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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(5): ofad216, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314128

ABSTRACT

Background: We aimed to estimate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence among the general population in Conakry, Guinea and Yaounde, Cameroon after the coronavirus disease 2019 Omicron wave. Methods: We conducted population-based, age-stratified seroprevalence surveys in Conakry and Yaounde (May and June 2022). We collected demographic and epidemiologic information and dried blood spot samples that were tested for SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using recombinant nucleocapsid and spike proteins with Luminex technology. Results: Samples were obtained from 1386 and 1425 participants in Guinea and Cameroon, respectively. The overall age-standardized SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence against spike and nucleocapsid proteins was 71.57% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67.48%-75.33%) in Guinea and 74.71% (95% CI, 71.99%-77.25%) in Cameroon. Seroprevalence increased significantly with age categories. Female participants were more likely than male participants to be seropositive. The seroprevalence in unvaccinated participants was 69.6% (95% CI, 65.5%-73.41%) in Guinea and 74.8% (95% CI, 72.04%-77.38%) in Cameroon. In multivariate analysis, only age, sex, and education were independently associated with seropositivity. Conclusions: These findings show a high community transmission after the different epidemiological waves including Omicron, especially among people aged >40 years. In addition, our results suggest that the spread of SARS-CoV-2 has been underestimated as a significant proportion of the population has already contracted the virus and that vaccine strategies should focus on vulnerable populations.

2.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2216965

ABSTRACT

Bats are at the origin of human coronaviruses, either directly or via an intermediate host. We tested swabs from 4597 bats (897 from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), 2191 from Cameroon and 1509 from Guinea) with a broadly reactive PCR in the RdRp region. Coronaviruses were detected in 903 (19.6%) bats and in all species, with more than 25 individuals tested. The highest prevalence was observed in Eidolon helvum (239/733; 39.9%) and Rhinolophus sp. (306/899; 34.1%), followed by Hipposideros sp. (61/291; 20.9%). Frugivorous bats were predominantly infected with beta coronaviruses from the Nobecovirus subgenus (93.8%), in which at least 6 species/genus-specific subclades were observed. In contrast, insectivorous bats were infected with beta-coronaviruses from different subgenera (Nobecovirus (8.5%), Hibecovirus (32.8%), Merbecovirus (0.5%) and Sarbecovirus (57.6%)) and with a high diversity of alpha-coronaviruses. Overall, our study shows a high prevalence and genetic diversity of coronaviruses in bats and illustrates that Rhinolophus bats in Africa are infected at high levels with the Sarbecovirus subgenus, to which SARS-CoV-2 belongs. It is important to characterize in more detail the different coronavirus lineages from bats for their potential to infect human cells, their evolution and to study frequency and modes of contact between humans and bats in Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Humans , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Behavior Therapy , Cameroon
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(9): e0010735, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039248

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of COVID-19 has shown different developments in Africa compared to the other continents. Three different approaches were used in this study to analyze this situation. In the first part, basic statistics were performed to estimate the contribution of the elderly people to the total numbers of cases and deaths in comparison to the other continents; Similarly, the health systems capacities were analysed to assess the level of underreporting. In the second part, differential equations were reconstructed from the epidemiological time series of cases and deaths (from the John Hopkins University) to analyse the dynamics of COVID-19 in seventeen countries. In the third part, the time evolution of the contact number was reconstructed since the beginning of the outbreak to investigate the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies. Results were compared to the Oxford stringency index and to the mobility indices of the Google Community Mobility Reports. Compared to Europe, the analyses show that the lower proportion of elderly people in Africa enables to explain the lower total numbers of cases and deaths by a factor of 5.1 on average (from 1.9 to 7.8). It corresponds to a genuine effect. Nevertheless, COVID-19 numbers are effectively largely underestimated in Africa by a factor of 8.5 on average (from 1.7 to 20. and more) due to the weakness of the health systems at country level. Geographically, the models obtained for the dynamics of cases and deaths reveal very diversified dynamics. The dynamics is chaotic in many contexts, including a situation of bistability rarely observed in dynamical systems. Finally, the contact number directly deduced from the epidemiological observations reveals an effective role of the mitigation strategies on the short term. On the long term, control measures have contributed to maintain the epidemic at a low level although the progressive release of the stringency did not produce a clear increase of the contact number. The arrival of the omicron variant is clearly detected and characterised by a quick increase of interpeople contact, for most of the African countries considered in the analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Africa/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Demography , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Public Health Afr ; 13(2): 1475, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979487

ABSTRACT

Epidemic-prone diseases have high adverse impacts and pose important threats to global health security. This study aimed to assess levels of health facility preparedness and response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Guinea. This was a cross-sectional study in public and private health facilities/services across 13 Guinean health districts. Managers and healthcare workers (HCWs) from departments in each facility/service were interviewed. Descriptive statistics and comparisons were presented using Pearson's Chi-Squared Test or Fischer exact test. Totally, 197 managers and 1020 HCWs participated in the study. Guidance documents and dedicated spaces for management/isolation of suspected COVID-19 cases were available only in 29% and 26% of facilities, respectively. Capacities to collect (9%) and safely transport (14%) samples were low. Intensive care units (5%), dedicated patient beds (3%), oxygenators (2%), and respirators (0.6%) were almost lacking. While 36% of facilities/services had received infection prevention and control supplies, only 20% had supplies sufficient for 30 days. Moreover, only 9% of HCWs had received formal training on COVID-19. The main sources of information for HCWs were the media (90%) and the internet (58%). Only 30% of HCWs had received personal protective equipment, more in the public sector (p<0.001) and in Conakry (p=0.022). This study showed low levels of preparedness of health facilities/services in Guinea and highlighted a lack of confidence among HCWs who felt unsafe at their workplace. Better governance to improve and maintain the capacity of the Guinean health system to respond to current and future epidemics is needed.

6.
J Public Health Afr ; 13(2): 2082, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969612

ABSTRACT

Data regarding the prevalence and consequences of self-medication during the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa are very limited. The study aimed to explore the frequency and risk factors of self-medication against COVID-19 by health personnel in this study. This cross-sectional study took place in June 2021, in Conakry, in the all three national hospitals and the six community medical centers, and five primary health centers. A multivariate logistic regression model was performed to identify factors associated with self-medication. A total of 975 health workers with a median age of 31 (IQR: 27-40) years, with 504 (51.7%) women were included. The majority were clinicians: physicians (33.1%) or nurses (33.1%). Of all, 46.2% reported having had at least one COVID-19 symptom during the 12 months preceding the survey. The proportion of self-medication was 15.3% among national hospital staff, 12.20% in municipality medical centers and 22.6% in primary health centers (p=0.06). More than two-thirds (68.7%) who selfmedicated did not have a test for SARSCoV- 2 infection. They took antibiotics including azithromycin, amoxicillin, ampicillin (42.2%), acetaminophen (37.4%), vitamin C (27.9%), hydroxychloroquine (23.8%) and medicinal plants (13.6%). The median duration of self-medication was 4 days. Fatigue or asthenia, sore throat, loss of smell and sore throat of a close person were independently associated with selfmedication. Health care workers largely practiced self-medication during the Covid pandemic and without diagnostic testing. The results suggest the need for training and sensitization of medical personnel to avoid the consequences of the molecules used, including hepatotoxicity and antibiotic resistance.

7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(5): ofac152, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831306

ABSTRACT

We conducted 3 successive seroprevalence surveys, 3 months apart, using multistage cluster sampling to measure the extent and dynamics of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 epidemic in Conakry, the capital city of Guinea. Seroprevalence increased from 17.3% (95% CI, 12.4%-23.8%) in December 2020 during the first survey (S1) to 28.9% (95% CI, 25.6%-32.4%) in March/April 2021 (S2), then to 42.4% (95% CI, 39.5%-45.3%) in June 2021 (S3). This significant overall trend of increasing seroprevalence (P < .0001) was also significant in every age class, illustrating a sustained transmission within the whole community. These data may contribute to defining cost-effective response strategies.

9.
S Afr J Infect Dis ; 36(1): 261, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Expanded Program on Immunisation has made it possible to prevent more than 3 million deaths in children under 5 years. The objectives of this study were to estimate the vaccination coverage of children from 0 to 59 months and identify factors associated with incomplete vaccination coverage. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a dispensary in Conakry, Guinea between January and February 2020. Sociodemographic and vaccination information was collected from mothers of 380 randomly select children aged 0 to 59 months. Information on immunisation coverage was gathered from records vaccination cards and maternal reports. Logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with incomplete immunisation coverage. RESULTS: Most (66.5%) children aged < 12 months were up-to-date with their vaccinations. Factors associated with incomplete vaccination in this age group included: unavailability of vaccination cards (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 7.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.56-22.44) and lack of prenatal consultation attendance (aOR 2.93; 95% CI: 1.15-7.48). In contrast only 19.8% (95% CI: 13.9-26.7) of children aged 12-59 months were fully immunised. Factors associated with incomplete vaccination coverage in children aged 12-59 months included high birth order (aOR 10.23; 95% CI: 2.06-19.43), and lack of prenatal consultation attendance (aOR 5.34; 95% CI: 1.48-19.23). CONCLUSION: Child immunisation coverage is low in Guinea. These results highlight the need to develop strategies based on an integrated approach to overcome obstacles to childhood immunisation in Guinea.

10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 205, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209790

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: the objective was to identify the predictive factors contributing to COVID-related deaths in Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: this was a 4-month (12th March to 12th July 2020) cross sectional study carried out in the intensive care unit of the COVID treatment center of Donka National Hospital, the only hospital with a COVID intensive care unit in Guinea. RESULTS: during our period of study 140 patients were hospitalized in the COVID intensive care unit and 35 patients died (25%). In univariate analysis, the occurrence of death was associated with: confusional syndrome (p<0.001), time to admission (p<0.001), use of an inotropic or vasopressor (p<0.001), Brescia score ≥ 2 (p=0.004), non-invasive ventilation (p=0.011), stroke (p=0.014), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) (p=0.015), male (p=0.021), provenance (p=0.021), acute renal failure (p=0.022), pulmonary embolism (p=0.022), invasive ventilation (p=0.022), and age > 60 years (p=0.047). In multivariate analysis, the factors predictive of mortality were: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) (OR= 6.33, 95% CI [1.66-29]; p=0.007), a Brescia score ≥ 2 (OR =5.8, 95% CI [1.7-19.2]; p=0.004) and admission delay (OR =5.6, 95% CI [1.8-17.5]; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: our study shows that the acute respiratory distress syndrome, then the Brescia score ≥ 2, and finally the time to admission to intensive care were all associated with an increased risk of death for patients. These results are different from those reported in Asia, Europe and North America.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Intensive Care Units , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guinea , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Risk Factors , Time Factors
12.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696041

ABSTRACT

Zoonoses can constitute a threat for public health that can have a global importance, as seen with the current COVID-19 pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2). Bats have been recognized as an important reservoir of zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs). In West Africa, where there is a high diversity of bat species, little is known on the circulation of CoVs in these hosts, especially at the interface with human populations. In this study, in Guinea, we tested a total of 319 bats belonging to 14 genera and six families of insectivorous and frugivorous bats across the country, for the presence of coronaviruses. We found CoVs in 35 (11%) of the tested bats-in three insectivorous bat species and five fruit bat species that were mostly captured close to human habitat. Positivity rates varied from 5.7% to 100%, depending on bat species. A wide diversity of alpha and beta coronaviruses was found across the country, including three sequences belonging to SarbeCoVs and MerbeCoVs subgenera known to harbor highly pathogenic human coronaviruses. Our findings suggest that CoVs are widely spread in West Africa and their circulation should be assessed to evaluate the risk of exposure of potential zoonotic CoVs to humans.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biodiversity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Female , Genome, Viral , Guinea , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/virology
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