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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 558, 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A global pandemic has been declared for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has serious impacts on human health and healthcare systems in the affected areas, including Vietnam. None of the previous studies have a framework to provide summary statistics of the virus variants and assess the severity associated with virus proteins and host cells in COVID-19 patients in Vietnam. METHOD: In this paper, we comprehensively investigated SARS-CoV-2 variants and immune responses in COVID-19 patients. We provided summary statistics of target sequences of SARS-CoV-2 in Vietnam and other countries for data scientists to use in downstream analysis for therapeutic targets. For host cells, we proposed a predictive model of the severity of COVID-19 based on public datasets of hospitalization status in Vietnam, incorporating a polygenic risk score. This score uses immunogenic SNP biomarkers as indicators of COVID-19 severity. RESULT: We identified that the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 is most prevalent in southern areas of Vietnam and it is different from other areas in the world using various data sources. Our predictive models of COVID-19 severity had high accuracy (Random Forest AUC = 0.81, Elastic Net AUC = 0.7, and SVM AUC = 0.69) and showed that the use of polygenic risk scores increased the models' predictive capabilities. CONCLUSION: We provided a comprehensive analysis for COVID-19 severity in Vietnam. This investigation is not only helpful for COVID-19 treatment in therapeutic target studies, but also could influence further research on the disease progression and personalized clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vietnam/epidemiology
2.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 2120-2131, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510753

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has been influencing people's psychological health, especially in pregnant women. We aimed to examine associated factors of fear of COVID-19, anxiety and depression among pregnant women during the pandemic where the impacts of healthy eating behaviour (HES) and health literacy (HL) were emphasized. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 14 February 2020 and 31 May 2020 in 18 health centres and hospitals across Vietnam. Data of 518 pregnant women were analysed, including socio-demographics, pregnant-related factors, HES, HL, health-related behaviours, fear of COVID-19 scale (FCoV-19S), anxiety (using the generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7)) and depression (using the patient health questionnaire with 9 items (PHQ-9)). Regression analysis was utilized to explore the associations. RESULTS: Pregnant women with higher scores of HES and HL had lower likelihood of anxiety (odds ratio, OR, 0.79; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 0.73, 0.87; p < .001; and OR, 0.94; 95%CI, 0.90, 0.99; p = .018) and depression (OR, 0.84; 95%CI, 0.78, 0.91; p < .001; and OR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.91, 0.99; p = .044), respectively. Pregnant women being employed had a lower FCoV-19S score (regression coefficient, B, -1.46; 95%CI, -2.51, -0.40; p = .007). Besides, other significant predictors of anxiety were eating healthier during the pandemic, unchanged or more physical activity, elevated gestational age and smoking. Other significant predictors of depression were eating healthier during the pandemic, elevated gestational age and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Among others, HES and HL had positive impacts on protecting pregnant women against anxiety and depression. Improving HES and HL should be addressed as a strategic approach to improve reproductive health during the pandemic.KEY MESSAGEThe COVID-19 pandemic influences antenatal mental disorders with the higher level as opposed to that before the pandemic.Healthy eating behaviour and better health literacy (HL) had critical roles in lowering prenatal anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 crisis.Strategic approaches for improving healthy eating and HL should be recommended for protecting pregnant women from mental health problems during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Diet, Healthy , Fear/psychology , Health Literacy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthy eating and physical activity are effective non-pharmacological approaches to boost immune function and contain the pandemic. We aimed to explore the associations and interactions between physical activity and healthy eating behavior with COVID-19-like symptoms (Slike-CV19S). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3947 outpatients, from 14 February to 2 March 2020, at nine health facilities in Vietnam. Data collection included sociodemographic characteristics, healthy eating behavior (using the healthy eating score (HES) questionnaire), physical activity (using the short form international physical activity questionnaire), and Slike-CV19S. The associations and interactions were tested using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Frequent intake of fruits (OR = 0.84; p = 0.016), vegetables (OR = 0.72; p = 0.036), and fish (OR = 0.43; p < 0.001) were associated with a lower Slike-CV19S likelihood, as compared with infrequent intake. Patients with higher HES levels (OR = 0.84; p = 0.033 for medium HES; OR = 0.77; p = 0.006 for high HES) or being physically active (OR = 0.69; p < 0.001) had a lower Slike-CV19S likelihood, as compared to those with low HES or physical inactivity, respectively. Patients with medium HES who were physically active (OR = 0.69; p = 0.005), or with high HES and physically active (OR = 0.58; p < 0.001), had a lower Slike-CV19S likelihood, as compared to those with low HES and physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy eating behavior and physical activity showed single and combinative impacts on protecting people from Slike-CV19S. Strategic approaches are encouraged to improve healthy behaviors, which may further contribute to containing the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Health Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients/psychology , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam , Young Adult
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine the impacts of digital healthy diet literacy (DDL) and healthy eating behaviors (HES) on fear of COVID-19, changes in mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among front-line healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: An online survey was conducted at 15 hospitals and health centers from 6-19 April 2020. Data of 2299 front-line HCWs were analyzed-including socio-demographics, symptoms like COVID-19, health literacy, eHealth literacy, DDL, HES, fear of COVID-19, changes in mental health, and HRQoL. Regression models were used to examine the associations. RESULTS: HCWs with higher scores of DDL and HES had lower scores of FCoV-19S (regression coefficient, B, -0.04; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, -0.07, -0.02; p = 0.001; and B, -0.10; 95% CI, -0.15, -0.06; p < 0.001); had a higher likelihood of stable or better mental health status (odds ratio, OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00, 1.05; p = 0.029; and OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00, 1.07; p = 0.043); and HRQoL (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.03; p = 0.006; and OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02, 1.06; p = 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: DDL and HES were found as independent predictors of fear of COVID-19, changes in mental health status, and HRQoL in front-line HCWs. Improving DDL and HES should be considered as a strategic approach for hospitals and healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Feeding Behavior , Health Literacy/methods , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Quality of Life , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Healthy/methods , Digital Technology/methods , Fear , Female , Health Status , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 634904, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282431

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We explored the association of underlying health conditions (UHC) with depression and anxiety, and examined the modification effects of suspected COVID-19 symptoms (S-COVID-19-S), health-related behaviors (HB), and preventive behaviors (PB). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 8,291 outpatients aged 18-85 years, in 18 hospitals and health centers across Vietnam from 14th February to May 31, 2020. We collected the data regarding participant's characteristics, UHC, HB, PB, depression, and anxiety. Results: People with UHC had higher odds of depression (OR = 2.11; p < 0.001) and anxiety (OR = 2.86; p < 0.001) than those without UHC. The odds of depression and anxiety were significantly higher for those with UHC and S-COVID-19-S (p < 0.001); and were significantly lower for those had UHC and interacted with "unchanged/more" physical activity (p < 0.001), or "unchanged/more" drinking (p < 0.001 for only anxiety), or "unchanged/healthier" eating (p < 0.001), and high PB score (p < 0.001), as compared to those without UHC and without S-COVID-19-S, "never/stopped/less" physical activity, drinking, "less healthy" eating, and low PB score, respectively. Conclusion: S-COVID-19-S worsen psychological health in patients with UHC. Physical activity, drinking, healthier eating, and high PB score were protective factors.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Depression , Outpatients , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients/psychology , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Vietnam/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Front Public Health ; 8: 581746, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976277

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We examined factors associated with health literacy among elders with and without suspected COVID-19 symptoms (S-COVID-19-S). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at outpatient departments of nine hospitals and health centers 14 February-2 March 2020. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess patient characteristics, health literacy, clinical information, health-related behaviors, and depression. A sample of 928 participants aged 60-85 years were analyzed. Results: The proportion of people with S-COVID-19-S and depression were 48.3 and 13.4%, respectively. The determinants of health literacy in groups with and without S-COVID-19-S were age, gender, education, ability to pay for medication, and social status. In people with S-COVID-19-S, one-score increment of health literacy was associated with 8% higher healthy eating likelihood (odds ratio, OR, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 95%CI, 1.04, 1.13; p < 0.001), 4% higher physical activity likelihood (OR, 1.04; 95%CI, 1.01, 1.08, p = 0.023), and 9% lower depression likelihood (OR, 0.90; 95%CI, 0.87, 0.94; p < 0.001). These associations were not found in people without S-COVID-19-S. Conclusions: The older people with higher health literacy were less likely to have depression and had healthier behaviors in the group with S-COVD-19-S. Potential health literacy interventions are suggested to promote healthy behaviors and improve mental health outcomes to lessen the pandemic's damage in this age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis , Health Behavior , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Healthy , Exercise/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vietnam
7.
Front Nutr ; 7: 581043, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971903

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic causes a huge burden for affected countries. Several public health interventions were applied to contain the infection. However, the pandemic itself and the lockdown measure negatively influence people's lifestyles and psychological health. Purpose: To explore determinants of healthy dietary intake and depression, and examine the interaction between healthy dietary intake and COVID-19 lockdown on depression. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 18 hospitals and health centers from February 14 to May 31, 2020. Data of 8,291 outpatients were collected including patients' characteristics, clinical parameters, health literacy, healthy dietary intake (using the healthy eating score, HES), other health-related behaviors, and depression (using the patient health questionnaire, PHQ). Depression was defined as PHQ score ≥ 10. Results: Protective factors of healthy dietary intake and depression were higher education, better medication payment ability, higher social status, more physical activity, and higher health literacy, whereas older age, ever married, own business or other types of occupation, lockdown, suspected COVID-19 symptoms, and comorbidity were associated with lower HES scores and a higher depression likelihood. Besides, overweight/obesity and alcohol drinking were associated with lower HES scores. As compared with patients not under lockdown and with lowest HES score, those who were under lockdown and with lowest HES score had 10.6 times higher depression likelihood (odds ratio, OR, 10.60; 95% CI 6.88, 16.32; p < 0.001), whereas people with higher HES score had 15% lower depression likelihood (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.82, 0.89; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Healthy dietary intake and depression were determined by several sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral factors. Lockdown measure affects people's dietary intake behavior and depression. Importantly, healthy dietary intake potentially modifies the negative effect of lockdown on depression.

8.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e041394, 2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962850

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We examined impacts and interactions of COVID-19 response involvement, health-related behaviours and health literacy (HL) on anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among healthcare workers (HCWs). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data were collected 6 April to 19 April 2020 using online-based, self-administered questionnaires. SETTING: 19 hospitals and health centres in Vietnam. PARTICIPANTS: 7 124 HCWs aged 21-60 years. RESULTS: The COVID-19 response-involved HCWs had higher anxiety likelihood (OR (95% CI)=4.41 (3.53 to 5.51)), higher depression likelihood (OR(95% CI)=3.31 (2.71 to 4.05)) and lower HRQoL score (coefficient, b(95% CI)=-2.14 (-2.89 to -1.38)), compared with uninvolved HCWs. Overall, HCWs who smoked or drank at unchanged/increased levels had higher likelihood of anxiety, depression and lower HRQoL scores; those with unchanged/healthier eating, unchanged/more physical activity and higher HL scores had lower likelihood of anxiety, depression and higher HRQoL scores. In comparison to uninvolved HCWs who smoked or drank at never/stopped/reduced levels, involved HCWs with unchanged/increased smoking or drinking had lower anxiety likelihood (OR(95% CI)=0.34 (0.14 to 0.83)) or (OR(95% CI)=0.26 (0.11 to 0.60)), and lower depression likelihood (OR(95% CI)=0.33 (0.15 to 0.74)) or (OR(95% CI)=0.24 (0.11 to 0.53)), respectively. In comparison with uninvolved HCWs who exercised at never/stopped/reduced levels, or with those in the lowest HL quartile, involved HCWs with unchanged/increased exercise or with one-quartile HL increment reported lower anxiety likelihood (OR(95% CI)=0.50 (0.31 to 0.81)) or (OR(95% CI)=0.57 (0.45 to 0.71)), lower depression likelihood (OR(95% CI)=0.40 (0.27 to 0.61)) or (OR(95% CI)=0.63 (0.52 to 0.76)), and higher HRQoL scores (b(95% CI)=2.08 (0.58 to 3.58)), or (b(95% CI)=1.10 (0.42 to 1.78)), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity and higher HL were found to protect against anxiety and depression and were associated with higher HRQoL. Unexpectedly, smoking and drinking were also found to be coping behaviours. It is important to have strategic approaches that protect HCWs' mental health and HRQoL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Behavior , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/psychology , Quality of Life , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vietnam/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(22)2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934499

ABSTRACT

People with pre-existing health conditions (PEHC) are vulnerable to viral infection while health literacy (HL) and preventive behaviors (PB) have been shown to benefit people during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to examine the association between PEHC and suspected COVID-19 symptoms (S-COVID-19-S), and to investigate the modification effect of HL and PB. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 8291 participants visiting outpatient departments at 18 hospitals and health centers across Vietnam from 14 February to 31 May 2020. Data were collected regarding participant's characteristics, HL, PB, PEHC, and S-COVID-19-S. Regression models were used for analyzing the associations. Results showed that people with PEHC had a 3.38 times higher likelihood of having S-COVID-19-S (odds ratio, OR, 3.38; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 3.01, 3.79; p < 0.001). In comparison to participants without PEHC and with the lowest HL score, those with PEHC and one HL score increment had a 7% lower likelihood of having S-COVID-19-S (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.92, 0.94; p < 0.001). In comparison to participants without PEHC and not adhering to mask wearing, those with PEHC and adhering to mask wearing had a 77% lower likelihood of having S-COVID-19-S (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.32; p < 0.001). Higher HL and adherence to mask wearing can protect people from having S-COVID-19-S, especially in those with PEHC.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Health Literacy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Masks , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vietnam/epidemiology
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e22894, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed a heavy burden on health care systems and governments. Health literacy (HL) and eHealth literacy (as measured by the eHealth Literacy Scale [eHEALS]) are recognized as strategic public health elements but they have been underestimated during the pandemic. HL, eHEALS score, practices, lifestyles, and the health status of health care workers (HCWs) play crucial roles in containing the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the eHEALS and examine associations of HL and eHEALS scores with adherence to infection prevention and control (IPC) procedures, lifestyle changes, and suspected COVID-19 symptoms among HCWs during lockdown. METHODS: We conducted an online survey of 5209 HCWs from 15 hospitals and health centers across Vietnam from April 6 to April 19, 2020. Participants answered questions related to sociodemographics, HL, eHEALS, adherence to IPC procedures, behavior changes in eating, smoking, drinking, and physical activity, and suspected COVID-19 symptoms. Principal component analysis, correlation analysis, and bivariate and multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to validate the eHEALS and examine associations. RESULTS: The eHEALS had a satisfactory construct validity with 8 items highly loaded on one component, with factor loadings ranked from 0.78 to 0.92 explaining 76.34% of variance; satisfactory criterion validity as correlated with HL (ρ=0.42); satisfactory convergent validity with high item-scale correlations (ρ=0.80-0.84); and high internal consistency (Cronbach α=.95). HL and eHEALS scores were significantly higher in men (unstandardized coefficient [B]=1.01, 95% CI 0.57-1.45, P<.001; B=0.72, 95% CI 0.43-1.00, P<.001), those with a better ability to pay for medication (B=1.65, 95% CI 1.25-2.05, P<.001; B=0.60, 95% CI 0.34-0.86, P<.001), doctors (B=1.29, 95% CI 0.73-1.84, P<.001; B 0.56, 95% CI 0.20-0.93, P=.003), and those with epidemic containment experience (B=1.96, 95% CI 1.56-2.37, P<.001; B=0.64, 95% CI 0.38-0.91, P<.001), as compared to their counterparts, respectively. HCWs with higher HL or eHEALS scores had better adherence to IPC procedures (B=0.13, 95% CI 0.10-0.15, P<.001; B=0.22, 95% CI 0.19-0.26, P<.001), had a higher likelihood of healthy eating (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, P=.001; OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.07, P=.002), were more physically active (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.03, P<.001; OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03-1.05, P<.001), and had a lower likelihood of suspected COVID-19 symptoms (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.98, P<.001; OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98, P<.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The eHEALS is a valid and reliable survey tool. Gender, ability to pay for medication, profession, and epidemic containment experience were independent predictors of HL and eHEALS scores. HCWs with higher HL or eHEALS scores had better adherence to IPC procedures, healthier lifestyles, and a lower likelihood of suspected COVID-19 symptoms. Efforts to improve HCWs' HL and eHEALS scores can help to contain the COVID-19 pandemic and minimize its consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Literacy/methods , Health Personnel/standards , Psychometrics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20516

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic affects people's health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), especially in those who have suspected COVID-19 symptoms (S-COVID-19-S). We examined the effect of modifications of health literacy (HL) on depression and HRQoL. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 14 February to 2 March 2020. 3947 participants were recruited from outpatient departments of nine hospitals and health centers across Vietnam. The interviews were conducted using printed questionnaires including participants' characteristics, clinical parameters, health behaviors, HL, depression, and HRQoL. People with S-COVID-19-S had a higher depression likelihood (OR, 2.88; p < 0.001), lower HRQoL-score (B, -7.92; p < 0.001). In comparison to people without S-COVID-19-S and low HL, those with S-COVID-19-S and low HL had 9.70 times higher depression likelihood (p < 0.001), 20.62 lower HRQoL-score (p < 0.001), for the people without S-COVID-19-S, 1 score increment of HL resulted in 5% lower depression likelihood (p < 0.001) and 0.45 higher HRQoL-score (p < 0.001), while for those people with S-COVID-19-S, 1 score increment of HL resulted in a 4% lower depression likelihood (p = 0.004) and 0.43 higher HRQoL-score (p < 0.001). People with S-COVID-19-S had a higher depression likelihood and lower HRQoL than those without. HL shows a protective effect on depression and HRQoL during the epidemic.

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