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1.
Cell ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601904

ABSTRACT

On the 24th November 2021 the sequence of a new SARS CoV-2 viral isolate Omicron-B.1.1.529 was announced, containing far more mutations in Spike (S) than previously reported variants. Neutralization titres of Omicron by sera from vaccinees and convalescent subjects infected with early pandemic as well as Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta are substantially reduced or fail to neutralize. Titres against Omicron are boosted by third vaccine doses and are high in cases both vaccinated and infected by Delta. Mutations in Omicron knock out or substantially reduce neutralization by most of a large panel of potent monoclonal antibodies and antibodies under commercial development. Omicron S has structural changes from earlier viruses, combining mutations conferring tight binding to ACE2 to unleash evolution driven by immune escape, leading to a large number of mutations in the ACE2 binding site which rebalance receptor affinity to that of early pandemic viruses. A comprehensive analysis of sera from vaccinees, convalescent patients infected previously by multiple variants and potent monoclonal antibodies from early in the COVID-19 pandemic reveals a substantial overall reduction the ability to neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, which a third vaccine dose seems to ameliorate. Structural analyses of the Omicron RBD suggest a selective pressure enabling the virus bind ACE2 with increased affinity that is offset by other changes in the receptor binding motif that facilitates immune escape.

3.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296735

ABSTRACT

We assessed antibody responses 3 months post-vaccination in those who received mRNA-1273 (n=225), Sputnik V (n=128) or the first dose of Gam-COVID-Vac (n=184) and compared the results with previously reported data of Sinopharm and AZD1222 vaccinees. 99.5% of Moderna >94% of AZD1222 or Sputnik V, 72% to 76% of Gam-COVID-Vac (first dose) and 38.1% to 68.3% of Sinopharm vaccinees had ACE2 blocking antibodies above the positive threshold. The ACE2 blocking antibody levels were highest to lowest was Moderna > Sputnik V/ AZD1222 (had equal levels)> first dose of Gam-COVID-Vac > Sinopharm. All Moderna recipients had antibodies above the positive threshold to the ancestral (WT), B.1.1.7, B.1.351.1 and 80% positivity rate for B.1.617.2. Positivity rates of Sputnik V vaccinees for WT and variants, were higher than AZD1222 vaccinees, while Sinopharm vaccinees had the lowest positivity rates (<16.7%). These findings highlight the need for further studies to understand the effects on clinical outcomes.

4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 724398, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555557

ABSTRACT

Background: As the Municipality Council area in Colombo (CMC) experienced the highest number of cases until the end of January 2021, in Sri Lanka, we carried out a serosurvey prior to initiation of the vaccination program to understand the extent of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was determined in 2,547 individuals between the ages of 10-86 years, by the Wantai total antibody ELISA. We also compared seroprevalence using the haemagglutination test (HAT) to evaluate its usefulness in carrying out serosurveys. Results: The overall seropositivity rate was 24.46%, while seropositivity by HAT was 18.90%. Although The SARS-CoV-2 infection detection rates by PCR were highest in the population between the ages of 20-60 years of age, there was no statistically significant difference in the seropositivity rates in different age groups. For instance, although the seropositivity rate was highest in the 10-20 age group (34.03%), the PCR positivity rate was 9.80%. Differences in the PCR positivity rates and seropositivity rates were also seen in 60-70-year-olds (8.90 vs. 30.4%) and in individuals >70 years (4.10 vs. 1.20%). The seropositivity rate of the females was 29.70% (290/976), which was significantly higher (p < 0.002) than in males 21.2% (333/1,571). Conclusions: A high seroprevalence rate (24.5%) was seen in all age groups in the CMC suggesting that a high level of transmission was seen during this time. The higher PCR positivity rates between the ages of 20-60 are likely to be due to increased testing carried out in the working population. Therefore, the PCR positivity rates, appear to underestimate the true extent of the outbreak and the age groups which were infected.

5.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295044

ABSTRACT

Background In order to determine the immunogenicity of a single dose of the AZD1222/Covishield vaccine in a real-world situation, we assessed the immunogenicity, in a large cohort of health care workers in Sri Lanka. Methods SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was carried out in 607 naïve and 26 previously infected health care workers (HCWs) 28 to 32 days following a single dose of the vaccine. Haemagglutination test (HAT) for antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the wild type virus, B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and the surrogate neutralization assay (sVNT) was carried out in 69 naïve and 26 previously infected individuals. Spike protein (pools S1 and S2) specific T cell responses were measured by ex vivo ELISpot IFNγ assays in 76 individuals. Results 92.9% of previously naive HCWs seroconverted to a single dose of the vaccine, irrespective of age and gender;and ACE2 blocking antibodies were detected in 67/69 (97.1%) previously naïve vaccine recipients. Although high levels of antibodies were found to the RBD of the wild type virus, the titres for B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 were lower in previously naïve HCWs. Ex vivo T cell responses were observed to S1 in 63.9% HCWs and S2 in 31.9%. The ACE2 blocking titres measured by the sVNT significantly increased (p<0.0001) from a median of 54.1 to 97.9 % of inhibition, in previously infected HCWs and antibodies to the RBD for the variants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 also significantly increased. Discussion a single dose of the AZD1222/Covishield vaccine was shown to be highly immunogenic in previously naïve individuals inducing antibody levels greater than following natural infection. In infected individuals, a single dose induced very high levels of ACE2 blocking antibodies and antibodies to RBDs of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Funding We are grateful to the World Health Organization, UK Medical Research Council and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

6.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295043

ABSTRACT

Background To determine the kinetics and persistence of immune responses following the Sinopharm/BBIBP-CorV, we investigated immune responses in a cohort of Sri Lankan individuals. Methods SARS-CoV-2 specific total antibodies were measured in 20-to-39 year (n=61), 40-to-59-year and those >60 years of age (n=22) by ELISA, 12 weeks after the second dose of the vaccine. ACE2 receptor blocking antibodies (ACE2R-Ab), antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the ancestral virus (WT) and variants of concern, were measured in a sub cohort. T cell responses and memory B cell responses were assessed by ELISpot assays. Results 193/203 (95.07%) of individuals had detectable SARS-CoV-2 specific total antibodies, while 67/110 (60.9%) had ACE2R-Ab. 14.3% to 16.7% individuals in the 20 to 39 age groups had detectable antibodies to the RBD of the WT and VOC, while the positivity rates of those >60 years of age was <10%. 14/49 (28.6%) had IFN γ ELISpot responses to overlapping peptides of the spike protein, while memory B cell responses were detected in 9/20 to the S1 recombinant protein. The total antibody levels and ACE2R-Ab declined after 2 to 12 weeks from the second dose, while ex vivo T cell responses remained unchanged. The decline in ACE2R-Ab levels was significant among the 40 to 59 (p=0.0007) and ≥60 (p=0.005) age groups. Conclusions Antibody responses declined in all age groups, especially in those >60 years, while T cell responses persisted. The effect of waning of immunity on hospitalization and severe disease should be assessed by long term efficacy studies.

7.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294661

ABSTRACT

Evaluation of susceptibility to emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) requires rapid screening tests for neutralising antibodies which provide protection. We developed a receptor-binding domain specific hemagglutination test (HAT) which correlated with neutralising antibodies (R=0.74-0.82) in two independent cohorts from 798 convalescents. Home-dwelling older individuals (80-99 years, n=89) had significantly lower antibodies after one dose of BNT162b2 vaccine than younger adult vaccinees (n=310) and naturally infected individuals (n=307). The second vaccine dose boosted and broadened the antibody repertoire to VOC in naïve but not previously infected, older and younger adults. >75% of older adults responded after two vaccinations to alpha and delta, but only 59-62% to beta and gamma, compared to 96-97% of younger vaccinees and 68-76% of infected individuals. Overall, the HAT provides a surrogate marker for neutralising antibodies, could be used as a simple inexpensive, rapid test, rapidly adaptable to emerging VOC for large-scale evaluation of potentially diminishing vaccine effectiveness.

8.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293860

ABSTRACT

There are as yet no licenced therapeutics for the COVID-19 pandemic. The causal coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) binds host cells via a trimeric Spike whose receptor binding domain (RBD) recognizes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), initiating conformational changes that drive membrane fusion. We find that monoclonal antibody CR3022 binds the RBD tightly, neutralising SARS-CoV-2 and report the crystal structure at 2.4 A of the Fab/RBD complex. Some crystals are suitable for screening for entry-blocking inhibitors. The highly conserved, structure-stabilising, CR3022 epitope is inaccessible in the prefusion Spike, suggesting that CR3022 binding would facilitate conversion to the fusion-incompetent post-fusion state. Cryo-EM analysis confirms that incubation of Spike with CR3022 Fab leads to destruction of the prefusion trimer. Presentation of this cryptic epitope in an RBD-based vaccine might advantageously focus immune responses. Binders at this epitope may be useful therapeutically, possibly in synergy with an antibody blocking receptor attachment.<br><br>Funding: This work was supported by a grant from the CAMS-Oxford Institute to D.I.S. E.E.F and J.Ren are supported by the Wellcome Trust (101122/Z/13/Z), Y.Z. by Cancer Research UK (C375/A17721) and D.I.S. and E.E.F. by the UK Medical Research Council (MR/N00065X/1). J.H. is supported by a grant from the EPA Cephalosporin Fund. PPUK is funded by the Rosalind Franklin Institute EPSRC Grant no. EP/S025243/1. The National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre Funding Scheme supports G.R.S. together with the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) Innovation Fund for Medical Science (CIFMS), China (grant number: 2018-I2M-2-002), which also supports D.I.S. G.R.S. is also supported as a Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator (grant 095541/A/11/Z). T.M. is supported by Cancer Research UK grants C20724/A14414 and C20724/A26752 to Christian Siebold. This is a contribution from the UK Instruct-ERIC Centre. The Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics is supported by the Wellcome Trust (grant 090532/Z/09/Z). Virus used for the neutralisation assays was a gift from Julian Druce, Doherty Centre, Melbourne, Australia. <br><br>Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.

9.
Nat Immunol ; 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545628

ABSTRACT

NP105-113-B*07:02-specific CD8+ T cell responses are considered among the most dominant in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. We found strong association of this response with mild disease. Analysis of NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cell clones and single-cell sequencing were performed concurrently, with functional avidity and antiviral efficacy assessed using an in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infection system, and were correlated with T cell receptor usage, transcriptome signature and disease severity (acute n = 77, convalescent n = 52). We demonstrated a beneficial association of NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cells in COVID-19 disease progression, linked with expansion of T cell precursors, high functional avidity and antiviral effector function. Broad immune memory pools were narrowed postinfection but NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cells were maintained 6 months after infection with preserved antiviral efficacy to the SARS-CoV-2 Victoria strain, as well as Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta variants. Our data show that NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cell responses associate with mild disease and high antiviral efficacy, pointing to inclusion for future vaccine design.

10.
Theranostics ; 12(1): 1-17, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512993

ABSTRACT

Background: Administration of potent anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) monoclonal antibodies has been shown to curtail viral shedding and reduce hospitalization in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the structure-function analysis of potent human anti-RBD monoclonal antibodies and its links to the formulation of antibody cocktails remains largely elusive. Methods: Previously, we isolated a panel of neutralizing anti-RBD monoclonal antibodies from convalescent patients and showed their neutralization efficacy in vitro. Here, we elucidate the mechanism of action of antibodies and dissect antibodies at the epitope level, which leads to a formation of a potent antibody cocktail. Results: We found that representative antibodies which target non-overlapping epitopes are effective against wild type virus and recently emerging variants of concern, whilst being encoded by antibody genes with few somatic mutations. Neutralization is associated with the inhibition of binding of viral RBD to ACE2 and possibly of the subsequent fusion process. Structural analysis of representative antibodies, by cryo-electron microscopy and crystallography, reveals that they have some unique aspects that are of potential value while sharing some features in common with previously reported neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. For instance, one has a common VH 3-53 public variable region yet is unusually resilient to mutation at residue 501 of the RBD. We evaluate the in vivo efficacy of an antibody cocktail consisting of two potent non-competing anti-RBD antibodies in a Syrian hamster model. We demonstrate that the cocktail prevents weight loss, reduces lung viral load and attenuates pulmonary inflammation in hamsters in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Although neutralization of one of these antibodies is abrogated by the mutations of variant B.1.351, it is also possible to produce a bi-valent cocktail of antibodies both of which are resilient to variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and B.1.617.2. Conclusions: These findings support the up-to-date and rational design of an anti-RBD antibody cocktail as a therapeutic candidate against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Dogs , Epitopes , Female , Humans , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
11.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506513

ABSTRACT

We compared neutralising antibody titres of convalescent samples collected before and after the emergence of novel strains of SARS-CoV-2, against the wild-type virus (WT), Alpha (B.1.1.7) and Beta (B.1.351) variants. Plasma collected in 2020 before emergence of variants showed reduced titres against the Alpha variants, and both sets of samples demonstrated significantly reduced titres against Beta. Comparison of microneutralisation titres to those obtained with pseudotype and HAT assays showed a good correlation of titres and effects of strain variation, supporting the use of these simpler assays for assessment of convalescent plasma potency against currently circulating and emerging strains of SARS-CoV-2.

12.
J Immunol ; 207(11): 2681-2687, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506155

ABSTRACT

Due to limited access to vaccines, many countries have only administered a single dose of the AZD1222, whereas the dosage intervals have increased ≥4 wk. We sought to investigate the immunogenicity of a single dose of vaccine at ≥16 wk postimmunization. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific Abs in 553 individuals and Abs to the receptor-binding domain of the Wuhan virus (wild-type) and the variants of concern, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor blocking Abs ex vivo and cultured IFN-γ T cell (Homo sapiens) responses and B cell (H. sapiens) ELISPOT responses, were investigated in a subcohort. The seropositivity rates in those >70 y of age (93.7%) was not significantly different compared with other age groups (97.7-98.2; Pearson χ2 = 7.8; p = 0.05). The Ab titers (Ab index) significantly declined (p < 0.0001) with increase in age. A total of 18 of 69 (26.1%) of individuals did not have angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor-blocking Abs, whereas responses to the receptor-binding domain of wild-type (p = 0.03), B.1.1.7 (p = 0.04), and B.1.617.2 (p = 0.02) were significantly lower in those who were >60 y. Ex vivo IFN-γ T cell ELISPOT responses were seen in 10 of 66 (15.1%), whereas only a few expressed CD107a. However, >85% had a high frequency of cultured IFN-γ T cell ELISPOT responses and B cell ELISPOTs. Virus-specific Abs were maintained at ≥16 wk after receiving a single dose of AZD1222, although levels were lower to variants of concern, especially in older individuals. A single dose induced a high frequency of memory T and B cell responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5061, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361634

ABSTRACT

The extent to which immune responses to natural infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and immunization with vaccines protect against variants of concern (VOC) is of increasing importance. Accordingly, here we analyse antibodies and T cells of a recently vaccinated, UK cohort, alongside those recovering from natural infection in early 2020. We show that neutralization of the VOC compared to a reference isolate of the original circulating lineage, B, is reduced: more profoundly against B.1.351 than for B.1.1.7, and in responses to infection or a single dose of vaccine than to a second dose of vaccine. Importantly, high magnitude T cell responses are generated after two vaccine doses, with the majority of the T cell response directed against epitopes that are conserved between the prototype isolate B and the VOC. Vaccination is required to generate high potency immune responses to protect against these and other emergent variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Carrier Proteins , Epitopes , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
16.
Transfusion ; 61(10): 2837-2843, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) provides virus-neutralizing antibodies that may ameliorate the outcome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. The effectiveness of CP likely depends on its antiviral neutralizing potency and is determined using in vitro neutralizing antibody assays. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated abilities of three immunoassays for anti-spike antibodies (EUROimmun, Ortho, Roche), a pseudotype-based neutralization assay, and two assays that quantify ACE2 binding of spike protein (GenScript and hemagglutination test [HAT]-based assay) to predict neutralizing antibody titers in 113 CP donations. Assay outputs were analyzed through linear regression and calculation of sensitivities and specificities by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: Median values of plasma samples containing neutralizing antibodies produced conversion factors for assay unitage of ×6.5 (pseudotype), ×19 (GenScript), ×3.4 (HAT assay), ×0.08 (EUROimmun), ×1.64 (Roche), and ×0.10 (Ortho). All selected assays were sufficient in identifying the high titer donations based on ROC analysis; area over curve ranged from 91.7% for HAT and GenScript assay to 95.6% for pseudotype assay. However, their ability to predict the actual neutralizing antibody levels varied substantially as shown by linear regression correlation values (from 0.27 for Ortho to 0.61 for pseudotype assay). DISCUSSION: Overall, the study data demonstrate that all selected assays were effective in identifying donations with high neutralizing antibody levels and are potentially suitable as surrogate assays for donation selection for CP therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Neutralization Tests
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4617, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333938

ABSTRACT

Several COVID-19 vaccines have received emergency approval. Here we assess the immunogenicity of a single dose of the AZD1222 vaccine, at one month, in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) (629 naïve and 26 previously infected). 93.4% of naïve HCWs seroconverted, irrespective of age and gender. Haemagglutination test for antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD), surrogate neutralization assay (sVNT) and ex vivo IFNγ ELISpot assays were carried out in a sub-cohort. ACE2 blocking antibodies (measured by sVNT) were detected in 67/69 (97.1%) of naïve HCWs. Antibody levels to the RBD of the wild-type virus were higher than to RBD of B.1.1.7, and titres to B.1.351 were very low. Ex vivo T cell responses were observed in 30.8% to 61.7% in naïve HCWs. Previously infected HCWs, developed significantly higher (p < 0.0001) ACE2 blocking antibodies and antibodies to the RBD for the variants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. This study shows high seroconversion after one vaccine dose, but also suggests that one vaccine dose may be insufficient to protect against emerging variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunity , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
18.
EMBO Rep ; 22(8): e52447, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278776

ABSTRACT

Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) is an immunostimulatory molecule produced by cGAS that activates STING. cGAMP is an adjuvant when administered alongside antigens. cGAMP is also incorporated into enveloped virus particles during budding. Here, we investigate whether inclusion of cGAMP within viral vaccine vectors enhances their immunogenicity. We immunise mice with virus-like particles (VLPs) containing HIV-1 Gag and the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein G (VSV-G). cGAMP loading of VLPs augments CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses. It also increases VLP- and VSV-G-specific antibody titres in a STING-dependent manner and enhances virus neutralisation, accompanied by increased numbers of T follicular helper cells. Vaccination with cGAMP-loaded VLPs containing haemagglutinin induces high titres of influenza A virus neutralising antibodies and confers protection upon virus challenge. This requires cGAMP inclusion within VLPs and is achieved at markedly reduced cGAMP doses. Similarly, cGAMP loading of VLPs containing the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein enhances Spike-specific antibody titres. cGAMP-loaded VLPs are thus an attractive platform for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle , Animals , Humans , Mice , Nucleotides, Cyclic , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/genetics
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 109: 85-89, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are important for protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection. In this study, two assays that are correlated with NAbs were compared: the haemagglutination test (HAT) and the surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT). METHODS: The specificity of the HAT was compared with the sVNT, and the sensitivity and persistence of antibodies in patients with varying severity of illness was assessed in a cohort of 71 patients at 4-6 weeks and 13-16 weeks. The kinetics were assessed in the first, second, and third weeks in patients with varying severity of acute illness. RESULTS: The specificity of the HAT was >99%, and sensitivity was similar to the sVNT. The levels of HAT were significantly and positively correlated with those of the sVNT (Spearman's r = 0.78, P < 0.0001). Patients with moderate and severe illness had higher HAT titres when compared to those with mild illness. Six of seven patients with severe illness had a titre of >1:640 during the second week of illness, whereas only five of 31 patients with a mild illness had a titre of >1:160 in the second week of illness. CONCLUSIONS: Since the HAT is a simple and very cheap assay to perform, it would be ideal to use as an indicator of NAbs in resource-poor settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Neutralization Tests
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1951, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157905

ABSTRACT

Serological detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 is essential for establishing rates of seroconversion in populations, and for seeking evidence for a level of antibody that may be protective against COVID-19 disease. Several high-performance commercial tests have been described, but these require centralised laboratory facilities that are comparatively expensive, and therefore not available universally. Red cell agglutination tests do not require special equipment, are read by eye, have short development times, low cost and can be applied at the Point of Care. Here we describe a quantitative Haemagglutination test (HAT) for the detection of antibodies to the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The HAT has a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 99% for detection of antibodies after a PCR diagnosed infection. We will supply aliquots of the test reagent sufficient for ten thousand test wells free of charge to qualified research groups anywhere in the world.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hemagglutination Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Agglutination Tests/methods , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion
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