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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322843

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected positive again after discharged from hospital in some COVID-19 patients, with or without clinical symptoms such as fever or dry cough. Methods 1008 severe COVID-19 patients, with SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive detected with the mixed specimen of nasopharyngeal swab and oropharyngeal swab by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), were selected to monitor SARS-CoV-2 RNA with the 12 types of specimens by RT-qPCR during hospitalization. All of 20 discharged cases with COVID-19 were selected to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in isolation period with 7 types of specimens by RT-qPCR before releasing the isolation period. Results Of the enrolled 1008 severe patients, the nasopharyngeal swab specimens showed the highest positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA (71.06%), followed by alveolar lavage fluid (66.67%), oropharyngeal swab (30.77%), sputum (28.53%), urine (16.30%), blood (12.5%), stool (12.21%), anal swab (11.22%) and corneal secretion (2.99%), and SARS-CoV-2 RNA couldn’t be detected in other types of specimen in this study. Of the 20 discharged cases during the isolation period, the positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was 30% (6/20);2 cases were positive in sputum at the eighth and ninth day after discharge, respectively. 1 case was positive in nasopharynx swab at the sixth day after discharge, 1 case was positive in anal swab at the eighth day after discharge, and 1 case was positive in 3 specimens ( nasopharynx swab , oropharynx swab and sputum) simultaneously at the fourth day after discharge;no positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in other specimens including stool, urine and blood at the discharged patients. Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 RNA should be detected in multiple specimens, such as nasopharynx swab, oropharynx swab, sputum, and if necessary, stool and anal swab specimens should be performed simultaneously at discharge when the patients were considered for clinical cure and before releasing the isolation period.

2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to analyze clinical characteristics and find potential factors to predict poor prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We analyzed the clinical characteristics and laboratory tests of COVID-19 patients and detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in urine sediments collected from 53 COVID-19 patients enrolled in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from 31 January 2020 to 18 February 2020 with qRT-PCR analysis. Then, we classified those patients based on clinical conditions (severe or non-severe syndrome) and urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA (URNA- or URNA+). RESULTS: We found that COVID-19 patients with severe syndrome (severe patients) showed significantly higher positive rate (11 of 23, 47.8%) of urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA than non-severe patients (4 of 30, 13.3%, p = 0.006). URNA+ patients or severe URNA+ subgroup exhibited higher prevalence of inflammation and immune discord, cardiovascular diseases, liver damage and renal dysfunction, and higher risk of death than URNA- patients. To understand the potential mechanisms underlying the viral urine shedding, we performed renal histopathological analysis on postmortems of patients with COVID-19 and found severe renal vascular endothelium lesion characterized by an increase of the expression of thrombomodulin and von Willebrand factor, markers to assess the endothelium dysfunction. We proposed a theoretical and mathematic model to depict the potential factors that determine the urine shedding of SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected in urine specimens can be used to predict the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 severity.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(20): e25916, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236279

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The outbreak and widely spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health concern. COVID-19 has caused an unprecedented and profound impact on the whole world, and the prevention and control of COVID-19 is a global public health challenge remains to be solved. The retrospective analysis of the large scale tests of SARS-CoV-2 RNA may indicate some important information of this pandemic. We selected 12400 SARS-CoV-2 tests detected in Wuhan in the first semester of 2020 and made a systematic analysis of them, in order to find some beneficial clue for the consistent prevention and control of COVID-19.SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in suspected COVID-19 patients with real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The patients' features including gender, age, type of specimen, source of patients, and the dynamic changes of the clinical symptoms were recorded and statistically analyzed. Quantitative and qualitive statistical analysis were carried out after laboratory detection.The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 was 33.02% in 12,400 suspected patients' specimens in Wuhan at the first months of COVID-19 epidemics. SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR test of nasopharyngeal swabs might produce 4.79% (594/12400) presumptive results. The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was significantly different between gender, age, type of specimen, source of patients, respectively (P < .05). The median window period from the occurrence of clinical symptom or close contact with COVID-19 patient to the first detection of positive PCR was 2 days (interquartile range, 1-4 days). The median interval time from the first SARS-CoV-2 positive to the turning negative was 14 days (interquartile range, 8-19.25 days).This study reveals the comprehensive characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection from multiple perspectives, and it provides important clues and may also supply useful suggestions for future work of the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Retrospective Studies
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2158-2166, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) broke out in Wuhan. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported, but the relationships between laboratory features and viral load has not been comprehensively described. METHODS: Adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with COVID-19 who underwent multiple (≥5 times) nucleic acid tests with nasal and pharyngeal swabs were recruited from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, including general patients (n = 70), severe patients (n = 195), and critical patients (n = 43). Laboratory data, demographic data, and clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records. The fitted polynomial curve was used to explore the association between serial viral loads and illness severity. RESULTS: Viral load of SARS-CoV-2 peaked within the first few days (2-4 days) after admission, then decreased rapidly along with virus rebound under treatment. Critical patients had the highest viral loads, in contrast to the general patients showing the lowest viral loads. The viral loads were higher in sputum compared with nasal and pharyngeal swab (P = .026). The positive rate of respiratory tract samples was significantly higher than that of gastrointestinal tract samples (P < .001). The SARS-CoV-2 viral load was negatively correlated with portion parameters of blood routine and lymphocyte subsets and was positively associated with laboratory features of cardiovascular system. CONCLUSIONS: The serial viral loads of patients revealed whole viral shedding during hospitalization and the resurgence of virus during the treatment, which could be used for early warning of illness severity, thus improve antiviral interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Serologic Tests , Viral Load
7.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(24): 1631, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045261

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already become a pandemic wherein the infection's timely diagnosis has proven beneficial to patient treatment and disease control. Nucleic acid detection has been the primary laboratory diagnostic method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. To ensure laboratory staff safety and quality nucleic acid testing, the Chinese Society of Laboratory Medicine formulated this consensus, based on the Chinese National Recommendations and previous literature for nucleic acid detection. A working group comprises 34 hospital professionals experience with real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 drafted guidance statements during online discussions. A modified Delphi methodology was used in forming a consensus among a wider group of hospital professionals with SARS-CoV-2 detection experience. Guidance statements were developed for four categories: (I) specimen type, priority, collecting, transportation and receiving; (II) nucleic acid isolation and amplification; (III) quality control; (IV) biosafety management and decontamination. The modified Delphi voting process included a total of 29 guidance statements and final agreement. Consensus was reached after two rounds of voting. Recommendations were established for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 using real time PCR testing based on evidence and group consensus. The manuscript was evaluated against The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation Instrument (AGREE II) and was developed to aid medical laboratory staff in the detection of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) of SARS-CoV-2.

8.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 411, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected positive again after discharged from hospital in some COVID-19 patients, with or without clinical symptoms such as fever or dry cough. METHODS: 1008 severe COVID-19 patients, with SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive detected with the mixed specimen of nasopharyngeal swab and oropharyngeal swab by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), were selected to monitor SARS-CoV-2 RNA with the 12 types of specimens by RT-qPCR during hospitalization. All of 20 discharged cases with COVID-19 were selected to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in isolation period with 7 types of specimens by RT-qPCR before releasing the isolation period. RESULTS: Of the enrolled 1008 severe patients, the nasopharyngeal swab specimens showed the highest positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA (71.06%), followed by alveolar lavage fluid (66.67%), oropharyngeal swab (30.77%), sputum (28.53%), urine (16.30%), blood (12.5%), stool (12.21%), anal swab (11.22%) and corneal secretion (2.99%), and SARS-CoV-2 RNA couldn't be detected in other types of specimen in this study. Of the 20 discharged cases during the isolation period, the positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was 30% (6/20): 2 cases were positive in sputum at the eighth and ninth day after discharge, respectively, 1 case was positive in nasopharynx swab at the sixth day after discharge, 1 case was positive in anal swab at the eighth day after discharge, and 1 case was positive in 3 specimens (nasopharynx swab, oropharynx swab and sputum) simultaneously at the fourth day after discharge, and no positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in other specimens including stool, urine and blood at the discharged patients. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA should be detected in multiple specimens, such as nasopharynx swab, oropharynx swab, sputum, and if necessary, stool and anal swab specimens should be performed simultaneously at discharge when the patients were considered for clinical cure and before releasing the isolation period.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Nasal Cavity/virology , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Body Fluids , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Chinese J. Lab. Med. ; 3(43): 209-212, 20200311.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-769460

ABSTRACT

In December, the outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China, has attracted extensive global attention. On January 20, 2020, the Chinese health authorities upgraded the coronavirus to a Class B infectious disease in the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, and considered it as Class A infectious diseases in disease control and prevention. On January 18, 2020, the 2019-nCoV nucleic acid detection test was listed as the diagnostic criteria in the "guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia due to 2019-nCoV (Trial Version 2)". Therefore, standardizing the operation process of the 2019-nCoV nucleic acid detection in clinical laboratories has become a top priority. It is of paramount importance to establish standard protocols for detection of the 2019-nCoV nucleic acids in clinical laboratories to improve the reliability of the results and ensure the biosafety of laboratory personnel.

10.
Chinese J. Lab. Med. ; 7(43): 687-690, 20200711.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-707369

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory tract infections ranks first in China for various infectious diseases. Lower respiratory tract infections and related diseases caused a heavy burden on China's medical care and society. In particular, COVID has caused great losses. This article discusses the standardization of clinical pathological diagnosis of respiratory pathogen infection, in order to improve the correct diagnosis of the disease and facilitate the timely treatment of the disease.

11.
Small ; 16(32): e2002169, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612774

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global novel coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19 outbreak has engendered numerous cases of infection and death. COVID-19 diagnosis relies upon nucleic acid detection; however, currently recommended methods exhibit high false-negative rates and are unable to identify other respiratory virus infections, thereby resulting in patient misdiagnosis and impeding epidemic containment. Combining the advantages of targeted amplification and long-read, real-time nanopore sequencing, herein, nanopore targeted sequencing (NTS) is developed to detect SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses simultaneously within 6-10 h, with a limit of detection of ten standard plasmid copies per reaction. Compared with its specificity for five common respiratory viruses, the specificity of NTS for SARS-CoV-2 reaches 100%. Parallel testing with approved real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction kits for SARS-CoV-2 and NTS using 61 nucleic acid samples from suspected COVID-19 cases show that NTS identifies more infected patients (22/61) as positive, while also effectively monitoring for mutated nucleic acid sequences, categorizing types of SARS-CoV-2, and detecting other respiratory viruses in the test sample. NTS is thus suitable for COVID-19 diagnosis; moreover, this platform can be further extended for diagnosing other viruses and pathogens.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Nanopores , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/classification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/genetics , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Genes, Viral , Humans , Limit of Detection , Mutation , Nanotechnology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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