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1.
J Asthma ; : 1-11, 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569388

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the risk of severe clinical outcomes during hospitalizations of adults with asthma and/or COPD plus COVID-19 and compares those risks with those during hospitalizations of adults with asthma and/or COPD without COVID-19. METHODS: We used data from 877 U.S. hospitals from the Premier Healthcare Database during March 2020-March 2021. Hospitalizations (n = 311,215) among patients aged ≥18 years with an ICD-10-CM diagnosis involving asthma or COPD were classified into three groups: adults with asthma (but not COPD), adults with COPD (but not asthma), and adults with both asthma and COPD. We used multivariable Poisson regression to assess associations of severe clinical outcomes [intensive care unit (ICU) admission, use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and death] and COVID-19 status. RESULTS: The percentage of hospitalizations among patients with asthma and COVID-19 resulting in ICU admission, IMV, and death were 46.9%, 14.0%, and 8.0%, respectively. These risks were higher than those among patients with asthma without COVID-19 (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.17 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.21], 1.61 [95% CI, 1.50-1.73], and 5.56 [95% CI, 4.89-6.32]), respectively. Risks of ICU admission, IMV, and death were also high among patients with COPD and COVID-19 and exceeded the corresponding risks among patients with COPD without COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Hospitalizations among patients with asthma and/or COPD with COVID-19 had a more severe clinical course than hospitalizations for asthma and/or COPD exacerbations without COVID-19.Supplemental data for this article is available online at at www.tandfonline.com/ijas .

2.
Am J Public Health ; 111(5): 907-916, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177867

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To assess SARS-CoV-2 transmission within a correctional facility and recommend mitigation strategies.Methods. From April 29 to May 15, 2020, we established the point prevalence of COVID-19 among incarcerated persons and staff within a correctional facility in Arkansas. Participants provided respiratory specimens for SARS-CoV-2 testing and completed questionnaires on symptoms and factors associated with transmission.Results. Of 1647 incarcerated persons and 128 staff tested, 30.5% of incarcerated persons (range by housing unit = 0.0%-58.2%) and 2.3% of staff tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among those who tested positive and responded to symptom questions (431 incarcerated persons, 3 staff), 81.2% and 33.3% were asymptomatic, respectively. Most incarcerated persons (58.0%) reported wearing cloth face coverings 8 hours or less per day, and 63.3% reported close contact with someone other than their bunkmate.Conclusions. If testing remained limited to symptomatic individuals, fewer cases would have been detected or detection would have been delayed, allowing transmission to continue. Rapid implementation of mass testing and strict enforcement of infection prevention and control measures may be needed to mitigate spread of SARS-CoV-2 in this setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Correctional Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arkansas/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Housing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
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