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1.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071228

ABSTRACT

A beautiful topic in its essence and content is represented by the powerful assistance of sensing methods and techniques for automatically revealing biological agents and biological functions in this era [...].


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Biological Factors
2.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009948

ABSTRACT

The ability to interpret information through automatic sensors is one of the most important pillars of modern technology. In particular, the potential of biosensors has been used to evaluate biological information of living organisms, and to detect danger or predict urgent situations in a battlefield, as in the invasion of SARS-CoV-2 in this era. This work is devoted to describing a panoramic overview of optical biosensors that can be improved by the assistance of nonlinear optics and machine learning methods. Optical biosensors have demonstrated their effectiveness in detecting a diverse range of viruses. Specifically, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has generated disturbance all over the world, and biosensors have emerged as a key for providing an analysis based on physical and chemical phenomena. In this perspective, we highlight how multiphoton interactions can be responsible for an enhancement in sensibility exhibited by biosensors. The nonlinear optical effects open up a series of options to expand the applications of optical biosensors. Nonlinearities together with computer tools are suitable for the identification of complex low-dimensional agents. Machine learning methods can approximate functions to reveal patterns in the detection of dynamic objects in the human body and determine viruses, harmful entities, or strange kinetics in cells.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Viruses , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Radiology ; 304(3): 732-735, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001924

ABSTRACT

HISTORY: A 64-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of lightheadedness, intermittent balance, and coordination difficulties. Two months before admission, symptoms became more substantial and persistent, with a worsening sense of disequilibrium and unsteady gait. He reported difficulties pronouncing words and mild word-finding difficulties. His wife noted a change in his cognition and memory over the same time. His medical history included well-controlled chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) secondary to a long history of smoking with associated unintentional 30-lb (13.6-kg) weight loss over the previous 3 years, for which chest CT scanning was performed, revealing no abnormality. On clinical examination, the patient was alert and oriented but had slurred speech. A positive Romberg sign was noted, finger-to-nose and hand rapid alternating movement tests revealed impairment on the right side, and his gait was ataxic. The motor examination revealed normal muscle tone, bulk, and power in the upper and lower extremities. Sensory testing results were normal. Initial MRI of the brain at admission revealed abnormal findings in the left supratentorial brain (Figs 1-3). Of note, this patient's presentation predated the COVID-19 pandemic. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed predominant pleocytosis (23 × 106/L; normal range, [0-5] × 106/L) (78% lymphocytes, 22% monocytes), elevated protein level (1.23 g/L; normal range, 0.19-0.64 g/L), oligoclonal bands (faint one or two), and a high immunoglobulin G index (0.130 g/L; normal reference, ≤0.059 g/L). Despite extensive initial work-up for inflammatory, infectious, autoimmune, or neoplastic causes, a definitive diagnosis was not reached. Thus, repeat MRI of the brain was performed 2 weeks after admission (Fig 4).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Brain , Humans , Lymphocytes , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged
4.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; : 8465371221120263, 2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993237

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant delays in the delivery of cancer treatments in Canada. As cancer treatment and imaging volumes return to normal, radiologists will encounter more cases of chemotherapy-induced toxicities. These toxicities have varied appearances on imaging, and can affect multiple organ systems. The purpose of this review is to offer a unified resource for general radiologists regarding the imaging appearances of chemotherapy-induced toxicities.

5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 862388, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952798

ABSTRACT

Early life adversity can significantly impact child development and health outcomes throughout the life course. With the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbating preexisting and introducing new sources of toxic stress, social programs that foster resilience are more necessary now than ever. The Helping Us Grow Stronger (HUGS/Abrazos) program fills a crucial need for protective buffers during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has escalated toxic stressors affecting pregnant women and families with young children. HUGS/Abrazos combines patient navigation, behavioral health support, and innovative tools to ameliorate these heightened toxic stressors. We used a mixed-methods approach, guided by the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework, to evaluate the implementation of the HUGS/Abrazos program at Massachusetts General Hospital from 6/30/2020-8/31/2021. Results of the quality improvement evaluation revealed that the program was widely adopted across the hospital and 392 unique families were referred to the program. The referred patients were representative of the communities in Massachusetts disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, 79% of referred patients followed up with the initial referral, with sustained high participation rates throughout the program course; and they were provided with an average of four community resource referrals. Adoption and implementation of the key components in HUGS/Abrazos were found to be appropriate and acceptable. Furthermore, the implemented program remained consistent to the original design. Overall, HUGS/Abrazos was well adopted as an emergency relief program with strong post-COVID-19 applicability to ameliorate continuing toxic stressors while decreasing burden on the health system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Quality Improvement
6.
Glob Health Epidemiol Genom ; 2022: 8551576, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950442

ABSTRACT

Since the zoonotic event from which SARS-CoV-2 started infecting humans late in 2019, the virus has caused more than 5 million deaths and has infected over 500 million people around the world. The pandemic has had a severe impact on social and economic activities, with greater repercussions in low-income countries. South America, with almost 5% of the world's population, has reckoned with almost a fifth of the total people infected and more than 26% (>1/4) of the deceased. Fortunately, the full genome structure and sequence of SARS-CoV-2 have been rapidly obtained and studied thanks to all the scientific efforts and data sharing around the world. Such molecular analysis of SARS-CoV-2 dynamics showed that rates of mutation, similar to other members of the Coronaviridae family, along with natural selection forces, could result in the emergence of new variants; few of them might be of high consequence. However, this is a serious threat to controlling the pandemic and, of course, enduring the process of returning to normalization with the implicit monetary cost of such a contingency. The lack of updated knowledge in South America justifies the need to develop a structured genomic surveillance program of current and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. The modeling of the molecular events and microevolution of the virus will contribute to making better decisions on public health management of the pandemic and developing accurate treatments and more efficient vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , South America/epidemiology
7.
Radiology ; 304(1): 241-244, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902122

ABSTRACT

HISTORY: A 54-year-old man was found by paramedics in his home face-down at his computer desk with a substantially reduced level of consciousness. He had not contacted his family for more than 50 hours. The patient lived alone and was a heavy smoker with a history of alcohol abuse. His medical history was otherwise unremarkable, and there was no history of cancer, psoriasis, or rheumatoid arthritis, nor was there a history of methotrexate administration. At presentation to the emergency department, he was mildly hypotensive and was experiencing hypercapnic respiratory failure and acute renal failure with rhabdomyolysis. His toxicology screen was mildly positive for opiates. He received naloxone (Narcan; Emergent) with minimal effect. An unenhanced CT scan of the head was obtained. Of note, this patient's presentation predated the COVID-19 pandemic. He was admitted to the intensive care unit for decreased level of consciousness and respiratory failure. The decreased level of consciousness was thought to be secondary to seizure, as he developed seizurelike movements prior to intubation, probably in the context of intoxication or alcohol withdrawal. Electroencephalography revealed moderate bilateral cerebral dysfunction and encephalopathy, with no evidence of nonconvulsive seizures. He had a short course of intermittent hemodialysis and was discharged home 8 days later with an appointment for neurology follow-up. At discharge, he was at his cognitive and functional baseline. Approximately 3 weeks later, the patient was brought back to the emergency department for progressive confusion and decrease in balance. He became apathetic with reduced psychomotor activity and was no longer able to perform basic daily activities, such as cooking or bathing. He displayed bizarre behavior, such as staring at a wall for hours, and was somnolent, irritable, and inattentive. He eventually became incontinent of urine and stool. Results of a neurologic examination of the cranial nerves, motor function, sensation, and reflexes were normal. The results of blood work-up were grossly normal, and the results of an extensive toxicology work-up were negative. Repeat head CT was performed. MRI was ordered to further investigate the patient's encephalopathic presentation.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Leukoencephalopathies , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
8.
AGU Advances ; 3(2), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1870733

ABSTRACT

This study quantifies the association between the COVID‐19 economic downturn and 2020 tropospheric ozone anomalies above Europe and western North America, and their impact on long‐term trends. Anomaly detection for an atmospheric time series is usually carried out by identifying potentially aberrant data points relative to climatological values. However, detecting ozone anomalies from sparsely sampled ozonesonde profiles (once per week at most sites) is challenging due to ozone's high temporal variability. We first demonstrate the challenges for summarizing regional trends based on independent time series from multiple nearby ozone profiling stations. We then propose a novel regional‐scale anomaly detection framework based on generalized additive mixed models, which accounts for the sampling frequency and inherent data uncertainty associated with each vertical profile data set, measured by ozonesondes, lidar or commercial aircraft. This method produces a long‐term monthly time series with high vertical resolution that reports ozone anomalies from the surface to the middle‐stratosphere under a unified framework, which can be used to quantify the regional‐scale ozone anomalies during the COVID‐19 economic downturn. By incorporating extensive commercial aircraft data and frequently sampled ozonesonde profiles above Europe, we show that the complex interannual variability of ozone can be adequately captured by our modeling approach. The results show that free tropospheric ozone negative anomalies in 2020 are the most profound since the benchmark year of 1994 for both Europe and western North America, and positive trends over 1994–2019 are diminished in both regions by the 2020 anomalies. Key Points 2020 is the only year that both Europe and western North America show strong negative tropospheric ozone anomalies since 1994 Positive free tropospheric ozone trends above Europe and western North America since 1994 are diminished by the 2020 anomalies Data integration of multiple time series provides a better understanding of ozone variability compared to individual records

9.
Oral ; 1(3):190, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1818186

ABSTRACT

Background: Nanoparticles such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes present resistance, resilience and biocompatibility with human tissues and could be incorporated into glass ionomer cement materials to improve their characteristics. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) incorporation on different glass ionomer cements’ compressive (σc) and diametral tensile strengths (σt). Methods: Eighty (80) specimens were divided into four groups (N = 20/gr) according to the glass ionomer cement type (conventional and high-viscosity) and the presence or absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Samples were kept in water for 24 h prior to the tests. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p = 0.05). Results: For both σc (p = 0.1739) and σt (p = 0.2183), the glass ionomer cements’ viscosity did not influence the results. The presence of MWCNTs decreased the mean compressive strength values (p = 0.0001) and increased the diametral tensile strength (p = 0.0059). For both conventional and high-viscosity glass ionomer cements, the compressive strength values were higher than the tensile strength data. Conclusions: Regardless of the cement viscosity, the multi-walled carbon nanotube incorporation reduced the compressive strength and increased the tensile strength values.

11.
Radiology ; 302(3): 722-723, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702037

ABSTRACT

History A 54-year-old man was found by paramedics in his home face-down at his computer desk with a substantially reduced level of consciousness. He had not contacted his family for more than 50 hours. The patient lived alone and was a heavy smoker with a history of alcohol abuse. His medical history was otherwise unremarkable, and there was no history of cancer, psoriasis, or rheumatoid arthritis, nor was there a history of methotrexate administration. On presentation to the emergency department, he was mildly hypotensive and was experiencing hypercapnic respiratory failure and acute renal failure with rhabdomyolysis. His toxicology screen was mildly positive for opiates. He received naloxone (Narcan; Emergent) with minimal effect. An unenhanced CT scan of the head was obtained (Fig 1A). Of note, this patient's presentation predated the COVID-19 pandemic. He was admitted to the intensive care unit for decreased level of consciousness and respiratory failure. The decreased level of consciousness was thought to be secondary to seizure, as he developed seizurelike movements prior to intubation, probably in the context of intoxication or alcohol withdrawal. Electroencephalography revealed moderate bilateral cerebral dysfunction and encephalopathy, with no evidence of nonconvulsive seizures. He had a short course of intermittent hemodialysis and was discharged home 8 days later with an appointment for neurology follow-up. At discharge, he was at his cognitive and functional baseline. Approximately 3 weeks later, the patient was brought back to the emergency department for progressive confusion and decrease in balance. He became apathetic with reduced psychomotor activity and was no longer able to perform basic daily activities, such as cooking or bathing. He displayed bizarre behavior, such as staring at a wall for hours, and was somnolent, irritable, and inattentive. He eventually became incontinent of urine and stool. Results of a neurologic examination of the cranial nerves, motor function, sensation, and reflexes were normal. The results of blood work-up were grossly normal, and the results of an extensive toxicology work-up were negative. Repeat head CT was performed (Fig 1B). MRI was ordered to further investigate the patient's encephalopathic presentation (Figs 2-3).

12.
National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series ; No. 29021, 2021.
Article in English | NBER, Grey literature | ID: grc-748279

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 epidemic, many health professionals started using mass communication on social media to relay critical information and persuade individuals to adopt preventative health behaviors. Our group of clinicians and nurses developed and recorded short video messages to encourage viewers to stay home for the Thanksgiving and Christmas Holidays. We then conducted a two-stage clustered randomized controlled trial in 820 counties (covering 13 States) in the United States of a large-scale Facebook ad campaign disseminating these messages. In the first level of randomization, we randomly divided the counties into two groups: high intensity and low intensity. In the second level, we randomly assigned zip codes to either treatment or control such that 75% of zip codes in high intensity counties received the treatment, while 25% of zip codes in low intensity counties received the treatment. In each treated zip code, we sent the ad to as many Facebook subscribers as possible (11,954,109 users received at least one ad at Thanksgiving and 23,302,290 users received at least one ad at Christmas). The first primary outcome was aggregate holiday travel, measured using mobile phone location data, available at the county level: we find that average distance travelled in high-intensity counties changed by -0.993 percentage points (95% CI -1.616, -0.371, p-value 0.002) the three days before each holiday. The second primary outcome was COVID-19 infection at the zip-code level: COVID-19 infections recorded in the two-week period starting five days post-holiday declined by 3.5 percent (adjusted 95% CI [-6.2 percent, -0.7 percent], p-value 0.013) in intervention zip codes compared to control zip codes.

13.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 37(1): 110-116, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of post-extubation dysphagia and associated factors in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) . Our study assessed the prevalence of post-extubation dysphagia and body composition in patients with COVID-19 discharged from an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed in post-ICU extubated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 in two referral hospitals. A total of 112 patients were evaluated and included; swallowing assessment and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were performed after extubation and discharge from the ICU. To identify associations between dysphagia, lower phase angle (PhA) (<4.8°) and hydration (extracellular water/total body water < 0.390) logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The incidence of post-extubation dysphagia was 41% (n = 46). From these, 65% (n = 30) had severe swallowing impairment. Overhydration and PhA were significantly different in patients with dysphagia, and segmental hydration in the trunk and legs was higher than in arms. PhA <4.8° (odds ratio [OR], 12.2; 95% CI, 4.3-34.1; P < .05) and overhydration measured by BIA (OR, 9.1; 95% CI, 3.4-24.5; P < .05) were associated with post-extubation dysphagia in multivariate analysis. PhA (<4.8°) was associated with a lower rate of swallowing recovery at hospital discharge (log-rank test = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: A high incidence of post-extubation dysphagia was found in patients with COVID-19. Low PhA and overhydration were associated with the presence of dysphagia. Lower PhA was an independent factor for swallowing recovery at discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1622-1628, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366824

ABSTRACT

During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, many health professionals used social media to promote preventative health behaviors. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of the effect of a Facebook advertising campaign consisting of short videos recorded by doctors and nurses to encourage users to stay at home for the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays ( NCT04644328 and AEARCTR-0006821 ). We randomly assigned counties to high intensity (n = 410 (386) at Thanksgiving (Christmas)) or low intensity (n = 410 (381)). The intervention was delivered to a large fraction of Facebook subscribers in 75% and 25% of randomly assigned zip codes in high- and low-intensity counties, respectively. In total, 6,998 (6,716) zip codes were included, and 11,954,109 (23,302,290) users were reached at Thanksgiving (Christmas). The first two primary outcomes were holiday travel and fraction leaving home, both measured using mobile phone location data of Facebook users. Average distance traveled in high-intensity counties decreased by -0.993 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI): -1.616, -0.371; P = 0.002) for the 3 days before each holiday compared to low-intensity counties. The fraction of people who left home on the holiday was not significantly affected (adjusted difference: 0.030; 95% CI: -0.361, 0.420; P = 0.881). The third primary outcome was COVID-19 infections recorded at the zip code level in the 2-week period starting 5 days after the holiday. Infections declined by 3.5% (adjusted 95% CI: -6.2%, -0.7%; P = 0.013) in intervention compared to control zip codes. Social media messages recorded by health professionals before the winter holidays in the United States led to a significant reduction in holiday travel and subsequent COVID-19 infections.

15.
Matrix Biol Plus ; 9: 100054, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001624

ABSTRACT

The relationship of ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) proteases with inflammatory processes was anticipated since their discovery. Although knowledge of these extracellular proteases in different contexts continues to grow, many questions remain unanswered. In this review, we summarize the most important studies of ADAMTSs and their substrates in inflammation and in the immune system of non-oncological disorders. In addition, we update the findings on cancer and highlight their emerging role in the tumor immune microenvironment. Although the overall functions of extracellular molecules are known to be modulated by proteolysis, specific activities attributed to intact proteins and cleaved fragments in the context of inflammation are still subject to debate. A better understanding of ADAMTS activities will help to elucidate their contribution to the immune phenotype and to open up new therapeutic and diagnostic possibilities.

16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2117115, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308937

ABSTRACT

Importance: Social distancing is critical to the control of COVID-19, which has disproportionately affected the Black community. Physician-delivered messages may increase adherence to these behaviors. Objectives: To determine whether messages delivered by physicians improve COVID-19 knowledge and preventive behaviors and to assess the differential effectiveness of messages tailored to the Black community. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial of self-identified White and Black adults with less than a college education was conducted from August 7 to September 6, 2020. Of 44 743 volunteers screened, 30 174 were eligible, 5534 did not consent or failed attention checks, and 4163 left the survey before randomization. The final sample had 20 460 individuals (participation rate, 68%). Participants were randomly assigned to receive video messages on COVID-19 or other health topics. Interventions: Participants saw video messages delivered either by a Black or a White study physician. In the control groups, participants saw 3 placebo videos with generic health topics. In the treatment group, they saw 3 videos on COVID-19, recorded by several physicians of varied age, gender, and race. Video 1 discussed common symptoms. Video 2 highlighted case numbers; in one group, the unequal burden of the disease by race was discussed. Video 3 described US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention social distancing guidelines. Participants in both the control and intervention groups were also randomly assigned to see 1 of 2 American Medical Association statements, one on structural racism and the other on drug price transparency. Main Outcomes and Measures: Knowledge, beliefs, and practices related to COVID-19, demand for information, willingness to pay for masks, and self-reported behavior. Results: Overall, 18 223 participants (9168 Black; 9055 White) completed the survey (9980 [55.9%] women, mean [SD] age, 40.2 [17.8] years). Overall, 6303 Black participants (34.6%) and 7842 White participants (43.0%) were assigned to the intervention group, and 1576 Black participants (8.6%) and 1968 White participants (10.8%) were assigned to the control group. Compared with the control group, the intervention group had smaller gaps in COVID-19 knowledge (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.89 [95% CI, 0.87-0.91]) and greater demand for COVID-19 information (IRR, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.01-1.11]), willingness to pay for a mask (difference, $0.50 [95% CI, $0.15-$0.85]). Self-reported safety behavior improved, although the difference was not statistically significant (IRR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.92-1.01]; P = .08). Effects did not differ by race (F = 0.0112; P > .99) or in different intervention groups (F = 0.324; P > .99). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a physician messaging campaign was effective in increasing COVID-19 knowledge, information-seeking, and self-reported protective behaviors among diverse groups. Studies implemented at scale are needed to confirm clinical importance. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04502056.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Promotion , Physicians , Racism , Adult , Communication , Cultural Competency , Educational Status , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Marketing , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 633285, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231422

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy and early childhood pose unique sensitivity to stressors such as economic instability, poor mental health, and social inequities all of which have been magnified by the COVID-19 pandemic. In absence of protective buffers, prolonged exposure to excessive, early adversity can lead to poor health outcomes with significant impact lasting beyond the childhood years. Helping Us Grow Stronger (HUGS/Abrazos) is a community-based program, designed and launched at the time of the COVID-19 surge in the Spring of 2020, that combines emergency relief, patient navigation, and direct behavioral health support to foster family resilience and mitigate the negative impacts of COVID-related toxic stress on pregnant women and families with children under age 6. Through a targeted referral process, community health workers provide resource navigation for social needs, and a social worker provides behavioral health support. The use of innovative tools such as a centralized resource repository, community health workers with specialized knowledge in this age range, and a direct referral system seeks to assist in streamlining communication and ensuring delivery of quality care. We aim to serve over 300 families within the 1st year. The HUGS/Abrazos program aims to fill an important void by providing the necessary tools and interventions to support pregnant women and young families impacted by adversity exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Workers
19.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(4): 484-492, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The paucity of public health messages that directly address communities of color might contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in knowledge and behavior related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether physician-delivered prevention messages affect knowledge and information-seeking behavior of Black and Latinx individuals and whether this differs according to the race/ethnicity of the physician and tailored content. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. (Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04371419; American Economic Association RCT Registry, AEARCTR-0005789). SETTING: United States, 13 May 2020 to 26 May 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 14 267 self-identified Black or Latinx adults recruited via Lucid survey platform. INTERVENTION: Participants viewed 3 video messages regarding COVID-19 that varied by physician race/ethnicity, acknowledgment of racism/inequality, and community perceptions of mask wearing. MEASUREMENTS: Knowledge gaps (number of errors on 7 facts on COVID-19 symptoms and prevention) and information-seeking behavior (number of web links demanded out of 10 proposed). RESULTS: 7174 Black (61.3%) and 4520 Latinx (38.7%) participants were included in the analysis. The intervention reduced the knowledge gap incidence from 0.085 to 0.065 (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.737 [95% CI, 0.600 to 0.874]) but did not significantly change information-seeking incidence. For Black participants, messages from race/ethnicity-concordant physicians increased information-seeking incidence from 0.329 (for discordant physicians) to 0.357 (IRR, 1.085 [CI, 1.026 to 1.145]). LIMITATIONS: Participants' behavior was not directly observed, outcomes were measured immediately postintervention in May 2020, and online recruitment may not be representative. CONCLUSION: Physician-delivered messages increased knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms and prevention methods for Black and Latinx respondents. The desire for additional information increased with race-concordant messages for Black but not Latinx respondents. Other tailoring of the content did not make a significant difference. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Science Foundation; Massachusetts General Hospital; and National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Consumer Health Information , Information Seeking Behavior , Public Health/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Masks , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Video Recording
20.
Geophys Res Lett ; 48(5): e2020GL091987, 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160793

ABSTRACT

Throughout spring and summer 2020, ozone stations in the northern extratropics recorded unusually low ozone in the free troposphere. From April to August, and from 1 to 8 kilometers altitude, ozone was on average 7% (≈4 nmol/mol) below the 2000-2020 climatological mean. Such low ozone, over several months, and at so many stations, has not been observed in any previous year since at least 2000. Atmospheric composition analyses from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service and simulations from the NASA GMI model indicate that the large 2020 springtime ozone depletion in the Arctic stratosphere contributed less than one-quarter of the observed tropospheric anomaly. The observed anomaly is consistent with recent chemistry-climate model simulations, which assume emissions reductions similar to those caused by the COVID-19 crisis. COVID-19 related emissions reductions appear to be the major cause for the observed reduced free tropospheric ozone in 2020.

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