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2.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115677

ABSTRACT

Acquired haemophilia A (AHA) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies blocking coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). Haemostatic management of AHA and concomitant thrombotic risk is difficult. We cover the management of a 75-year-old male with severe Covid-19, a prothrombotic disease, and de novo AHA with severe muscle bleeding, a disease requiring highly thrombogenic haemostatic therapy and immunosuppression-a challenging combination. FVIII activity was measured using human and bovine reagents to differentiate between endo- and exogenous FVIII activity. For haemostatic control, recombinant human activated FVII was given, followed by emicizumab, as a less thrombogenic long-term haemostatic agent. Steroids were used as initial immunosuppressive therapy. Later, rituximab was used for inhibitor eradication. No thromboembolic events occurred, and bleeding was effectively controlled. Emicizumab achieved haemostatic balance in a patient under haemorrhagic and thrombogenic conditions. Individual risk assessment is needed to guide treatment decisions in patients threatened by simultaneous bleeding and thrombosis.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 917606, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080173

ABSTRACT

Secondary infections in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are difficult to distinguish from inflammation associated with COVID-19 and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Therefore, highly specific and sensitive biomarkers are needed to identify patients in whom antimicrobial therapy can be safely withheld. In this prospective monocentric study, 66 COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for ECMO evaluation were included. A total of 46 (70%) patients with secondary infections were identified by using broad microbiological and virological panels and standardized diagnostic criteria. Various laboratory parameters including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, procalcitonin (PCT), and IL-10 were determined at time of study inclusion. The best test performance for differentiating bacterial/fungal secondary infections and COVID-19 and/or ECMO associated inflammation was achieved by IL-10 (ROC-AUC 0.84) and a multivariant step-wise regression model including CRP, IL-6, PCT, and IL-10 (ROC-AUC 0.93). Data obtained in the present study highlights the use of IL-10 to differentiate secondary bacterial/fungal infections from COVID-19 and/or ECMO associated inflammation in severely ill COVID-19 patients.

4.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 206(2): 170-177, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794309

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Prostaglandin E1 (alprostadil; PGE1), in addition to low-dose unfractionated heparin, increases the biocompatibility of extracorporeal systems and enhances the efficacy of artificial organs without increasing bleeding risk. Objectives: We investigated the safety and efficacy of PGE1 in adults receiving venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Methods: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II pilot trial at two medical intensive care units at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Adults with venovenous ECMO were randomly assigned to receive an intravenous infusion of 5 ng/kg/min PGE1 or placebo (0.9% saline) in addition to standard anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin. Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome was the rate of transfused packed red blood cells per ECMO day. Secondary outcomes were the incidence of and time to clinically overt bleeding and thromboembolic events. A post hoc subgroup analysis included only patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Between September 2016 and April 2021, of 133 screened patients, 50 patients were randomized, of whom 48 received the assigned study medication (24 per group). The transfusion rate was similar between groups (0.41 vs. 0.39; P = 0.733). PGE1 was associated with fewer thromboembolic events (7 vs. 16; P = 0.020) and longer thromboembolism-free time (hazard ratio [HR], 0.302; P = 0.01), fewer clinically overt bleeding events (2 vs. 11; P = 0.017), and longer bleeding-free time (HR, 0.213; P = 0.047). In patients with COVID-19 (n = 25), the HRs for clinically overt bleeding and thromboembolism were 0.276 (95% confidence interval, 0.035-2.186) and 0.521 (95% confidence interval, 0.149-1.825), respectively. Conclusions: Add-on treatment with PGE1 was safe but did not meet the primary endpoint of reducing the rate of red blood cell transfusions in patients receiving venovenous ECMO. Larger studies need to evaluate the safety and efficacy of additional PGE1 in ECMO. Clinical trial registered with EudraCT (2015-005014-30) and www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02895373).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adult , Alprostadil/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Hemorrhage , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Pilot Projects
5.
Cardiovasc Res ; 118(2): 461-474, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510904

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to multiorgan damage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in blood reflect cell activation and tissue injury. We aimed to determine the association of circulating miRNAs with COVID-19 severity and 28 day intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed RNA-Seq in plasma of healthy controls (n = 11), non-severe (n = 18), and severe (n = 18) COVID-19 patients and selected 14 miRNAs according to cell- and tissue origin for measurement by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in a separate cohort of mild (n = 6), moderate (n = 39), and severe (n = 16) patients. Candidates were then measured by RT-qPCR in longitudinal samples of ICU COVID-19 patients (n = 240 samples from n = 65 patients). A total of 60 miRNAs, including platelet-, endothelial-, hepatocyte-, and cardiomyocyte-derived miRNAs, were differentially expressed depending on severity, with increased miR-133a and reduced miR-122 also being associated with 28 day mortality. We leveraged mass spectrometry-based proteomics data for corresponding protein trajectories. Myocyte-derived (myomiR) miR-133a was inversely associated with neutrophil counts and positively with proteins related to neutrophil degranulation, such as myeloperoxidase. In contrast, levels of hepatocyte-derived miR-122 correlated to liver parameters and to liver-derived positive (inverse association) and negative acute phase proteins (positive association). Finally, we compared miRNAs to established markers of COVID-19 severity and outcome, i.e. SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia, age, BMI, D-dimer, and troponin. Whilst RNAemia, age and troponin were better predictors of mortality, miR-133a and miR-122 showed superior classification performance for severity. In binary and triplet combinations, miRNAs improved classification performance of established markers for severity and mortality. CONCLUSION: Circulating miRNAs of different tissue origin, including several known cardiometabolic biomarkers, rise with COVID-19 severity. MyomiR miR-133a and liver-derived miR-122 also relate to 28 day mortality. MiR-133a reflects inflammation-induced myocyte damage, whilst miR-122 reflects the hepatic acute phase response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , MicroRNAs/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 651484, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430688

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the specific cytokine profile in peripheral blood during the early onset of COVID-19 infection. This was a cross-sectional exploratory, single center study. A total of 55 plasma samples were studied. Serum samples of adults showing symptoms of COVID-19 infection who were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection (CoV+, n=18) at the COVID-19 outpatient clinic of the Medical University of Vienna were screened for immune activation markers by Luminex technology. Additionally, age and gender-matched serum samples of patients displaying COVID-19 associated symptoms, but tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-, n=16) as well as healthy controls (HC, n=21) were analyzed. COVID-19 positive (CoV+) patients showed a specific upregulation of BLC (141; 74-189 pg/mL), SCD30 (273; 207-576 pg/mL), MCP-2 (18; 12-30 pg/mL) and IP-10 (37; 23-96 pg/mL), compared to patients with COVID19-like symptoms but negative PCR test (CoV-), BLC (61; 22-100 pg/mL), sCD30L (161; 120-210 pg/mL), MCP-2 (8; 5-12 pg/mL) and IP-10 (9; 6-12 pg/mL) and healthy controls (HC) (BLC 22; 11-36 pg/mL, sCD30 74; 39-108 pg/mL, MCP-2 6; 3-9. pg/mL, IP-10 = 8; 5-13). The markers APRIL, sIL-2R, IL7, MIF, MIP-1b, SCF, SDF-1a, sTNF-RII were elevated in both CoV+ and CoV- patient groups compared to healthy controls. HGF, MDC and VEGF-A were elevated in CoV- but not CoV+ compared to healthy controls. BLC, sCD30, MCP-2 and IP-10 are specifically induced during early stages of COVID-19 infection and might constitute attractive targets for early diagnosis and treatment of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(1): 113-122, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324456

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary thrombus formation is a hallmark of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A dysregulated immune response culminating in thromboinflammation has been described, but the pathomechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: We studied 41 adult COVID-19 patients with positive results on reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction assays and 37 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Number and surface characteristics of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and citrullinated histone H3 levels were determined in plasma upon inclusion by flow cytometry and immunoassay. RESULTS: In total, 20 patients had severe and 21 nonsevere disease. The number of EV (median [25th, 75th percentile]) was significantly higher in patients compared with controls (658.8 [353.2, 876.6] vs. 435.5 [332.5, 585.3], geometric mean ratio [95% confidence intervals]: 2.6 [1.9, 3.6]; p < 0.001). Patients exhibited significantly higher numbers of EVs derived from platelets, endothelial cells, leukocytes, or neutrophils than controls. EVs from alveolar-macrophages and alveolar-epithelial cells were detectable in plasma and were significantly higher in patients. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1-positive EV levels were higher in patients, while no difference between tissue factor-positive and angiotensin-converting enzyme-positive EV was seen between both groups. Levels of EV did not differ between patients with severe and nonsevere COVID-19. Citrullinated histone H3 levels (ng/mL, median [25th, 75th percentile]) were higher in patients than in controls (1.42 [0.6, 3.4] vs. 0.31 [0.1, 0.6], geometric mean ratio: 4.44 [2.6, 7.7]; p < 0.001), and were significantly lower in patients with nonsevere disease compared with those with severe disease. CONCLUSION: EV and citrullinated histone H3 are associated with COVID-19 and could provide information regarding pathophysiology of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Extracellular Vesicles/pathology , Histones/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Citrullination , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Female , Histones/chemistry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboinflammation/blood , Thromboinflammation/etiology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186958

ABSTRACT

Personal protective equipment and adherence to disinfection protocols are essential to prevent nosocomial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. Here, we evaluated infection control measures in a prospective longitudinal single-center study at the Vienna General Hospital, the biggest tertiary care center in Austria, with a structurally planned low SARS-CoV-2 exposure. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were assessed by Abbott ARCHITECT chemiluminescent assay (CLIA) in 599 health care workers (HCWs) at the start of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in early April and two months later. Neutralization assay confirmed CLIA-positive samples. A structured questionnaire was completed at both visits assessing demographic parameters, family situation, travel history, occupational coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure, and personal protective equipment handling. At the first visit, 6 of 599 participants (1%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. The seroprevalence increased to 1.5% (8/553) at the second visit and did not differ depending on the working environment. Unprotected SARS-CoV-2 exposure (p = 0.003), positively tested family members (p = 0.04), and travel history (p = 0.09) were more frequently reported by positively tested HCWs. Odds for COVID-19 related symptoms were highest for congestion or runny nose (p = 0.002) and altered taste or smell (p < 0.001). In conclusion, prevention strategies proved feasible in reducing the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from patients and among HCWs in a low incidence hospital, not exceeding the one described in the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Austria , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
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