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1.
Med Educ Online ; 28(1):2154768, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2151425

ABSTRACT

Student evaluations of curricular experiences and instructors are employed by institutions to obtain feedback and guide improvement. However, to be effective, evaluations must prompt faculty action. Unfortunately, evaluative comments that engender strong reactions may undermine the process by hindering innovation and improvement steps. The literature suggests that faculty interpret evaluation feedback as a judgment not just on their teaching ability but on their personal and professional identity. In this context, critical evaluations, even when constructively worded, can result in disappointment, hurt, and shame. The COVID pandemic has challenged institutions and faculty to repeatedly adapt curricula and educational practices, heightening concerns for faculty burnout. In this context, the risk of 'words that hurt' is higher than ever. This article offers guidance for faculty and institutions to support effective responses to critical feedback and ameliorate counterproductive effects of learner evaluations.

2.
Journal of Public Economic Theory ; : 28, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1685376

ABSTRACT

We analyze the implications of geographical heterogeneities and externalities on health and macroeconomic outcomes by extending a basic epidemiological-macroeconomic model to a spatial dimension. Because of people's migration and commuting across different regions, a disease may spread also in areas far from those in which the outbreak originally occurs and thus the health status (i.e., disease prevalence) in specific regions may depend on the health status in other regions as well. We show that neglecting the existence of cross-regional effects may lead to misleading conclusions about the long run outcome not only in single regions but also in the entire economy, suggesting that single regions need to coordinate their efforts to achieve disease eradication. We analyze such a coordination by focusing on a control problem in which the social planner determines globally the level of intervention showing that to achieve eradication it is essential to accompany traditional disease control policies (i.e., prevention and treatment) with regulations limiting people's movements. Focusing on COVID-19 we present a calibration based on Italian data showing that, because of the infections generated by cross-regional commuting, even vaccination may not be enough to achieve disease eradication, and limitations on people's movements need to accompany vaccination to preclude COVID-19 from reaching an endemic state.

3.
2021 Annual Modeling and Simulation Conference, ANNSIM 2021 ; 53:289-300, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1513644

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a global research effort to define and assess timely and effective containment policies. Understanding the role that specific venues play in the dynamics of epidemic spread is critical to guide the implementation of fine-grained non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). In this paper, we present a new model of context-dependent interactions that integrates information about the surrounding territory and the social fabric. Building on this model, we developed an open-source data-driven simulator of the patterns of fruition of specific gathering places that can be easily configured to project and compare multiple scenarios. We focused on the greatest park of the City of Florence, Italy, to provide experimental evidence that our simulator produces contact graphs with unique, realistic features, and that gaining control of the mechanisms that govern interactions at the local scale allows to unveil and possibly control non-trivial aspects of the epidemic. © 2021 Society for Modeling & Simulation International (SCS).

4.
2021 Annual Modeling and Simulation Conference, ANNSIM 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1485672

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a global research effort to define and assess timely and effective containment policies. Understanding the role that specific venues play in the dynamics of epidemic spread is critical to guide the implementation of fine-grained non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). In this paper, we present a new model of context-dependent interactions that integrates information about the surrounding territory and the social fabric. Building on this model, we developed an open-source data-driven simulator of the patterns of fruition of specific gathering places that can be easily configured to project and compare multiple scenarios. We focused on the greatest park of the City of Florence, Italy, to provide experimental evidence that our simulator produces contact graphs with unique, realistic features, and that gaining control of the mechanisms that govern interactions at the local scale allows to unveil and possibly control non-trivial aspects of the epidemic. © 2021 SCS.

5.
IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS 2021 ; 633 IFIP:23-31, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1437183

ABSTRACT

Supply Chains have been more and more suffering from unexpected industrial, natural events, or epidemics that might disrupt the normal flow of materials, information, and money. The recent pandemic triggered by the outbreak of the new COVID-19 has pointed out the increasing vulnerability of supply chain networks, prompting companies (and governments) to implement specific policies and actions to control and reduce the spread of the disease across the network, and to cope with exogenous shocks. In this paper, we present a stochastic Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) framework to model the spread of new epidemics across different distribution networks and determine social distancing/treatment policies in the case of local and global networks. We highlight the relevance of adaptability and flexibility of decisions in unstable and unpredictable scenarios. © 2021, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

6.
IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS 2021 ; 633 IFIP:3-12, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1437182

ABSTRACT

As the COVID pandemic shows, infection spreads widely across regions, impacting economic activity in unforeseen ways. We represent here how the geographic spread of the pandemic, by reducing the workers’ participation to economic life, undermines the ability of firms and as a result the entire supply networks to satisfy customers’ demands. We model the spatio-temporal dynamics of the propagation of Covid-19 infection on population, transport networks, facilities and population flows. The mathematical models will enable prospective analyses to be performed reliably. Such models will be used in what-if scenarios to simulate the impact on both populations and supply chain activities in case of future pandemics. The outcome should be useful tools for policymakers and managers. Results from this research will help in understanding the impact and the spread of a pandemic in a particular region and on supply chains. The data will be from European regions and the expected models will have validity in Europe. © 2021, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

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