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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 315, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is significantly associated with negative outcomes for both mother and child. Current evidence indicates an association between low levels of social support and IPV, however there is less evidence from low-and-middle income countries (LMIC) than high-income countries. Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has radically altered how women can access social support. Hence since 2020, studies investigating IPV and pregnancy have occurred within the changing social context of the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review summarizes the evidence from LMICs about the effects of IPV during pregnancy on maternal and child health. The review includes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on social support as mentioned in studies conducted since 2020. DESIGN: Library databases were used to identify papers from 2016 to 2021. These studies reported the maternal and child health outcomes of IPV during pregnancy, and described how social support during pregnancy, and the COVID-19 pandemic, were associated with rates of IPV during pregnancy. Observational study designs, qualitative and mixed methods studies were included. RESULTS: Twenty - six studies from 13 LMICs were included. Half (n = 13) were cross sectional studies which only collected data at one time-point. IPV during pregnancy was significantly associated with higher odds of postpartum depression, low birth weight, preterm birth and less breastfeeding in the year after birth. Lower levels of social support increased the odds of experiencing IPV during pregnancy, whilst higher levels of social support reduced antenatal anxiety and depression in women experiencing IPV during pregnancy. Of the four studies that investigated IPV during pregnancy throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, only one compared prevalence before and after the pandemic and unexpectedly reported a lower prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Further research on the impact of IPV during pregnancy on maternal and child outcomes in LMICs is required, especially evidence from longitudinal studies investigating a wider range of outcomes. To date, there is limited evidence on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on IPV during pregnancy in LMICs, and this should be prioritized as the pandemic continues to affect women's access to social support globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Health , Developing Countries , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pregnancy
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324394

ABSTRACT

This N=173,426 social science dataset was collected through the collaborative COVIDiSTRESS Global Survey – an open science effort to improve understandings of the human experiences of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic between 30th March and 30th May, 2020. The dataset allows a cross-cultural study of psychological and behavioural responses to the Coronavirus pandemic and associated government measures like cancellation of public functions and stay at home orders implemented in many countries. The dataset contains demographic background variables as well as measures of perceived stress (PSS-10), availability of social provisions (SPS-10), trust in various authorities, trust in governmental measures to contain the virus (OECD trust), personality traits (BFF-15), information behaviours, agreement with the level of government intervention, and compliance with preventive measures, along with a rich pool of exploratory variables and written experiences. A global consortium from 44 countries worked together to build and translate a survey with variables of shared interests, and recruited participants in 49 languages and dialects. Raw plus cleaned the data and dynamic visualizations are available.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315428

ABSTRACT

The COVIDiSTRESS global survey collects data on early human responses to the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic from 173,429 respondents in 48 countries. The open science study was co-designed by an international consortium of researchers to investigate how psychological responses differ across countries and cultures, and how this has impacted behaviour, coping and trust in government efforts to slow the spread of the virus. Starting in March 2020, COVIDiSTRESS leveraged the convenience of unpaid online recruitment to generate public data. The objective of the present analysis is to understand relationships between psychological responses in the early months of global coronavirus resreictions, and help understand how different government measures succeed or fail in changing public behaviour. There were variations between and within countries. Although Western Europeans registered as more concerned over COVID-19, more stressed, and having slightly more trust in the governments’ efforts, there was no clear geographical pattern in compliance with behavioural measures. Detailed plots illustrating between-countries differences are provided.Using both traditional and Bayesian analyses, we found that individuals who worried about getting sick worked harder to protect themselves and others. However, concern about the coronavirus itself did not account for all of the variance in experienced stress during the early months of coronavirus restrictions. More alarmingly, such stress was associated with less compliance. Further, those most concerned over the coronavirus trusted in government measures primarily where policies were strict. While concern over a disease is a source of mental distress, other factors including strictness of protective measures, social support, and personal lockdown conditions must also be taken into consideration to fully appreciate the psychological impact of COVID-19 and to understand why some people fail to follow behavioral guidelines intended to protect themselves and others from infection.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294884

ABSTRACT

In this study, we tested the validity across two scales addressing conspiratorial beliefs that may influence behaviors related to public health, government, and the COVID-19 pandemic. The 4-item Conspiratorial Thinking Scale and 3-item Anti-Expert Sentiment Scale were validated across 24 languages and dialects using the COVIDiSTRESSII Global Survey dataset, with 12,261 participants who completed the survey in languages with greater than 100 participants per language. We employed confirmatory factor analysis, measurement invariance test, and measurement alignment for internal consistency testing. To test convergent validity of the two scales, we assessed correlations with trust in seven agents related to government, science, and public health. Although scalar invariance was not achieved when measurement invariance test was conducted initially, we found that both scales can be employed in further international studies with measurement alignment. Moreover, both conspiratorial and anti-expert beliefs were significantly and negatively correlated with trust in all agents. Findings from this study provide supporting evidence for the validity of both scales across 24 languages for future large-scale international research.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293626

ABSTRACT

In this study, we tested the validity across two scales addressing conspiratorial beliefs that may influence behaviors related to public health, government, and the COVID-19 pandemic. The 4-item Conspiratorial Thinking Scale and 3-item Anti-Expert Sentiment Scale were validated across 24 languages and dialects using the COVIDiSTRESSII Global Survey dataset, with 12,261 participants who completed the survey in languages with greater than 100 participants per language. We employed confirmatory factor analysis, measurement invariance test, and measurement alignment for internal consistency testing. To test convergent validity of the two scales, we assessed correlations with trust in seven agents related to government, science, and public health. Although scalar invariance was not achieved when measurement invariance test was conducted initially, we found that both scales can be employed in further international studies with measurement alignment. Moreover, both conspiratorial and anti-expert beliefs were significantly and negatively correlated with trust in all agents. Findings from this study provide supporting evidence for the validity of both scales across 24 languages for future large-scale international research.

7.
R Soc Open Sci ; 8(2): 200589, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223419

ABSTRACT

The COVIDiSTRESS global survey collects data on early human responses to the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic from 173 429 respondents in 48 countries. The open science study was co-designed by an international consortium of researchers to investigate how psychological responses differ across countries and cultures, and how this has impacted behaviour, coping and trust in government efforts to slow the spread of the virus. Starting in March 2020, COVIDiSTRESS leveraged the convenience of unpaid online recruitment to generate public data. The objective of the present analysis is to understand relationships between psychological responses in the early months of global coronavirus restrictions and help understand how different government measures succeed or fail in changing public behaviour. There were variations between and within countries. Although Western Europeans registered as more concerned over COVID-19, more stressed, and having slightly more trust in the governments' efforts, there was no clear geographical pattern in compliance with behavioural measures. Detailed plots illustrating between-countries differences are provided. Using both traditional and Bayesian analyses, we found that individuals who worried about getting sick worked harder to protect themselves and others. However, concern about the coronavirus itself did not account for all of the variances in experienced stress during the early months of COVID-19 restrictions. More alarmingly, such stress was associated with less compliance. Further, those most concerned over the coronavirus trusted in government measures primarily where policies were strict. While concern over a disease is a source of mental distress, other factors including strictness of protective measures, social support and personal lockdown conditions must also be taken into consideration to fully appreciate the psychological impact of COVID-19 and to understand why some people fail to follow behavioural guidelines intended to protect themselves and others from infection. The Stage 1 manuscript associated with this submission received in-principle acceptance (IPA) on 18 May 2020. Following IPA, the accepted Stage 1 version of the manuscript was preregistered on the Open Science Framework at https://osf.io/g2t3b. This preregistration was performed prior to data analysis.

8.
PLoS Biol ; 19(3): e3001158, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156073

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally and become a major public health burden. Despite its close phylogenetic relationship to SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 exhibits increased human-to-human transmission dynamics, likely due to efficient early replication in the upper respiratory epithelium of infected individuals. Since different temperatures encountered in the human upper and lower respiratory tract (33°C and 37°C, respectively) have been shown to affect the replication kinetics of several respiratory viruses, as well as host innate immune response dynamics, we investigated the impact of temperature on SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection using the primary human airway epithelial cell culture model. SARS-CoV-2, in contrast to SARS-CoV, replicated to higher titers when infections were performed at 33°C rather than 37°C. Although both viruses were highly sensitive to type I and type III interferon pretreatment, a detailed time-resolved transcriptome analysis revealed temperature-dependent interferon and pro-inflammatory responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 that were inversely proportional to its replication efficiency at 33°C or 37°C. These data provide crucial insight on pivotal virus-host interaction dynamics and are in line with characteristic clinical features of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, as well as their respective transmission efficiencies.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Interferons/pharmacology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Species Specificity , Temperature , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/genetics
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5106, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117659

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has strained hospital resources and necessitated the need for predictive models to forecast patient care demands in order to allow for adequate staffing and resource allocation. Recently, other studies have looked at associations between Google Trends data and the number of COVID-19 cases. Expanding on this approach, we propose a vector error correction model (VECM) for the number of COVID-19 patients in a healthcare system (Census) that incorporates Google search term activity and healthcare chatbot scores. The VECM provided a good fit to Census and very good forecasting performance as assessed by hypothesis tests and mean absolute percentage prediction error. Although our study and model have limitations, we have conducted a broad and insightful search for candidate Internet variables and employed rigorous statistical methods. We have demonstrated the VECM can potentially be a valuable component to a COVID-19 surveillance program in a healthcare system.


Subject(s)
Forecasting/methods , Hospitalization/trends , Search Engine/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Resource Allocation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Search Engine/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors
10.
J Food Prot ; 84(3): 352-358, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067879

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has presented new challenges to food manufacturers. During the early phase of the pandemic, several large outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in food manufacturing plants resulting in deaths and economic loss, with approximately 15% of personnel diagnosed as asymptomatic for COVID-19. Spread by asymptomatic and presymptomatic individuals has been implicated in large outbreaks of COVID-19. In March 2020, we assisted in implementation of environmental monitoring programs for SARS-CoV-2 in zones 3 and 4 of 116 food production facilities. All participating facilities had already implemented measures to prevent symptomatic personnel from coming to work. During the study period, from 17 March to 3 September 2020, 1.23% of the 22,643 environmental samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that infected individuals were actively shedding virus. Virus contamination was commonly found on frequently touched surfaces such as doorknobs, handles, table surfaces, and sanitizer dispensers. Most processing plants managed to control their environmental contamination when they became aware of the positive findings. Comparisons of positive test results for plant personnel and environmental surfaces in one plant revealed a close correlation. Our work illustrates that environmental monitoring for SARS-CoV-2 can be used as a surrogate for identifying the presence of asymptomatic and presymptomatic personnel in workplaces and may aid in controlling infection spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Plants, Edible , Prevalence
11.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 3, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007535

ABSTRACT

This N = 173,426 social science dataset was collected through the collaborative COVIDiSTRESS Global Survey - an open science effort to improve understanding of the human experiences of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic between 30th March and 30th May, 2020. The dataset allows a cross-cultural study of psychological and behavioural responses to the Coronavirus pandemic and associated government measures like cancellation of public functions and stay at home orders implemented in many countries. The dataset contains demographic background variables as well as measures of Asian Disease Problem, perceived stress (PSS-10), availability of social provisions (SPS-10), trust in various authorities, trust in governmental measures to contain the virus (OECD trust), personality traits (BFF-15), information behaviours, agreement with the level of government intervention, and compliance with preventive measures, along with a rich pool of exploratory variables and written experiences. A global consortium from 39 countries and regions worked together to build and translate a survey with variables of shared interests, and recruited participants in 47 languages and dialects. Raw plus cleaned data and dynamic visualizations are available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Health Behavior , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Government , Humans , Personality , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Trust
12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244170, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vietnam applied strict quarantine measures to mitigate the rapid transmission of the SARS-COV-2 virus. Central questions were how the COVID-19 pandemic affected health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the Vietnamese general population, and whether there is any difference in HRQOL among people under different quarantine conditions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted during 1 April- 30 May 2020 when the COVID-19 pandemic was at its peak in Vietnam. Data was collected via an online survey using Google survey tool. A convenient sampling approach was employed, with participants being sorted into three groups: people who were in government quarantine facilities; people who were under self-isolation at their own place; and the general population who did not need enforced quarantine. The Vietnamese EQ-5D-5L instrument was used to measure HRQOL. Differences in HRQOL among people of isolation groups and their socio-demographic characteristics were statistically tested. RESULTS: A final sample was made of 406 people, including 10 persons from government quarantine facilities, 57 persons under self-isolation at private places, and the rest were the general population. The mean EQ-VAS was reported the highest at 90.5 (SD: 7.98) among people in government quarantine facilities, followed by 88.54 (SD: 12.24) among general population and 86.54 (SD 13.69) among people in self-isolation group. The EQ-5D-5L value was reported the highest among general population at 0.95 (SD: 0.07), followed by 0.94 (SD: 0.12) among people in government quarantine facilities, and 0.93 (SD: 0.13) among people who did self-isolation. Overall, most people, at any level, reported having problems with anxiety and/or depression in all groups. CONCLUSION: While there have been some worries and debates on implementing strict quarantine measures can hinder people's quality of life, Vietnam showed an opposite tendency in people's HRQOL even under the highest level of enforcement in the prevention and control of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Quality of Life , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/complications , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/complications , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Public Health , Quarantine , Search Engine , Social Class , Social Isolation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vietnam/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med. ; 6(13): 247-251, 20200601.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-635222

ABSTRACT

Objective: To provide preliminary descriptions of the spread, burden and related medical capacity characteristics of the ASEAN countries. Methods: We utilized the data from four main official databases, including WHO reports, the Statistics and Research of the Coronavirus Disease, and the Southeast Asia Program of the Center for Strategic and International Study. The spread of the COVID- 19 pandemic, current burden and the COVID-19 medical response capacities were extracted before April 11, 2020. Results: As of April 13, 2020, the ASEAN countries reported 19 547 COVID-19 positive cases with 817 deaths (case-facility rate of 4.2%). Thailand was the first country in the region that reported having the COVID-19 cases, while Laos was the last to report confirmed COVID-19 cases. Durations for the number of deaths to double were between 8-12 days. For the testing and treatment capacities, the number of PCR tests provided to the populations was the highest in Vietnam, followed by Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand. Meanwhile, the percentage of the population being tested was the highest in Brunei (2.31%), followed by Singapore (1.30%). Conclusions: A wide range of interventions were taken into practice in response to the outbreak with an effort of curbing the rise of this pandemic. However, special care should not be overlooked as the pandemic is placing a huge impact on the population and becomes increasingly unpredictable. To tackle the spread of the pandemic in the region, the ASEAN countries should work together as one community to provide better responses to future pandemics and other transboundary public health challenges.

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