 vaccination schedule. Main Outcomes and MeasuresSerum IgG antibodies to spike subunit 1 (S1) antigens prior to and 4 weeks after each vaccination, and pseudovirus neutralization of wildtype, delta and omicron variants in a subgroup of patients. ResultsIn immunocompromised hematology patients, a 3rd mRNA-1273 vaccination led to median S1 IgG concentrations comparable to concentrations obtained by healthy individuals after the 2-dose mRNA-1273 schedule. The rise in S1 IgG concentration after the 3rd vaccination was most pronounced in patients with a recovering immune system, but potent responses were also observed in patients with persistent immunodeficiencies. Specifically, patients with myeloid malignancies or multiple myeloma, and recipients of autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) reached median S1 IgG concentrations similar to those obtained by healthy individuals after a 2-dose schedule. Patients on or shortly after rituximab therapy, CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy recipients, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients on ibrutinib were less or unresponsive to the 3rd vaccination. In the 27 patients who received cell therapy between the 2nd and 3rd vaccination, S1 antibodies were preserved, but a 3rd mRNA-1273 vaccination did not significantly enhance S1 IgG concentrations except for multiple myeloma patients receiving autologous HCT. A 3rd vaccination significantly improved neutralization capacity per antibody. Conclusions and RelevanceThe primary schedule for immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies should be supplemented with a delayed 3rd vaccination. B cell lymphoma patients and allogeneic HCT recipients need to be revaccinated after treatment or transplantation. Trial RegistrationEudraCT 2021-001072-41 Key pointsO_ST_ABSQuestionC_ST_ABSCan a 3rd mRNA-1273 vaccination improve COVID-19 antibody concentrations in immunocompromised hematology patients to levels similar to healthy adults after the standard 2-dose mRNA-1273 schedule? FindingsIn this prospective observational cohort study that included 584 immunocompromised hematology patients, a 3rd mRNA-1273 vaccination significantly improved SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations to levels not significantly different from those obtained by healthy individuals after the standard 2-dose mRNA-1273 vaccination schedule. Pseudovirus neutralization capacity per antibody of wild type virus and variants of concern also significantly improved. MeaningThe primary COVID-19 vaccination schedule for immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies should be supplemented with a delayed 3rd vaccination.


Subject(s)
Lymphoma, B-Cell , Hematologic Neoplasms , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Multiple Myeloma
2.
ssrn; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.3834311

ABSTRACT

Background: Accumulating evidence points to an overactive immune response in Covid-19 disease and potential clinical benefit of the interleukin-6 inhibitor tocilizumab. We assessed the efficacy of early tocilizumab treatment for hospitalized patients in a randomized phase II study.Methods: Patients admitted to the general ward with proven Covid-19 and in need of supplemental oxygen were randomly assigned to receive standard of care with or without intravenous tocilizumab 8 mg/kg (maximal 800 mg). A second dose of tocilizumab was permitted if hypoxia persisted after 8 hrs. The primary endpoint of the study was 30-day mortality with a prespecified 2-sided significance level of α=0.10. A post-hoc analysis was performed for a combined endpoint of mechanical ventilation or death at 30 days.Findings: A total of 354 patients (67% men; median age 66 years) were enrolled of whom 88% received dexamethasone. Thirty-day mortality was 19% (95% CI 14%-26%) in the standard arm versus 12% (95% CI: 8%-18%) in the tocilizumab arm, hazard ratio (HR)=0.62 (90% CI 0.39-0.98; p=0.086). 21% of patients were admitted to the ICU in each arm (p=0.89). The median stay in the ICU was 16 days (IQR 8-30) in the standard arm versus 9 days (IQR 5-16) in the tocilizumab arm (p=0.025). Mechanical ventilation or death at thirty days was 31% (95% CI 24%-38%) in the standard arm versus 21% (95% CI 16%-28%) in the tocilizumab arm, HR = 0.65 (95% CI 0.42-0.98; p=0.042).Interpretation: Various studies have suggested a beneficial effect of tocilizumab in the treatment of COVID-19. This randomized phase II study, which met its primary endpoint, confirms these observations and demonstrates a clinically meaningful efficacy when given early in the disease course in hospitalized patients who need oxygen support, even when concomitantly treated with dexamethasone.Trial Registration: The trial was designed as a prospective randomized (1:1) open label phase II trial and was registered in the Netherlands Trial register (https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/8504).Funding Statement: Academic study, funded by participating hospitals. Roche supplied tocilizumab.Declaration of Interests: None to declare. Ethics Approval Statement: The trial was approved by the relevant medical ethical committee and was performed in accordance with Good Clinical Practice guidelines and the Helsinki Declaration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
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