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3.
Cureus ; 13(12): e20348, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579851

ABSTRACT

The treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-positive patients is both controversial and challenging, particularly in a healthcare setup unable to fulfill COVID-19 protocols. In this report, we describe a case of a COVID-19-positive patient admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia treated symptomatically with a non-rebreathing mask, dexamethasone, remdesivir, and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). On day two of the hospital stay, the patient developed inferolateral wall myocardial infarction (MI) without hemodynamic instability. He was treated successfully with thrombolytic (streptokinase) with no severe complications. However, his hospital stay was further complicated by decreasing oxygen saturation and rising inflammatory markers including procalcitonin and IL-6, suggesting superimposed bacterial infection. Thereafter, he was placed on BiPAP oxygen, and aggressive antibiotic therapy including tigecycline along with clindamycin and moxifloxacin was initiated. He showed gradual daily improvements and was discharged after a prolonged hospital stay. To decrease the exposure and spread of COVID-19 infection among the healthcare workers, when there is a deficiency in medical staff, and no negative-pressure catheterization laboratory, thrombolytic can be used for treatment in low-risk, hemodynamically stable MI during this pandemic. However, this needs further research.

4.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19937, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562406

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) is a simple, validated, and readily acceptable method of determining the risk of mortality from comorbid disease. It has been used as a predictor of long-term survival and prognosis. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of CCI score on mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients and test the efficacy of the CoLACD score (COVID-19 lymphocyte ratio, age, CCI score, dyspnoea) in predicting mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODOLOGY: It was a retrospective cohort, and the data of this study were gathered from two tertiary hospitals of Karachi, including Liaquat National Hospital and Ziauddin Hospital. Data of patients hospitalized in any of these tertiary care hospitals and diagnosed with confirmed COVID-19 infection were used in the study from January 15, 2021, to April 30, 2021. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 53.22 (±14.21) years. The majority of participants were males (74.91%). Predictors of mortality include CCI score, age of participants, D-dimer, smoking status, and shortness of breath. The sensitivity of this CoLACD score was 80.23%, and specificity was 50.23% (diagnostic accuracy is 60.45%). The negative predictive value (NPV) of this test was 39.44%, and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 83.01%. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that CCI can be used in a clinical setting to achieve a prediction of mortality in COVID-19 patients.

5.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 229-239, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544339

ABSTRACT

Observational studies indicate that pleural effusion has an association with risk and the clinical prognosis of COVID-19 disease; however, the available literature on this area is inconsistent. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the correlation between COVID-19 disease and pleural effusion. A rigorous literature search was conducted using multiple databases. All eligible observational studies were included from around the globe. The pooled prevalence and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the random effect model. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios were produced to report overall effect size using random effect models for severity and mortality outcomes. Funnel plots, Egger regression tests, and Begg-Mazumdar's rank correlation test were used to appraise publication bias. Data from 23 studies including 6234 COVID-19 patients was obtained. The overall prevalence of pleural effusion in COVID-19 patients was 9.55% (95% CI, I2 = 92%). Our findings also indicated that the presence of pleural effusions associated with increased risk of severity of disease(OR = 5.08, 95% CI 3.14-8.22, I2 = 77.4%) and mortality due to illness(OR = 4.53, 95% CI 2.16-9.49, I2 = 66%) compared with patients without pleural effusion. Sensitivity analyses illustrated a similar effect size while decreasing the heterogeneity. No significant publication bias was evident in the meta-analysis. The presence of pleural effusion can assist as a prognostic factor to evaluate the risk of worse outcomes in COVID-19 patients hence, it is recommended that hospitalized COVID-19 patients with pleural effusion should be managed on an early basis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pleural Effusion/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14470, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Covid-19 is an extremely contagious illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The cardiac involvement in such a public health emergency disease has not been well studied and a conflicting evidence exists on this issue. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review article aimed to compile and illustrate clinical characteristics, diagnostic findings, management, and outcomes manifesting in myocarditis linked with Covid-19. METHODS: A literature search was accomplished for published eligible articles with MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases. All eligible case reports and case series were included from around the world without any language restrictions. For this review, inclusion criteria were laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection cases reporting a diagnosis of acute myocarditis. RESULTS: Data from 41 studies describing myocarditis in 42 Covid-19 patients was obtained. The median age of these patients was 43.4 years, with 71.4% of them being men. Fever was the most prevalent presenting symptoms seen in 57% of patients. Hypertension was the most pervasive comorbidity accompanying these patients. Cardiac biomarkers troponin and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were raised in almost 90% and 87% of patients, respectively. Electrocardiogram findings were nonspecific and included ST-segment and T-wave changes. Echocardiogram commonly showed left ventricular systolic dysfunction with increased heart size. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) exhibited myocardial edema and injury. The most prevalent histopathological feature appreciated was diffuse lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates. Antivirals and corticosteroids were the most frequently used medications. About 38% of patients also needed vasopressor assistance. Out of 42 patients, 67% recovered, and eight died. CONCLUSION: Because of the risk of a sudden worsening of patients conditions and myocarditis association with considerable mortality and morbidity, a knowledge of this cardiac complication of Covid-19 disease is crucial for healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , Echocardiography , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Cureus ; 13(3): e13894, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178559

ABSTRACT

Background and objective The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global healthcare emergency. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, has a wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from subclinical infection to multi-organ failure. In addition to the respiratory system, COVID-19 also adversely affects the kidneys. In this study, we aimed to measure the prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 and its association with the disease severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods We conducted our study by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A comprehensive literature search using four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and clinicaltrial.gov) was performed. Our initial search returned 2,771 articles. After excluding review articles, duplicates, and non-relevant studies, we included 20 articles that reported an association between COVID-19 and AKI. We subsequently performed a random effect analysis to find the pooled prevalence, pooled odds ratio (OR) estimates, and 95% confidence intervals for severe COVID-19 and mortality outcomes in AKI using Cochrane RevMan (version 5.4) and R programming language (version 4.16-2). Results A total of 14,415 patients from various countries were included. Among the 20 cohorts, the median age was 55.8 ±8.39 years (range: 43-72 years), and 43.78% of the subjects were female. Out of a total of 14,415 patients, 3,820 developed AKI with a pooled prevalence of 11% (95% CI: 0.07-0.15; p<0.01; I2=98%). AKI was found to have a significant association with severe COVID-19 disease, with a pooled OR of 8.45 (95% CI: 5.56-12.56; p<0.00001; I2=0%). AKI was associated with significantly higher mortality in patients with COVID-19 with an OR of 13.52 (95% CI: 5.43-33.67; p<0.00001; I2=88%). Conclusion AKI manifests as a common COVID-19 complication, and COVID-19 patients with AKI generally have poor outcomes in terms of disease severity and mortality.

8.
Dermatol Ther ; 34(2): e14788, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044098

ABSTRACT

In this systematic review, we anticipated in summarizing clinical features, histopathological hallmarks, and possible pathology behind the maculopapular skin eruptions occurring in Covid-19 patients. A literature search was executed using MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases for articles published till 20 November 2020. All eligible articles including observational studies, case reports, and case series reporting the maculopapular skin lesion in Covid-19 patients were included. Data were obtained for 354 Covid-19 patients presenting with maculopapular lesions from 40 studies. The mean age of these patients was 53 years, and with 42% of them being male. These maculopapular lesions differed considerably in terms of distribution and appearance, ranging from diffuse erythematous maculopapular lesions to scattered erythematous macules coalescing into papules to maculopapular lesions in plaques. The mean duration of the lesion was 8 days. These lesions were frequently localized on trunks and extremities. Superficial perivascular dermatitis with lymphocytic infiltrate was a histopathological hallmark of these lesions. As these skin lesions may have a possible association with diagnosis, management, prognosis, and severity of the disease, all health practitioners need to be well acquainted with these Covid-19 skin lesions. Also, in the middle of this worldwide pandemic, early identification of this eruption may help manage this infection's further spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Eruptions , Exanthema , Drug Eruptions/diagnosis , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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