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1.
Neurol Sci ; 43(4): 2241-2251, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636655

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: From the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers had to face unprecedented emergency needs associated with an extraordinary amount of psychological distress. In this cross-sectional multicenter study, we investigated sleep disturbances, and the level of anxiety and depression among the healthcare and non-healthcare staff of three hospitals in Milan (Italy) during the COVID-19 outbreak. Moreover, we explored potential predisposing factors for affective symptoms and poor sleep. METHODS: Between June and July 2020, we administered an online questionnaire to evaluate the presence of sleep disorders (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), insomnia (Sleep Condition Indicator), anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II). We used univariate and multivariate analysis to evaluate the association between the personal conditions and sleep and affective disorders. RESULTS: The 964 participants reported high rates of sleep disorders (80.3%)-mainly insomnia (30.5%)-anxiety (69.7%), and depression (32.8%). The multivariate analysis showed a strong association of sleep disorders, especially insomnia, with female gender (p = 0.004), divorced marital status (p = 0.015), self-isolation (p = 0.037), and chronic diseases (p = 0.003). Anxiety was significantly associated with teleworking (p = 0.001), while depressive symptoms were associated with self-isolation (p = 0.028), modified work schedules (p = 0.03), and chronic diseases (p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: In hospital workers, the high prevalence of sleep and psychiatric symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak appears to be determined mainly by modifications of personal or work habits. Teleworking was associated with increased anxiety. An accurate planning of hospital activities and a psychological support are needed to prevent and manage sleep and mental disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology
2.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 58: 103415, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with neuroimmunological conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) often receive disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) or immunosuppressants which may reduce the response to vaccines. BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) is the first COVID-19 vaccine authorized in Italy. Its clinical efficacy and serological response were not evaluated in MS patients receiving DMTs or immunosuppressants. This early multicenter study evaluated serological response to BNT162b2 and safety in these patients. METHODS: From February 2021 we enrolled consecutive MS patients, treated with at least one DMT and all healthcare workers (HCWs), having received or being scheduled to receive the first dose of BNT162b2. Blood samples were collected after the second vaccine dose and analyzed to quantitatively detect the presence of anti-Spike antibodies. Serological response was compared to the one from a control population of HCWs, with neither neuroimmunological conditions nor receiving immunosuppressants. Patients receiving treatments associated with a possible reduced response (Under-scrutiny treatment group) were also compared to those undergoing other treatments. Anti-Spike levels were described as median and interquartile range (IQR). Comparisons were performed with Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were collected. RESULTS: 39 MS patients and a control population of 273 HCWs were included. One patient, under treatment with ocrelizumab, did not respond to BNT162b2, while all the remaining patients and all controls developed a serological response to the vaccine. Median anti-Spike levels were similar between patients (1471.0 BAU/ml; IQR 779.7 to 2357.0) and controls (1479.0 BAU/ml; IQR 813.1 to 2528.0) (p = 0.53). Patients included in the Under-scrutiny treatments group showed reduced anti-Spike levels (156.4 BAU/ml; IQR 33.4 to 559.1) compared to those receiving other treatments (1582.4 BAU/ml; IQR 1296.5 to 2219.0) (p = 0.001). Solicited AEs were all mild to moderate in severity, generally reported in the first days after vaccination, and resolved in the following days. Two MS patients reported a clinical relapse after the second vaccine dose. CONCLUSION: BNT162b2 induced a serological response in MS patients treated with DMTs similar to controls not receiving DMTs or immunosuppressants. Some treatments were associated with reduced levels of anti-Spike antibodies in patients. These observations have relevant implications for treated patients receiving BNT162b2 and the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388907

ABSTRACT

We report onset, course, correlations with comorbidities, and diagnostic accuracy of nasopharyngeal swab in 539 individuals suspected to carry SARS-COV-2 admitted to the hospital of Crema, Italy. All individuals underwent clinical and laboratory exams, SARS-COV-2 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab, and chest X-ray and/or computed tomography (CT). Data on onset, course, comorbidities, number of drugs including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-II-receptor antagonists (sartans), follow-up swab, pharmacological treatments, non-invasive respiratory support, ICU admission, and deaths were recorded. Among 411 SARS-COV-2 patients (67.7% males) median age was 70.8 years (range 5-99). Chest CT was performed in 317 (77.2%) and showed interstitial pneumonia in 304 (96%). Fatality rate was 17.5% (74% males), with 6.6% in 60-69 years old, 21.1% in 70-79 years old, 38.8% in 80-89 years old, and 83.3% above 90 years. No death occurred below 60 years. Non-invasive respiratory support rate was 27.2% and ICU admission 6.8%. Charlson comorbidity index and high C-reactive protein at admission were significantly associated with death. Use of ACE inhibitors or sartans was not associated with outcomes. Among 128 swab negative patients at admission (63.3% males) median age was 67.7 years (range 1-98). Chest CT was performed in 87 (68%) and showed interstitial pneumonia in 76 (87.3%). Follow-up swab turned positive in 13 of 32 patients. Using chest CT at admission as gold standard on the entire study population of 539 patients, nasopharyngeal swab had 80% accuracy. Comorbidity network analysis revealed a more homogenous distribution 60-40 aged SARS-COV-2 patients across diseases and a crucial different interplay of diseases in the networks of deceased and survived patients. SARS-CoV-2 caused high mortality among patients older than 60 years and correlated with pre-existing multiorgan impairment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Auton Neurosci ; 229: 102734, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778433

ABSTRACT

We describe clinical and laboratory findings in 35 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab experiencing one or multiple syncope at disease onset. Clinical neurologic and cardiologic examination, and electrocardiographic findings were normal. Chest computed tomography showed findings consistent with interstitial pneumonia. Arterial blood gas analysis showed low pO2, pCO2, and ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) indicating hypocapnic hypoxemia. Patients who presented with syncope showed significantly lower heart rate as compared to 68 SARS-CoV-2 positive that did not. Such poorer than expected compensatory heart rate increase may have led to syncope based on individual susceptibility. We speculate that SARS-CoV-2 could have caused angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor internalization in the nucleus of the solitary tract and other midbrain nuclei, impairing baroreflex and chemoreceptor response, and inhibiting the compensatory tachycardia during acute hypocapnic hypoxemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Syncope/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Hypocapnia/virology , Hypoxia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
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