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Brain Sci ; 11(7)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288804


Introduction: One of the possible mechanisms by which the new coronavirus (SARS-Cov2) could induce brain damage is the impairment of cerebrovascular hemodynamics (CVH) and intracranial compliance (ICC) due to the elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). The main objective of this study was to assess the presence of CVH and ICC alterations in patients with COVID-19 and evaluate their association with short-term clinical outcomes. Methods: Fifty consecutive critically ill COVID-19 patients were studied with transcranial Doppler (TCD) and non-invasive monitoring of ICC. Subjects were included upon ICU admission; CVH was evaluated using mean flow velocities in the middle cerebral arteries (mCBFV), pulsatility index (PI), and estimated cerebral perfusion pressure (eCPP), while ICC was assessed by using the P2/P1 ratio of the non-invasive ICP curve. A CVH/ICC score was computed using all these variables. The primary composite outcome was unsuccessful in weaning from respiratory support or death on day 7 (defined as UO). Results: At the first assessment (n = 50), only the P2/P1 ratio (median 1.20 [IQRs 1.00-1.28] vs. 1.00 [0.88-1.16]; p = 0.03) and eICP (14 [11-25] vs. 11 [7-15] mmHg; p = 0.01) were significantly higher among patients with an unfavorable outcome (UO) than others. Patients with UO had a significantly higher CVH/ICC score (9 [8-12] vs. 6 [5-7]; p < 0.001) than those with a favorable outcome; the area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) for CVH/ICC score to predict UO was 0.86 (95% CIs 0.75-0.97); a score > 8.5 had 63 (46-77)% sensitivity and 87 (62-97)% specificity to predict UO. For those patients undergoing a second assessment (n = 29), after a median of 11 (5-31) days, all measured variables were similar between the two time-points. No differences in the measured variables between ICU non-survivors (n = 30) and survivors were observed. Conclusions: ICC impairment and CVH disturbances are often present in COVID-19 severe illness and could accurately predict an early poor outcome.

Obes Sci Pract ; 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242755


OBJECTIVE: Multiple factors have been identified as causes of intracranial compliance impairment (ICCI) among patients with obesity. On the other hand, obesity has been linked with worst outcomes in COVID-19. Thus, the hypothesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) conducing to cerebral hemodynamic disorders (CHD) able to worsen ICCI and play an additional role on prognosis determination for COVID-19 among obese patients becomes suitable. METHODS: 50 cases of SARS by COVID-19 were evaluated, for the presence of ICCI and cerebrovascular circulatory disturbances in correspondence with whether unfavorable outcomes (death or impossibility for mechanical ventilation weaning [MVW]) within 7 days after evaluation. The objective was to observe whether obese patients (BMI ≥ 30) disclosed worse outcomes and tests results compared with lean subjects with same clinical background. RESULTS: 23 (46%) patients among 50 had obesity. ICCI was verified in 18 (78%) obese, whereas in 13 (48%) of 27 non-obese (p = 0,029). CHD were not significantly different between groups, despite being high prevalent in both. 69% unfavorable outcomes were observed among obese and 44% for lean subjects (p = 0,075). CONCLUSION: In the present study, intracranial compliance impairment was significantly more observed among obese subjects and may have contributed for SARS COVID-19 worsen prognosis.

Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 33(1): 31-37, 2021.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197639


INTRODUCTION: The long-term effects caused by COVID-19 are unknown. The present study aims to assess factors associated with health-related quality of life and long-term outcomes among survivors of hospitalization for COVID-19 in Brazil. METHODS: This is a multicenter prospective cohort study nested in five randomized clinical trials designed to assess the effects of specific COVID-19 treatments in over 50 centers in Brazil. Adult survivors of hospitalization due to proven or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection will be followed-up for a period of 1 year by means of structured telephone interviews. The primary outcome is the 1-year utility score of health-related quality of life assessed by the EuroQol-5D3L. Secondary outcomes include all-cause mortality, major cardiovascular events, rehospitalizations, return to work or study, physical functional status assessed by the Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, dyspnea assessed by the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, need for long-term ventilatory support, symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and self-rated health assessed by the EuroQol-5D3L Visual Analog Scale. Generalized estimated equations will be performed to test the association between five sets of variables (1- demographic characteristics, 2- premorbid state of health, 3- characteristics of acute illness, 4- specific COVID-19 treatments received, and 5- time-updated postdischarge variables) and outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of all participant institutions. The results will be disseminated through conferences and peer-reviewed journals.

INTRODUÇÃO: Os efeitos provocados pela COVID-19 em longo prazo são desconhecidos. O presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar os fatores associados com a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde e os desfechos em longo prazo em sobreviventes à hospitalização por COVID-19 no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Este será um estudo multicêntrico de coorte prospectivo, aninhado em cinco ensaios clínicos randomizados desenhados para avaliar os efeitos dos tratamentos específicos para COVID-19 em mais de 50 centros no Brasil. Pacientes adultos sobreviventes à hospitalização por infecção por SARS-CoV-2 comprovada ou suspeita serão seguidos por um período de 1 ano, por meio de entrevistas telefônicas estruturadas. O desfecho primário é o escore de utilidade para qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde após 1 ano, avaliado segundo o questionário EuroQol-5D3L. Os desfechos secundários incluirão mortalidade por todas as causas, eventos cardiovasculares graves, reospitalizações, retorno ao trabalho ou estudo, condição funcional física avaliada pelo instrumento Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, dispneia avaliada segundo a escala de dispneia modificada do Medical Research Council, necessidade de suporte ventilatório em longo prazo, sintomas de ansiedade e depressão avaliados segundo a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, sintomas de transtorno de estresse pós-traumático avaliados pela ferramenta Impact of Event Scale-Revised e autoavaliação da condição de saúde, conforme a Escala Visual Analógica do EuroQol-5D3L. Serão utilizadas equações de estimativas generalizada para testar a associação entre cinco conjuntos de variáveis (1 - características demográficas, 2 - condição de saúde pré-morbidade, 3 - características da doença aguda, 4 - terapias específicas para COVID-19 recebidas e 5 - variáveis pós-alta atualizadas) e desfechos. ÉTICA E DISSEMINAÇÃO: O protocolo do estudo foi aprovado pelos Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa de todas as instituições participantes. Os resultados serão disseminados por meio de conferências e periódicos revisados por pares.

COVID-19/complications , Quality of Life , Adult , Brazil , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cause of Death , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Patient Readmission , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Return to Work , Sample Size , Survivors , Telephone
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243269, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004450


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought significant challenges worldwide, with high mortality, increased use of hospital resources, and the collapse of healthcare systems. We aimed to describe the clinical outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients and assess the impact on the use of hospital resources and compare with critically ill medical patients without COVID-19. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included patients diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted to a private ICU in Sao Paulo, Brazil from March to June 2020. We compared these patients with those admitted to the unit in the same period of the previous year. A total of 212 consecutive patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were compared with 185 medical patients from the previous year. Patients with COVID-19 were more frequently males (76% vs. 56%, p<0.001) and morbidly obese (7.5% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.027), and had lower SAPS 3 (49.65 (12.19) vs. 55.63 (11.94), p<0.001) and SOFA scores (3.78 (3.53) vs. 4.48 (3.11), p = 0.039). COVID-19 patients had a longer ICU stay (median of 7 vs. 3 days, p<0.001), longer duration of mechanical ventilation (median of 9 vs. 4 days, p = 0.003), and more frequent tracheostomies (10.8 vs. 1.1%, p<0.001). Survival rates until 28 days were not statistically different (91% vs. 85.4%, p = 0.111). After multivariable adjustment for age, gender, SAPS 3, and Charlson Comorbidity Index, COVID-19 remained not associated with survival at 28 days (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.33-1.06, p = 0.076). Among patients who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, the observed mortality at 28-days was 16.2% in COVID-19 patients compared to 34.6% in the previous year. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 required more hospital resources, including invasive and non-invasive ventilation, had a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and a more prolonged ICU and hospital length of stay. There was no difference in all-cause mortality at 28 and 60 days, suggesting that health systems preparedness be an important determinant of clinical outcomes.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 32(3): 354-362, 2020.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983019


OBJECTIVE: The infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads worldwide and is considered a pandemic. The most common manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection (coronavirus disease 2019 - COVID-19) is viral pneumonia with varying degrees of respiratory compromise and up to 40% of hospitalized patients might develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. Several clinical trials evaluated the role of corticosteroids in non-COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome with conflicting results. We designed a trial to evaluate the effectiveness of early intravenous dexamethasone administration on the number of days alive and free of mechanical ventilation within 28 days after randomization in adult patients with moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to confirmed or probable COVID-19. METHODS: This is a pragmatic, prospective, randomized, stratified, multicenter, open-label, controlled trial including 350 patients with early-onset (less than 48 hours before randomization) moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, defined by the Berlin criteria, due to COVID-19. Eligible patients will be randomly allocated to either standard treatment plus dexamethasone (Intervention Group) or standard treatment without dexamethasone (Control Group). Patients in the intervention group will receive dexamethasone 20mg intravenous once daily for 5 days, followed by dexamethasone 10mg IV once daily for additional 5 days or until intensive care unit discharge, whichever occurs first. The primary outcome is ventilator-free days within 28 days after randomization, defined as days alive and free from invasive mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes are all-cause mortality rates at day 28, evaluation of the clinical status at day 15 assessed with a 6-level ordinal scale, mechanical ventilation duration from randomization to day 28, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score evaluation at 48 hours, 72 hours and 7 days and intensive care unit -free days within 28.

OBJETIVO: A infecção causada pelo coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disseminou-se por todo o mundo e foi categorizada como pandemia. As manifestações mais comuns da infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2 (doença pelo coronavírus 2019 - COVID-19) se referem a uma pneumonia viral com graus variáveis de comprometimento respiratório e até 40% dos pacientes hospitalizados, que podem desenvolver uma síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Diferentes ensaios clínicos avaliaram o papel dos corticosteroides na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo não relacionada com COVID-19, obtendo resultados conflitantes. Delineamos o presente estudo para avaliar a eficácia da administração endovenosa precoce de dexametasona no número de dias vivo e sem ventilação mecânica nos 28 dias após a randomização, em pacientes adultos com quadro moderado ou grave de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo causada por COVID-19 provável ou confirmada. MÉTODOS: Este é um ensaio pragmático, prospectivo, randomizado, estratificado, multicêntrico, aberto e controlado que incluirá 350 pacientes com quadro inicial (menos de 48 horas antes da randomização) de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo moderada ou grave, definida segundo os critérios de Berlim, causada por COVID-19. Os pacientes elegíveis serão alocados de forma aleatória para tratamento padrão mais dexametasona (Grupo Intervenção) ou tratamento padrão sem dexametasona (Grupo Controle). Os pacientes no Grupo Intervenção receberão dexametasona 20mg por via endovenosa uma vez ao dia, por 5 dias, e, a seguir, dexametasona por via endovenosa 10mg ao dia por mais 5 dias, ou até receber alta da unidade de terapia intensiva, o que ocorrer antes. O desfecho primário será o número de dias livres de ventilação mecânica nos 28 dias após a randomização, definido como o número de dias vivo e livres de ventilação mecânica invasiva. Os desfechos secundários serão a taxa de mortalidade por todas as causas no dia 28, a condição clínica no dia 15 avaliada com utilização de uma escala ordinal de seis níveis, a duração da ventilação mecânica desde a randomização até o dia 28, a avaliação com o Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score após 48 horas, 72 horas e 7 dias, e o número de dias fora da unidade de terapia intensiva nos 28 dias após a randomização.

Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Time Factors