Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 49
Filter
2.
Viruses ; 15(1):96, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166949

ABSTRACT

From July-November 2020, mink (Neogale vison) on 12 Utah farms experienced an increase in mortality rates due to confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We conducted epidemiologic investigations on six farms to identify the source of virus introduction, track cross-species transmission, and assess viral evolution. Interviews were conducted and specimens were collected from persons living or working on participating farms and from multiple animal species. Swabs and sera were tested by SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and serological assays, respectively. Whole genome sequencing was attempted for specimens with cycle threshold values <30. Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected by rRT-PCR or serology in ≥1 person, farmed mink, dog, and/or feral cat on each farm. Sequence analysis showed high similarity between mink and human sequences on corresponding farms. On farms sampled at multiple time points, mink tested rRT-PCR positive up to 16 weeks post-onset of increased mortality. Workers likely introduced SARS-CoV-2 to mink, and mink transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to other animal species;mink-to-human transmission was not identified. Our findings provide critical evidence to support interventions to prevent and manage SARS-CoV-2 in people and animals on mink farms and emphasizes the importance of a One Health approach to address emerging zoonoses.

3.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0266292, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079680

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether modified K-12 student quarantine policies that allow some students to continue in-person education during their quarantine period increase schoolwide SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk following the increase in cases in winter 2020-2021. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of COVID-19 cases and close contacts among students and staff (n = 65,621) in 103 Missouri public schools. Participants were offered free, saliva-based RT-PCR testing. The projected number of school-based transmission events among untested close contacts was extrapolated from the percentage of events detected among tested asymptomatic close contacts and summed with the number of detected events for a projected total. An adjusted Cox regression model compared hazard rates of school-based SARS-CoV-2 infections between schools with a modified versus standard quarantine policy. RESULTS: From January-March 2021, a projected 23 (1%) school-based transmission events occurred among 1,636 school close contacts. There was no difference in the adjusted hazard rates of school-based SARS-CoV-2 infections between schools with a modified versus standard quarantine policy (hazard ratio = 1.00; 95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.03). DISCUSSION: School-based SARS-CoV-2 transmission was rare in 103 K-12 schools implementing multiple COVID-19 prevention strategies. Modified student quarantine policies were not associated with increased school incidence of COVID-19. Modifications to student quarantine policies may be a useful strategy for K-12 schools to safely reduce disruptions to in-person education during times of increased COVID-19 community incidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Students , Policy
4.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066542

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from infected humans to other animals has been documented around the world, most notably in mink farming operations in Europe and the United States. Outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 on Utah mink farms began in late July 2020 and resulted in high mink mortality. An investigation of these outbreaks revealed active and past SARS-CoV-2 infections in free-roaming and in feral cats living on or near several mink farms. Cats were captured using live traps, were sampled, fitted with GPS collars, and released on the farms. GPS tracking of these cats show they made frequent visits to mink sheds, moved freely around the affected farms, and visited surrounding residential properties and neighborhoods on multiple occasions, making them potential low risk vectors of additional SARS-CoV-2 spread in local communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cats , Animals , Humans , Mink , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Farms , Utah/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274946, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065127

ABSTRACT

While risk of fomite transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is considered low, there is limited environmental data within households. This January-April 2021 investigation describes frequency and types of surfaces positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) among residences with ≥1 SARS-CoV-2 infection, and associations of household characteristics with surface RT-PCR and viable virus positivity. Of 1232 samples from 124 households, 27.8% (n = 342) were RT-PCR positive with nightstands (44.1%) and pillows (40.9%) most frequently positive. SARS-CoV-2 lineage, documented household transmission, greater number of infected persons, shorter interval between illness onset and sampling, total household symptoms, proportion of infected persons ≤12 years old, and persons exhibiting upper respiratory symptoms or diarrhea were associated with more positive surfaces. Viable virus was isolated from 0.2% (n = 3 samples from one household) of all samples. This investigation suggests that while SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces is common, fomite transmission risk in households is low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Colorado , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
PloS one ; 17(10), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2058466

ABSTRACT

While risk of fomite transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is considered low, there is limited environmental data within households. This January—April 2021 investigation describes frequency and types of surfaces positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) among residences with ≥1 SARS-CoV-2 infection, and associations of household characteristics with surface RT-PCR and viable virus positivity. Of 1232 samples from 124 households, 27.8% (n = 342) were RT-PCR positive with nightstands (44.1%) and pillows (40.9%) most frequently positive. SARS-CoV-2 lineage, documented household transmission, greater number of infected persons, shorter interval between illness onset and sampling, total household symptoms, proportion of infected persons ≤12 years old, and persons exhibiting upper respiratory symptoms or diarrhea were associated with more positive surfaces. Viable virus was isolated from 0.2% (n = 3 samples from one household) of all samples. This investigation suggests that while SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces is common, fomite transmission risk in households is low.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2227348, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013232

ABSTRACT

Importance: Few studies have prospectively assessed SARS-CoV-2 community infection in children aged 0 to 4 years. Information about SARS-CoV-2 incidence and clinical and virological features in young children could help guide prevention and mitigation strategies. Objective: To assess SARS-CoV-2 incidence, clinical and virological features, and symptoms in a prospective household cohort and to compare viral load by age group, symptoms, and SARS-CoV-2 lineage in young children, older children, and adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled 690 participants from 175 Maryland households with 1 or more children aged 0 to 4 years between November 24, 2020, and October 15, 2021. For 8 months after enrollment, participants completed weekly symptom questionnaires and submitted self-collected nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 qualitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing, quantitative RT-PCR testing, and viral lineage determination. For the analyses, SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta lineages were considered variants of interest or concern. Sera collected at enrollment and at approximately 4 months and 8 months after enrollment were assayed for SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid protein antibodies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence, clinical and virological characteristics, and symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection by age group and correlations between (1) highest detected viral load and symptom frequency and (2) highest detected viral load and SARS-CoV-2 lineage. Results: Among 690 participants (355 [51.4%] female and 335 [48.6%] male), 256 individuals (37.1%) were children aged 0 to 4 years, 100 (14.5%) were children aged 5 to 17 years, and 334 (48.4%) were adults aged 18 to 74 years. A total of 15 participants (2.2%) were Asian, 24 (3.5%) were Black, 603 (87.4%) were White, 43 (6.2%) were multiracial, and 5 (0.7%) were of other races; 33 participants (4.8%) were Hispanic, and 657 (95.2%) were non-Hispanic. Overall, 54 participants (7.8%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection during the surveillance period, including 22 of 256 children (8.6%) aged 0 to 4 years, 11 of 100 children (11.0%) aged 5 to 17 years, and 21 of 334 adults (6.3%). Incidence rates per 1000 person-weeks were 2.25 (95% CI, 1.28-3.65) infections among children aged 0 to 4 years, 3.48 (95% CI, 1.59-6.61) infections among children aged 5 to 17 years, and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.52-1.98) infections among adults. Children aged 0 to 17 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more frequently asymptomatic (11 of 30 individuals [36.7%]) compared with adults (3 of 21 individuals [14.3%]), with children aged 0 to 4 years most frequently asymptomatic (7 of 19 individuals [36.8%]). The highest detected viral load did not differ between asymptomatic vs symptomatic individuals overall (median [IQR], 2.8 [1.5-3.3] log10 copies/mL vs 2.8 [1.8-4.4] log10 copies/mL) or by age group (median [IQR] for ages 0-4 years, 2.7 [2.4-4.4] log10 copies/mL; ages 5-17 years: 2.4 [1.1-4.0] log10 copies/mL; ages 18-74 years: 2.9 [1.9-4.6] log10 copies/mL). The number of symptoms was significantly correlated with viral load among adults (R = 0.69; P < .001) but not children (ages 0-4 years: R = 0.02; P = .91; ages 5-17 years: R = 0.18; P = .58). The highest detected viral load was greater among those with Delta variant infections (median [IQR], 4.4 [3.9-5.1] log10 copies/mL) than those with infections from variants not of interest or concern (median [IQR], 1.9 [1.1-3.6] log10 copies/mL; P = .009) or those with Alpha variant infections (median [IQR], 2.6 [2.3-3.4] log10 copies/mL; P = .006). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, SARS-CoV-2 infections were frequently asymptomatic among children aged 0 to 4 years; the presence and number of symptoms did not correlate with viral load. These findings suggest that symptom screening may be insufficient to prevent outbreaks involving young children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
8.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-4, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016422

ABSTRACT

One in six nursing home residents and staff with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests ≥90 days after initial infection had specimen cycle thresholds (Ct) <30. Individuals with specimen Ct<30 were more likely to report symptoms but were not different from individuals with high Ct value specimens by other clinical and testing data.

9.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(8): ofac390, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001405

ABSTRACT

Background: Households are common places for spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We investigated factors associated with household transmission and acquisition of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Households with children age <18 years were enrolled into prospective, longitudinal cohorts and followed from August 2020 to August 2021 in Utah, September 2020 to August 2021 in New York City, and November 2020 to October 2021 in Maryland. Participants self-collected nasal swabs weekly and with onset of acute illness. Swabs were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We assessed factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 acquisition using a multilevel logistic regression adjusted for household size and clustering and SARS-CoV-2 transmission using a logistic regression adjusted for household size. Results: Among 2053 people (513 households) enrolled, 180 people (8.8%; in 76 households) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Compared with children age <12 years, the odds of acquiring infection were lower for adults age ≥18 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.34; 95% CI, 0.14-0.87); however, this may reflect vaccination status, which protected against SARS-CoV-2 acquisition (aOR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03-0.91). The odds of onward transmission were similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic primary cases (aOR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.35-2.93) and did not differ by age (12-17 years vs <12 years: aOR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.20-5.62; ≥18 years vs <12 years: aOR, 1.70; 95% CI, 0.52-5.83). Conclusions: Adults had lower odds of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 compared with children, but this association might be influenced by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, which was primarily available for adults and protective against infection. In contrast, all ages, regardless of symptoms and COVID-19 vaccination, had similar odds of transmitting SARS-CoV-2. Our findings underscore the importance of SARS-CoV-2 mitigation measures for persons of all ages.

10.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979414

ABSTRACT

The majority of Kenya's > 3 million camels have antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), although human infection in Africa is rare. We enrolled 243 camels aged 0-24 months from 33 homesteads in Northern Kenya and followed them between April 2018 to March 2020. We collected and tested camel nasal swabs for MERS-CoV RNA by RT-PCR followed by virus isolation and whole genome sequencing of positive samples. We also documented illnesses (respiratory or other) among the camels. Human camel handlers were also swabbed, screened for respiratory signs, and samples were tested for MERS-CoV by RT-PCR. We recorded 68 illnesses among 58 camels, of which 76.5% (52/68) were respiratory signs and the majority of illnesses (73.5% or 50/68) were recorded in 2019. Overall, 124/4692 (2.6%) camel swabs collected from 83 (34.2%) calves in 15 (45.5%) homesteads between April-September 2019 screened positive, while 22 calves (26.5%) recorded reinfections (second positive swab following ≥ 2 consecutive negative tests). Sequencing revealed a distinct Clade C2 virus that lacked the signature ORF4b deletions of other Clade C viruses. Three previously reported human PCR positive cases clustered with the camel infections in time and place, strongly suggesting sporadic transmission to humans during intense camel outbreaks in Northern Kenya.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Zoonoses
11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4350, 2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960369

ABSTRACT

The evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in the emergence of new variant lineages that have exacerbated the COVID-19 pandemic. Some of those variants were designated as variants of concern/interest (VOC/VOI) by national or international authorities based on many factors including their potential impact on vaccine-mediated protection from disease. To ascertain and rank the risk of VOCs and VOIs, we analyze the ability of 14 variants (614G, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, Zeta, Eta, Theta, Iota, Kappa, Lambda, Mu, and Omicron) to escape from mRNA vaccine-induced antibodies. The variants show differential reductions in neutralization and replication by post-vaccination sera. Although the Omicron variant (BA.1, BA.1.1, and BA.2) shows the most escape from neutralization, sera collected after a third dose of vaccine (booster sera) retain moderate neutralizing activity against that variant. Therefore, vaccination remains an effective strategy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
12.
Public Health Rep ; 137(5): 972-979, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938148

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Classroom layout plays a central role in maintaining physical distancing as part of a multicomponent prevention strategy for safe in-person learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a school investigation to assess layouts and physical distancing in classroom settings with and without in-school SARS-CoV-2 transmission. METHODS: We assessed, measured, and mapped 90 K-12 (kindergarten through grade 12) classrooms in 3 Missouri public school districts during January-March 2021, prior to widespread prevalence of the Delta variant; distances between students, teachers, and people with COVID-19 and their contacts were analyzed. We used whole-genome sequencing to further evaluate potential transmission events. RESULTS: The investigation evaluated the classrooms of 34 students and staff members who were potentially infectious with COVID-19 in a classroom. Of 42 close contacts (15 tested) who sat within 3 ft of possibly infectious people, 1 (2%) probable transmission event occurred (from a symptomatic student with a longer exposure period [5 days]); of 122 contacts (23 tested) who sat more than 3 ft away from possibly infectious people with shorter exposure periods, no transmission events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced student physical distancing is one component of mitigation strategies that can allow for increased classroom capacity and support in-person learning. In the pre-Delta variant period, limited physical distancing (<6 ft) among students in K-12 schools was not associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Missouri/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Schools
13.
Vaccine ; 40(33): 4845-4855, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination reduces SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission. However, evidence is emerging on the degree of protection across variants and in high-transmission settings. To better understand the protection afforded by vaccination specifically in a high-transmission setting, we examined household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during a period of high community incidence with predominant SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant, among vaccinated and unvaccinated contacts. METHODS: We conducted a household transmission investigation in San Diego County, California, and Denver, Colorado, during January-April 2021. Households were enrolled if they had at least one person with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. We collected nasopharyngeal swabs, blood, demographic information, and vaccination history from all consenting household members. We compared infection risks (IRs), RT-PCR cycle threshold values, SARS-CoV-2 culture results, and antibody statuses among vaccinated and unvaccinated household contacts. RESULTS: We enrolled 493 individuals from 138 households. The SARS-CoV-2 variant was identified from 121/138 households (88%). The most common variants were Alpha (75/121, 62%) and Epsilon (19/121, 16%). There were no households with discordant lineages among household members. One fully vaccinated secondary case was symptomatic (13%); the other 5 were asymptomatic (87%). Among unvaccinated secondary cases, 105/108 (97%) were symptomatic. Among 127 households with a single primary case, the IR for household contacts was 45% (146/322; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 40-51%). The observed IR was higher in unvaccinated (130/257, 49%, 95% CI 45-57%) than fully vaccinated contacts (6/26, 23%, 95% CI 11-42%). A lower proportion of households with a fully vaccinated primary case had secondary cases (1/5, 20%) than households with an unvaccinated primary case (66/108, 62%). CONCLUSIONS: Although SARS-CoV-2 infections in vaccinated household contacts were reported in this high transmission setting, full vaccination protected against SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings further support the protective effect of COVID-19 vaccination and highlight the need for ongoing vaccination among eligible persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , California/epidemiology , Colorado/epidemiology , Humans
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e122-e132, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Spring 2021, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.7 (Alpha) became the predominant variant in the United States. Research suggests that Alpha has increased transmissibility compared with non-Alpha lineages. We estimated household secondary infection risk (SIR), assessed characteristics associated with transmission, and compared symptoms of persons with Alpha and non-Alpha infections. METHODS: We followed households with SARS-CoV-2 infection for 2 weeks in San Diego County and metropolitan Denver, January to April 2021. We collected epidemiologic information and biospecimens for serology, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and whole-genome sequencing. We stratified SIR and symptoms by lineage and identified characteristics associated with transmission using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: We investigated 127 households with 322 household contacts; 72 households (56.7%) had member(s) with secondary infections. SIRs were not significantly higher for Alpha (61.0% [95% confidence interval, 52.4-69.0%]) than non-Alpha (55.6% [44.7-65.9%], P = .49). In households with Alpha, persons who identified as Asian or Hispanic/Latino had significantly higher SIRs than those who identified as White (P = .01 and .03, respectively). Close contact (eg, kissing, hugging) with primary cases was associated with increased transmission for all lineages. Persons with Alpha infection were more likely to report constitutional symptoms than persons with non-Alpha (86.9% vs 76.8%, P = .05). CONCLUSIONS: Household SIRs were similar for Alpha and non-Alpha. Comparable SIRs may be due to saturation of transmission risk in households due to extensive close contact, or true lack of difference in transmission rates. Avoiding close contact within households may reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission for all lineages among household members.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
15.
J Pediatr ; 247: 29-37.e7, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873172

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the household secondary infection risk (SIR) of B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and non-Alpha lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children. STUDY DESIGN: During January to April 2021, we prospectively followed households with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We collected questionnaires, serial nasopharyngeal swabs for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing and whole genome sequencing, and serial blood samples for serology testing. We calculated SIRs by primary case age (pediatric vs adult), household contact age, and viral lineage. We evaluated risk factors associated with transmission and described symptom profiles among children. RESULTS: Among 36 households with pediatric primary cases, 21 (58%) had secondary infections. Among 91 households with adult primary cases, 51 (56%) had secondary infections. SIRs among pediatric and adult primary cases were 45% and 54%, respectively (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.41-1.54). SIRs among pediatric primary cases with Alpha and non-Alpha lineage were 55% and 46%, respectively (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.51-4.53). SIRs among pediatric and adult household contacts were 55% and 49%, respectively (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.68-1.50). Among pediatric contacts, no significant differences in the odds of acquiring infection by demographic or household characteristics were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from children and adult primary cases to household members was frequent. The risk of secondary infection was similar among child and adult household contacts. Among children, household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and the risk of secondary infection was not influenced by lineage. Continued mitigation strategies (eg, masking, physical distancing, vaccination) are needed to protect at-risk groups regardless of virus lineage circulating in communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , California , Child , Colorado/epidemiology , Humans
16.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(7): 701-709, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825745

ABSTRACT

Importance: As self-collected home antigen tests become widely available, a better understanding of their performance during the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection is needed. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of home antigen tests compared with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culture by days from illness onset, as well as user acceptability. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study was conducted from January to May 2021 in San Diego County, California, and metropolitan Denver, Colorado. The convenience sample included adults and children with RT-PCR-confirmed infection who used self-collected home antigen tests for 15 days and underwent at least 1 nasopharyngeal swab for RT-PCR, viral culture, and sequencing. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the daily sensitivity of home antigen tests to detect RT-PCR-confirmed cases. Secondary outcomes included the daily percentage of antigen test, RT-PCR, and viral culture results that were positive, and antigen test sensitivity compared with same-day RT-PCR and cultures. Antigen test use errors and acceptability were assessed for a subset of participants. Results: This study enrolled 225 persons with RT-PCR-confirmed infection (median [range] age, 29 [1-83] years; 117 female participants [52%]; 10 [4%] Asian, 6 [3%] Black or African American, 50 [22%] Hispanic or Latino, 3 [1%] Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, 145 [64%] White, and 11 [5%] multiracial individuals) who completed 3044 antigen tests and 642 nasopharyngeal swabs. Antigen test sensitivity was 50% (95% CI, 45%-55%) during the infectious period, 64% (95% CI, 56%-70%) compared with same-day RT-PCR, and 84% (95% CI, 75%-90%) compared with same-day cultures. Antigen test sensitivity peaked 4 days after illness onset at 77% (95% CI, 69%-83%). Antigen test sensitivity improved with a second antigen test 1 to 2 days later, particularly early in the infection. Six days after illness onset, antigen test result positivity was 61% (95% CI, 53%-68%). Almost all (216 [96%]) surveyed individuals reported that they would be more likely to get tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection if home antigen tests were available over the counter. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this cohort study of home antigen tests suggest that sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 was moderate compared with RT-PCR and high compared with viral culture. The results also suggest that symptomatic individuals with an initial negative home antigen test result for SARS-CoV-2 infection should test again 1 to 2 days later because test sensitivity peaked several days after illness onset and improved with repeated testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Prospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 69(5): 587-592, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794548

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has been described in a wide range of species, including domestic animals such as dogs and cats. Illness in dogs is usually self-limiting, and further diagnostics may not be pursued if clinical signs resolve or they respond to empirical treatment. As new variants emerge, the clinical presentation and role in transmission may vary in animals. This report highlights different clinical presentations and immunological responses in two SARS-CoV-2 Delta-variant-positive dogs with similar exposure to the same fully vaccinated human with a SARS-CoV-2 infection and emphasizes the need for active surveillance and additional One Health research on SARS-CoV-2 variant infections in companion animals and other species.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Animals , Animals, Domestic , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Georgia , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 850510, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785463

ABSTRACT

Central nervous system (CNS) inflammation is a common cause of neurological dysfunction in dogs. Most dogs with CNS inflammation are diagnosed with presumptive autoimmune disease. A smaller number are diagnosed with an infectious etiology. Additionally, at necropsy, a subset of dogs with CNS inflammation do not fit previously described patterns of autoimmune disease and an infectious cause is not readily identifiable. Because viral infection is a common cause of meningoencephalitis in people, we hypothesize that a subset of dogs presented with CNS inflammation have an occult viral infection either as a direct cause of CNS inflammation or a trigger for autoimmunity. The goal of this research was to screen cerebrospinal fluid from a large number dogs with CNS inflammation for occult viral infection. One hundred seventy-two dogs with neurological dysfunction and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis were identified. Of these, 42 had meningoencephalitis of unknown origin, six had steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis, one had eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, five had documented infection, 21 had and undetermined diagnosis, and 97 had a diagnosis not consistent with primary inflammatory disease of the CNS (e.g., neoplasia). CSF samples were subsequently screened with broadly reactive PCR for eight viral groups: adenovirus, bunyavirus, coronavirus, enterovirus, flavivirus, herpesvirus, paramyxovirus, and parechovirus. No viral nucleic acids were detected from 168 cases screened for eight viral groups, which does not support occult viral infection as a cause of CNS inflammation in dogs. La Crosse virus (LACV) nucleic acids were detected from four cases in Georgia. Subclinical infection was supported in two of these cases but LACV could not be ruled-out as a cause of infection in the other two cases, suggesting further research is warranted to determine if LACV is an occult cause of CNS inflammation in dogs.

19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 833-836, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760184

ABSTRACT

We report an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 involving 3 Malayan tigers (Panthera tigris jacksoni) at a zoo in Tennessee, USA. Investigation identified naturally occurring tiger-to-tiger transmission; genetic sequence change occurred with viral passage. We provide epidemiologic, environmental, and genomic sequencing data for animal and human infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tigers , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tennessee/epidemiology , Tigers/genetics
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 319-326, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To inform prevention strategies, we assessed the extent of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission and settings in which transmission occurred in a Georgia public school district. METHODS: During 1 December 2020-22 January 2021, SARS-CoV-2-infected index cases and their close contacts in schools were identified by school and public health officials. For in-school contacts, we assessed symptoms and offered SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing; performed epidemiologic investigations and whole-genome sequencing to identify in-school transmission; and calculated secondary attack rate (SAR) by school setting (eg, sports, elementary school classroom), index case role (ie, staff, student), and index case symptomatic status. RESULTS: We identified 86 index cases and 1119 contacts, 688 (61.5%) of whom received testing. Fifty-nine of 679 (8.7%) contacts tested positive; 15 of 86 (17.4%) index cases resulted in ≥2 positive contacts. Among 55 persons testing positive with available symptom data, 31 (56.4%) were asymptomatic. Highest SARs were in indoor, high-contact sports settings (23.8% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 12.7%-33.3%]), staff meetings/lunches (18.2% [95% CI, 4.5%-31.8%]), and elementary school classrooms (9.5% [95% CI, 6.5%-12.5%]). The SAR was higher for staff (13.1% [95% CI, 9.0%-17.2%]) vs student index cases (5.8% [95% CI, 3.6%-8.0%]) and for symptomatic (10.9% [95% CI, 8.1%-13.9%]) vs asymptomatic index cases (3.0% [95% CI, 1.0%-5.5%]). CONCLUSIONS: Indoor sports may pose a risk to the safe operation of in-person learning. Preventing infection in staff members, through measures that include coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination, is critical to reducing in-school transmission. Because many positive contacts were asymptomatic, contact tracing should be paired with testing, regardless of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Contact Tracing , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Schools , Students
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL