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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 770197, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581233

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is one of the pathologic changes in COVID-19 patients in convalescence, and it is also a potential long-term sequela in severe COVID-19 patients. Qimai Feiluoping decoction (QM) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula recommended in the Chinese national medical program for COVID-19 convalescent patients, and PF is one of its indications. Through clinical observation, QM was found to improve the clinical symptoms and pulmonary function and reduce the degree of PF of COVID-19 convalescent patients. To further explore the pharmacological mechanisms and possible active components of QM in anti-PF effect, UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS was used to analyze the composition of the QM extract and the active components that can be absorbed into the blood, leading to the identification of 56 chemical compounds and 10 active components. Then, network pharmacology was used to predict the potential mechanisms and targets of QM; it predicted that QM exerts its anti-PF effects via the regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, and TGF-ß signaling pathway. Finally, TGF-ß1-induced A549 cells were used to verify and explore the pharmacological effects of QM and found that QM could inhibit the proliferation of TGF-ß1-induced A549 cells, attenuate EMT, and promote ECM degradation by inhibiting the TGF-ß/Smad3 pathway.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 728055, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497087

ABSTRACT

Objective: To conduct a randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the clinical efficacy and prognostic value of Jinhua Qinggan granules in patients with confirmed and suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A total of 123 suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients participated in this clinical trial and were randomly divided into Jinhua and Western medicine groups. For 14 days, the Jinhua group was treated with Jinhua Qinggan granules and antiviral drugs, and the Western medicine group was treated with antiviral drugs alone. We collected information on clinical symptoms, disease aggravation rates, and negative conversion rates of nucleic acids in patients, and observed the effects of anti-infective drugs. Results: There was no significant difference in symptom improvement rates between the two groups, both confirmed and suspected patients (P > 0.05). Both treatments relieved symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and diarrhea. However, the Jinhua treatment was superior in relieving fever and poor appetite. Anti-infective drug use rates were significantly lower in the Jinhua group than in the control group. Conclusion: Jinhua Qinggan granules combined with Western medicine could relieve the clinical symptoms of fever and poor appetite in COVID-19 patients, reduce the use of antibiotics to a certain extent. Clinical Trial Registration: The registration number at China Clinical Trial Registry is ChiCTR2000029601.

3.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105127, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318946

ABSTRACT

We formulated a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, Hanshiyi Formula (HSYF), which was approved and promoted by the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission for treating mild and moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to evaluate the effect of HSYF on the progression to severe disease in mild and moderate COVID-19 patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with mild and moderate COVID-19 in a quarantine station in Wuchang District, Wuhan. Using the real-time Internet information collection application and Centers for Disease Control for the Wuchang District, patient data were collected through patient self-reports and follow-ups. HSYF intervention was defined as the exposure. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who progressed to a severe disease status, and a stratification analysis was performed. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify influencing factors that may affect the outcome. Further, we used propensity score matching (PSM) to assess the effect of HSYF intervention on the conversion of mild and moderate to a severe disease status. Totally, 721 mild and moderate COVID-19 patients were enrolled, including 430 HSYF users (exposed group) and 291 non-users (control group). No cases in the exposed group and 19 (6.5 %, P < 0.001) cases in the control group progressed to severe disease, and the difference between the two groups (exposed group-control group) was -6.5 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): (-8.87 %, -4.13 %)]. Univariate regression analysis revealed sex (male), age, fever, cough, and fatigue as risk factors for progression to severe disease. After PSM, none of the HSYF users and 7 (4.7 %, P = 0.022) non-users transitioned to severe disease, and the difference between the two groups (exposed group-control group) was -4.7 % [95 % CI: (-8.2 %, -1.2 %)]. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that sex (male) [OR: 3.145; 95 % CI: 1.036-9.545; P = 0.043] and age (> 48 years) [odds ratio (OR): 1.044; 95 % CI: 1.001-1.088; P = 0.044] were independent risk factors for conversion to severe disease. Therefore, HSYF can significantly reduce the progression to severe disease in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19, which may effectively prevent and treat the disease. However, further larger clinical studies are required to verify our results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105126, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the global epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), China has made progress in the prevention and control of the epidemic, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a key role in dealing with the disease's effects on the respiratory system. This randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the clinical efficacy and prognosis of Huoxiang Zhengqi dropping pills and Lianhua Qingwen granules in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 283 patients participated in this clinical trial, and participants were randomly assigned to receive either 1) Huoxiang Zhengqi dropping pills and Lianhua Qingwen granules or 2) Linahua granules, both combined with western medicine, or 3) western medicine alone for 14 days. At the end of the trial, the improvement and resolution rates of clinical symptoms and the rate of patients who progressed to severe disease status were evaluated. RESULTS: After 14 days of treatment, there was no significant difference in the improvement rate of clinical symptoms among the three groups (P > 0.05). Huoxiang Zhengqi dropping pills combined with Lianhua Qingwen granules has advantages in the treatment of nausea, vomiting and limb soreness. During treatment, all participants were treated with western medicine, and there was a significant difference in the use of macrolides among the three groups (P < 0.05). Specifically, the utilization rate of antibiotics in the western medicine group was significantly greater than that of the other two groups. Among the 182 diagnosed patients who completed this clinical trial, 13 patients progressed to severe disease, including one case in the Huoxiang + Lianhua group (1.6 %), five cases in the Lianhua group (8.6 %), and seven cases in the western medicine group (11.1 %). There was no statistical differences in this rate among the three groups (P > 0.05). However, the proportion of patients who progressed to severe disease in the Huoxiang + Lianhua group was the lowest, suggesting that the combination of TCM with western medicine has a potential advantage in improving the prognosis of patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The use of Huoxiang Zhengqi dropping pills and Lianhua Qingwen granules combined with western medicine may have clinical advantages for COVID-19 patients in improving clinical symptoms, reducing utilization rate of anti-infective drugs, and improving patient prognosis, which could pave the way for the use of complementary medicine in treating this infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , China , Disease Progression , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Myalgia/drug therapy , Myalgia/etiology , Nausea/drug therapy , Nausea/etiology , Powders , Tablets , Treatment Outcome , Vomiting/drug therapy , Vomiting/etiology
5.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 44, 2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261276

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), first broke out in Wuhan, China, in 2019. SARS-CoV-2 develops many types of mutations (such as B.1.1.7), making diagnosis and treatment challenging. Although we now have a preliminary understanding of COVID-19, including pathological changes, clinical manifestations, and treatment measures, we also face new difficulties. The biggest problem is that most COVID-19 patients might face sequelae (e.g., fatigue, sleep disturbance, pulmonary fibrosis) during the recovery phase. We aimed to test six Chinese patent medicines to treat three major abnormal symptoms in COVID-19 patients during the recovery phase, including cardiopulmonary function, sleep disturbance, and digestive function. We launched the "three syndromes and six Chinese patent medicines" randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial on April 10, 2020. The results showed that Jinshuibao tablets and Shengmaiyin oral liquid significantly improved the cardiopulmonary function of recovering COVID-19 patients. Shumian capsules, but not Xiaoyao capsules, significantly improved patients' sleep disorders. This might be because the indication of Xiaoyao capsules is liver qi stagnation rather than psychological or emotional problems. Xiangsha Liujun pills and Ludangshen oral liquid significantly improved digestive function. Our research provides a guideline for treating COVID-19 sequelae in patients during the recovery period based on high-quality evidence.

6.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 602218, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219417

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still a relevant global problem. Although some patients have recovered from COVID-19, the sequalae to the SARS-CoV-2 infection may include pulmonary fibrosis, which may contribute to considerable economic burden and health-care challenges. Convalescent Chinese Prescription (CCP) has been widely used during the COVID-19 recovery period for patients who were at high risk of pulmonary fibrosis and is recommended by the Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19 (Trial Version sixth, seventh). However, its underlying mechanism is still unclear. Methods: In this study, an integrated pharmacology approach was implemented, which involved evaluation of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of CCP, data mining of the disease targets, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction, and analysis, enrichment analysis, and molecular docking simulation, to predict the bioactive components, potential targets, and molecular mechanism of CCP for pulmonary fibrosis associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: The active compound of CCP and the candidate targets, including pulmonary fibrosis targets, were obtained through database mining. The Drug-Disease network was constructed. Sixty-five key targets were identified by topological analysis. The findings of Gene Ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway annotation suggested that the VEGF, Toll-like 4 receptor, MAPK signaling pathway, and TGF-ß1 signaling pathways may be involved in pulmonary fibrosis. In the molecular docking analyses, VEGF, TNF-α, IL-6, MMP9 exhibited good binding activity. Findings from our study indicated that CCP could inhibit the expression of VEGF, TNF-α, IL-6, MMP9, TGF-ß1 via the VEGF, Toll-like 4 receptor, MAPK, and TGF-ß1 signaling pathways. Conclusion: Potential mechanisms involved in CCP treatment for COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection involves multiple components and multiple target points as well as multiple pathways. These findings may offer a profile for further investigations of the anti-fibrotic mechanism of CCP.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 617659, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127986

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a significant role in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan City. During the epidemic, Academician Tong Xiaolin suggested a close association of COVID-19 with cold-dampness, an etiological factor in TCM, by summarizing the characteristics of the COVID-19 patients in Wuhan. and the theory of Cold-dampness Plague was proposed. Based on the Cold-dampness Plague theory, a series of TCM drugs, such as Huoxiang Zhengqi Dropping Pills, Lianhua Qingwen Granules Hanshiyi Formula, and Tongzhi Granule were developed for the different stages, namely mild, moderate, severe, recovery, of the COVID-19. In addition, clinical evidences were obtained through randomized clinical trials or retrospective cohort studies. The Anti-SARS-CoV-2 mechanism of the TCM prescriptions were then summarized from the four aspects: targeting the ACE2 and 3CLPro, targeting cytokines, targeting acute immune responses to SARS-CoV-2, and targeting pulmonary fibrosis. Despite the clinical efficacy and therapeutic pharmacology speculation, more studies such as large-scale randomized clinical trials, cell and animal experiments are needed to further verify the theory of the Cold-dampness Plague in COVID-19 patients.

8.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(3): 543-575, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119998

ABSTRACT

Chinese medicine (CM) was extensively used to treat COVID-19 in China. We aimed to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of add-on semi-individualized CM during the outbreak. A retrospective cohort of 1788 adult confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited from 2235 consecutive linked records retrieved from five hospitals in Wuhan during 15 January to 13 March 2020. The mortality of add-on semi-individualized CM users and non-users was compared by inverse probability weighted hazard ratio (HR) and by propensity score matching. Change of biomarkers was compared between groups, and the frequency of CMs used was analyzed. Subgroup analysis was performed to stratify disease severity and dose of CM exposure. The crude mortality was 3.8% in the semi-individualized CM user group and 17.0% among the non-users. Add-on CM was associated with a mortality reduction of 58% (HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.77, [Formula: see text] = 0.005) among all COVID-19 cases and 66% (HR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.76, [Formula: see text] = 0.009) among severe/critical COVID-19 cases demonstrating dose-dependent response, after inversely weighted with propensity score. The result was robust in various stratified, weighted, matched, adjusted and sensitivity analyses. Severe/critical patients that received add-on CM had a trend of stabilized D-dimer level after 3-7 days of admission when compared to baseline. Immunomodulating and anti-asthmatic CMs were most used. Add-on semi-individualized CM was associated with significantly reduced mortality, especially among severe/critical cases. Chinese medicine could be considered as an add-on regimen for trial use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Registries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/classification , Epidemics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
Virol Sin ; 36(5): 869-878, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117772

ABSTRACT

Understanding the persistence of antibody in convalescent COVID-19 patients may help to answer the current major concerns such as the risk of reinfection, the protection period of vaccination and the possibility of building an active herd immunity. This retrospective cohort study included 172 COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Wuhan. A total of 404 serum samples were obtained over six months from hospitalization to convalescence. Antibodies in the specimens were quantitatively analyzed by the capture chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIA). All patients were positive for the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG at the onset of COVID-19 symptoms, and the IgG antibody persisted in all the patients during the convalescence. However, only approximately 25% of patients can detect the IgM antibodies, IgM against N protein (N-IgM) and receptor binding domain of S protein (RBD-IgM) at the 27th week. The titers of IgM, N-IgM and RBD-IgM reduced to 16.7%, 17.6% and 15.2% of their peak values respectively. In contrast, the titers of IgG, N-IgG and RBD-IgG peaked at 4-5th week and reduced to 85.9%, 62.6% and 87.2% of their peak values respectively at the end of observation. Dynamic behavior of antibodies and their correlation in age, gender and severity groups were investigated. In general, the COVID-19 antibody was sustained at high levels for over six months in most of the convalescent patients. Only a few patients with antibody reducing to an undetectable level which needs further attention. The humoral immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection in COVID-19 patients exhibits a typical dynamic of acquired immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Convalescence , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Retrospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Front Med ; 14(6): 752-759, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064591

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in patients with severe/critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this retrospective study, data were collected from 662 patients with severe/critical COVID-19 who were admitted to a designated hospital to treat patients with severe COVID-19 in Wuhan before March 20, 2020. All patients were divided into an exposed group (CHM users) and a control group (non-users). After propensity score matching in a 1:1 ratio, 156 CHM users were matched by propensity score to 156 non-users. No significant differences in seven baseline clinical variables were found between the two groups of patients. All-cause mortality was reported in 13 CHM users who died and 36 non-users who died. After multivariate adjustment, the mortality risk of CHM users was reduced by 82.2% (odds ratio 0.178, 95% CI 0.076-0.418; P < 0.001) compared with the non-users. Secondly, age (odds ratio 1.053, 95% CI 1.023-1.084; P < 0.001) and the proportion of severe/critical patients (odds ratio 0.063, 95% CI 0.028-0.143; P < 0.001) were the risk factors of mortality. These results show that the use of CHM may reduce the mortality of patients with severe/critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Age Factors , Aged , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111267, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051489

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third coronavirus causing serious human disease to spread across the world in the past 20 years, after SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome. As of mid-September 2020, more than 200 countries and territories have reported 30 million cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2, including 950,000 deaths. Supportive treatment remains the mainstay of therapy for COVID-19. The World Health Organization reported that four candidate drugs, including remdesivir, are ineffective or have little effect on COVID-19. According to China News, 90 % of Chinese patients with COVID-19 use traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with an effectiveness rate of 80 %, and no deterioration in patient condition. We have compiled the direct evidence of TCM treatment for COVID-19 as of December 31, 2020. We describe the advantages of TCM in the treatment of COVID-19 based on clinical evidence and the required methods for its clinical use. TCM can inhibit virus replication and transcription, prevent the combination of SARS-CoV-2 and the host, and attenuate the cytokine storm and immune deficiency caused by the virus infection. The cooperation of many countries is required to establish international guidelines regarding the use of TCM in patients with severe COVID-19 from other regions and of different ethnicities. Studies on the psychological abnormalities in patients with COVID-19, and medical staff, is lacking; it is necessary to provide a complete chain of evidence to determine the efficacy of TCM in the related prevention, treatment, and recovery. This study aims to provide a reference for the rational use of TCM in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Treatment Outcome
12.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 549117, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895316

ABSTRACT

Objective: During the follow-up of patients recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the quarantine and observation period, some of the cured patients showed positive results again. The recurrent positive RT-PCR test results drew widespread concern. We observed a certain number of cured COVID-19 patients with positive RT-PCR test results and try to analyze the factors that caused the phenomenon. Methods: We conducted an observational study in COVID-19 patients discharged from 6 rehabilitation stations in Wuhan, China. All observed subjects met the criteria for hospital discharge and were in quarantine. Data regarding age, sex, body mass index (BMI), course of disease, comorbidity, smoking status and alcohol consumption, symptoms in and out of quarantine, and intervention were collected from the subjects' medical records and descriptively analyzed. The main outcome of this study was the RT-PCR test result of the observed subjects at the end of quarantine (negative or positive). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the influencing factors related to recurrent positive RT-PCR test results. Results: In this observational study, 420 observed subjects recovered from COVID-19 were included. The median age was 56 years, 63.6% of the subjects were above 50 years old, and 50.7% (213/420) were female. The most common comorbidities were hypertension [26.4% (111/420)], hyperlipidemia [10.7% (45/420)], and diabetes [10.5% (44/420)]. 54.8% (230/420) manifested one or more symptoms at the beginning of the observation period, the most common symptoms were cough [27.6% (116/420)], shortness of breath 23.8% (100/420)], and fatigue [16.2% (68/420)], with fever rare [2.6% (11/420)]. A total of 325 subjects were exposed to comprehensive intervention; 95 subjects were absence of intervention. The recurrence rate of positive RT-PCR test results with comprehensive intervention was 2.8% (9/325), and that with no intervention was 15.8% (15/95). The results of logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusted for factors such as age, sex, and comorbidity and found out that comprehensive intervention was correlated with the recurrent positive RT-PCR test results. There was appreciably less recurrence in the comprehensive intervention group. Conclusions: The factors related to positive RT-PCR test results in observed subjects recovered from COVID-19 were age, comorbidity, and comprehensive intervention, among which comprehensive intervention might be a protective factor. Clinical Trial Registration: Chictr.org.cn, identifier ChiCTR2000030747.

13.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-631

ABSTRACT

Background: An outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and spread rapidly across the globe. In light of most COVI

14.
Front Med ; 14(5): 681-688, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640212

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an ancient system of alternative medicine, played an active role in the prevention and control of COVID-19 in China. It improved the clinical symptoms of patients, reduced the mortality rate, improved the recovery rate, and effectively relieved the operating pressure on the national medical system during critical conditions. In light of the current global pandemic, TCM-related measures might open up a new channel in the control of COVID-19 in other countries and regions. Here, we summarize the TCM-related measures that were widely used in China, including TCM guidelines, the Wuchang pattern, mobile cabin hospitals, integrated treatment of TCM and modern medicine for critical patients, and non-medicine therapy for convalescent patients, and describe how TCM effectively treated patients afflicted with the COVID-19. Effective TCM therapies could, therefore, be recommended and practiced based on the existing medical evidence from increased scientific studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Preventive Medicine/methods , Aftercare/methods , Aftercare/organization & administration , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/classification , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Mobile Health Units/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(24): e20481, 2020 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-600815

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease and became a global issue. Treatment of COVID-19 especially in solid organ transplant recipients is empirical and controversial, especially the adjustment of the immunosuppressants. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 29-year-old kidney transplant recipient with the symptoms of COVID-19 pneumonia. DIAGNOSES: COVID-19 pneumonia after kidney transplantation. INTERVENTIONS: He was treated with modified immunosuppressants (unchanged dose of tacrolimus and oral corticosteroids while discontinuing mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)), antibiotics, interferon α-2b inhalation and traditional Chinese medicine. OUTCOMES: He recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia after 29 days of hospitalization. And the renal function (measured as blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and urine protein) returned to normal. LESSONS: In certain group of COVID-19 (e.g., mild to moderate cases, young patients without comorbidities), a reduction instead of an overall withdrawal of immunosuppressant in kidney transplant recipients is feasible.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Kidney Transplantation , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Male , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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