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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Immunogenicity and safety following standard SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) are poorly characterized, and data on third dose vaccination are lacking. Study aim was to evaluate serological response and adverse events following standard and third dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in IMID-patients on immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: Adult patients on immunosuppressive therapy for rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and healthy controls receiving standard two dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, were included in this prospective observational study. Analyses of antibodies to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-COV-2 spike protein were performed prior to, and 2-4 weeks after vaccination. Poorly responding patients were allotted a third vaccine dose. RESULTS: 1505 (91%) patients and 1096 (98%) healthy controls (p<0.001) responded to standard SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Anti-RBD levels were lower in patients (median 619 AU/ml [IQR 192-4191]) than controls (median 3355 AU/ml [896 -7849]), p<0.001. The proportion of responders was lowest in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor inhibitor combination therapy, janus kinase inhibitors, or abatacept. Lower age and receiving mRNA-1273 vaccine were predictors of response. Of 153 patients with a weak response receiving a third dose, 129 (84%) became responders. Patients and controls had a comparable safety profile. CONCLUSIONS: IMID-patients had an attenuated response to standard vaccination as compared to healthy controls. A third vaccine dose was safe and resulted in serological response in most patients. These data facilitate identification of patient groups at risk of attenuated vaccine response, and support administering a third vaccine dose to poorly-responding IMID-patients.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332687

ABSTRACT

Diagnostic assays currently used to monitor the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines measure levels of antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of ancestral SARS-CoV-2 (RBDwt). However, the predictive value for protection against new variants of concern (VOCs) has not been firmly established. Here, we used bead-based arrays and flow cytometry to measure binding of antibodies to spike proteins and receptor-binding domains (RBDs) from VOCs in 12,000 sera. Effects of sera on RBD-ACE2 interactions were measured as a proxy for neutralizing antibodies. The samples were obtained from healthy individuals or patients on immunosuppressive therapy who had received two to four doses of COVID-19 vaccines and from COVID-19 convalescents. The results show that anti-RBDwt titers correlate with the levels of binding- and neutralizing antibodies against the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon and Omicron variants. The benefit of multiplexed analysis lies in the ability to measure a wide range of anti-RBD titers using a single dilution of serum for each assay. The reactivity patterns also yield an internal reference for neutralizing activity and binding antibody units per milliliter (BAU/ml). Results obtained with sera from vaccinated healthy individuals and patients confirmed and extended results from previous studies on time-dependent waning of antibody levels and effects of immunosuppressive agents. We conclude that anti-RBDwt titers correlate with levels of neutralizing antibodies against VOCs and propose that our method may be implemented to enhance the precision and throughput of immunomonitoring.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331822

ABSTRACT

Diagnostic assays currently used to monitor the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines measure levels of antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of ancestral SARS-CoV-2 (RBDwt). However, the predictive value for protection against new variants of concern (VOCs) has not been firmly established. Here, we used bead-based arrays and flow cytometry to measure binding of antibodies to spike proteins and receptor-binding domains (RBDs) from VOCs in 12,000 sera. Effects of sera on RBD-ACE2 interactions were measured as a proxy for neutralizing antibodies. The samples were obtained from healthy individuals or patients on immunosuppressive therapy who had received two to four doses of COVID-19 vaccines and from COVID-19 convalescents. The results show that anti-RBDwt titers correlate with the levels of binding- and neutralizing antibodies against the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon and Omicron variants. The benefit of multiplexed analysis lies in the ability to measure a wide range of anti-RBD titers using a single dilution of serum for each assay. The reactivity patterns also yield an internal reference for neutralizing activity and binding antibody units per milliliter (BAU/ml). Results obtained with sera from vaccinated healthy individuals and patients confirmed and extended results from previous studies on time-dependent waning of antibody levels and effects of immunosuppressive agents. We conclude that anti-RBDwt titers correlate with levels of neutralizing antibodies against VOCs and propose that our method may be implemented to enhance the precision and throughput of immunomonitoring.

4.
Br J Haematol ; 197(6): 697-708, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731105

ABSTRACT

B-cell depletion induced by anti-cluster of differentiation 20 (CD20) monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy of patients with lymphoma is expected to impair humoral responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination, but effects on CD8 T-cell responses are unknown. Here, we investigated humoral and CD8 T-cell responses following two vaccinations in patients with lymphoma undergoing anti-CD20-mAb therapy as single agent or in combination with chemotherapy or other anti-neoplastic agents during the last 9 months prior to inclusion, and in healthy age-matched blood donors. Antibody measurements showed that seven of 110 patients had antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein 3-6 weeks after the second dose of vaccination. Peripheral blood CD8 T-cell responses against prevalent human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I SARS-CoV-2 epitopes were determined by peptide-HLA multimer analysis. Strong CD8 T-cell responses were observed in samples from 20/29 patients (69%) and 12/16 (75%) controls, with similar median response magnitudes in the groups and some of the strongest responses observed in patients. We conclude that despite the absence of humoral immune responses in fully SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated, anti-CD20-treated patients with lymphoma, their CD8 T-cell responses reach similar frequencies and magnitudes as for controls. Patients with lymphoma on B-cell depleting therapies are thus likely to benefit from current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, and development of vaccines aimed at eliciting T-cell responses to non-Spike epitopes might provide improved protection.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Lymphoma , Rituximab , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes , Humans , Lymphoma/drug therapy , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
6.
J Pharm Technol ; 38(2): 106-114, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714638

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Telepharmacy, the application of information and communication technologies in healthcare services, has been adopted in many countries to provide patients with pharmaceutical care. However, it has yet to be widely used in Vietnam. This study was conducted to assess the current status of use and the factors associated with the willingness to use telepharmacy of pharmacists in Vietnam. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February to July 2021; 414 pharmacists were recruited to fill in an online survey. Results: Overall, 86.7% of participants have used telepharmacy application and 87.2% of them were willing to apply telepharmacy in pharmacy practice. According to our multivariate analysis, the level of readiness was associated with positive attitude (odds ratio [OR] = 4.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.26-9.66), and a good behavior (OR = 11.34; 95% CI: 3.84-33.45). Discussion: Developing a telepharmacy system with appropriate features is essential to meet the requirements of pharmacy practice amid the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312414

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic, alongside the restrictive measures implemented for its control, may considerably affect people’s lives particularly vulnerable persons such as children, elderly and people with underlying diseases. This study aimed to assess the well-being of Vietnamese people after COVID-19 lockdown measures were lifted and life gradually returned to normal in Vietnam. Methods: : An online survey was organized from 21 st to 25 th April 2020 among Vietnamese residents aged 18 and over. Data were collected concerning the participants’ health status, COVID-19 preventive behaviour, and consequences of the preventive measures. The WHO-5 Well-Being Index was used to score participants’ well-being. Results: : A total of 1922 responses were analyzed (mean age was 31 years;range: 18-76). Factors associated with a high well-being score included older age, eating healthy food, practising physical exercise, working from home, and adherence to the COVID-19 preventive measures. Female participants, persons worried about their relatives’ health, and smokers were more likely to have a low well-being score. Conclusions: : The Vietnamese people continued to follow COVID-19 preventive measures even after the lockdown was lifted. Most respondents scored high on the well-being scale. However, the emergence of a new COVID-19 outbreak with an epicenter in Da Nang city is expected to increase public anxiety and mental health problems. It is clear that together with preventive measures, developing strategies to guarantee the well-being of the Vietnamese people’s is equally important.

8.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327209

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is now overtaking the Delta variant in many countries. Results showing that sera from double vaccinated individuals have minimal neutralizing activity against Omicron may indicate that the higher rate of transmission is due to evasion from vaccine-induced immunity. However, there is little information about activation of recall responses to Omicron in vaccinated individuals. Methods We measured inflammatory mediators, antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins, and spike peptide-induced release of interferon gamma in whole blood in 51 vaccinated individuals infected with Omicron, in 14 infected with Delta, and in 18 healthy controls. The median time points for the first and second samples were 7 and 14 days after symptom onset, respectively. Findings Infection with Omicron or Delta led to a rapid and similar increase in antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins and spike peptide-induced interferon gamma in whole blood. Both the Omicron and the Delta infected patients had a mild and transient increase in inflammatory parameters. Interpretation The results suggest that vaccine-induced immunological memory yields similar coverage for the Omicron and Delta variants.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317936

ABSTRACT

Frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) involved in the COVID-19 response stand a higher risk of experiencing psychosocial distress amidst the pandemic. Between July and September 2020, a second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic appeared in Vietnam with Da Nang city being the epicenter. During the outbreak, HCWs were quarantined within the health facilities in a bid to limit the spread of the COVID-19 to their respective communities. Using the stress component of the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), we assessed the level of stress among HCWs in Da Nang city. Between 30 th August and 15 th September 2020, 746 frontline HCWs were recruited to fill an online structured-questionnaire. Overall, 44.6% of participants experienced increased stress and 18.9% severe or extremely severe stress. In multivariable analysis, increased stress was associated with longer working hours (OR=1.012;95% CI: 1.004–1.019), working in health facilities providing COVID-19 treatment (OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.04-2.39), having direct contact with patients or their bio-samples (physicians, nurses and laboratory workers;OR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.02-1.99), low confidence in the available personal protective equipment (OR=0.846;95% CI: 0.744–0.962), and low knowledge on COVID-19 prevention and treatment (OR=0.853;95% CI: 0.739-0.986). In conclusion, many frontline HCWs experienced an increased stress during the COVID-19 outbreak in Da Nang city. Reducing working time, providing essential personal protective equipment, enhancing of the knowledge on COVID-19 will help to reduce this stress. Moreover, extra support is needed for HCWs who are directly exposed to COVID-19 patients.

10.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 4(3): e177-e187, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In rituximab-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis, humoral and cellular immune responses after two or three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are not well characterised. We aimed to address this knowledge gap. METHODS: This prospective, cohort study (Nor-vaC) was done at two hospitals in Norway. For this sub-study, we enrolled patients with rheumatoid arthritis on rituximab treatment and healthy controls who received SARS-CoV-2 vaccines according to the Norwegian national vaccination programme. Patients with insufficient serological responses to two doses (antibody to the receptor-binding domain [RBD] of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein concentration <100 arbitrary units [AU]/mL) were allotted a third vaccine dose. Antibodies to the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were measured in serum 2-4 weeks after the second and third doses. Vaccine-elicited T-cell responses were assessed in vitro using blood samples taken before and 7-10 days after the second dose and 3 weeks after the third dose from a subset of patients by stimulating cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells with spike protein peptides. The main outcomes were the proportions of participants with serological responses (anti-RBD antibody concentrations of ≥70 AU/mL) and T-cell responses to spike peptides following two and three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04798625, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Feb 9, 2021, and May 27, 2021, 90 patients were enrolled, 87 of whom donated serum and were included in our analyses (69 [79·3%] women and 18 [20·7%] men). 1114 healthy controls were included (854 [76·7%] women and 260 [23·3%] men). 49 patients were allotted a third vaccine dose. 19 (21·8%) of 87 patients, compared with 1096 (98·4%) of 1114 healthy controls, had a serological response after two doses (p<0·0001). Time since last rituximab infusion (median 267 days [IQR 222-324] in responders vs 107 days [80-152] in non-responders) and vaccine type (mRNA-1273 vs BNT162b2) were significantly associated with serological response (adjusting for age and sex). After two doses, 10 (53%) of 19 patients had CD4+ T-cell responses and 14 (74%) had CD8+ T-cell responses. A third vaccine dose induced serological responses in eight (16·3%) of 49 patients, but induced CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in all patients assessed (n=12), including responses to the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant (B.1.617.2). Adverse events were reported in 32 (48%) of 67 patients and in 191 (78%) of 244 healthy controls after two doses, with the frequency not increasing after the third dose. There were no serious adverse events or deaths. INTERPRETATION: This study provides important insight into the divergent humoral and cellular responses to two and three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in rituximab-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A third vaccine dose given 6-9 months after a rituximab infusion might not induce a serological response, but could be considered to boost the cellular immune response. FUNDING: The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, Research Council of Norway Covid, the KG Jebsen Foundation, Oslo University Hospital, the University of Oslo, the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority, Dr Trygve Gythfeldt og frues forskningsfond, the Karin Fossum Foundation, and the Research Foundation at Diakonhjemmet Hospital.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295479

ABSTRACT

T-cell epitopes with broad population coverage may form the basis for a new generation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. However, published studies on immunoprevalence are limited by small test cohorts, low frequencies of antigen-specific cells and lack of data correlating eluted HLA ligands with T-cell responsiveness. As the protective role of pre-existing cross-reactivity to homologous peptides is unclear, we aimed to identify SARS-CoV-2-specific minimal epitopes recognized by CD8 T-cells among 48 peptides eluted from prevalent HLA alleles, and an additional 84 predicted binders, in a large cohort of convalescents (n=83) and pre-pandemic control samples (n=19). We identified nine conserved SARS-CoV-2-specific epitopes restricted by four of the most prevalent HLA class I alleles in the Norwegian study cohort, to which responding CD8 T cells were detected in 70-100% of convalescents expressing the relevant HLA allele. Only two of these were derived from the Spike protein, included in current vaccines. We found a strong correlation between immunoprevalence and immunodominance. Thus, the CD8 T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 is more focused than previously believed. Using a new algorithm, we predict that a vaccine including these epitopes could induce a T-cell response in 83% of Caucasians.

12.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1261-1269, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New treatment modalities are urgently needed for patients with COVID-19. The World Health Organization (WHO) Solidarity trial showed no effect of remdesivir or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on mortality, but the antiviral effects of these drugs are not known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of remdesivir and HCQ on all-cause, in-hospital mortality; the degree of respiratory failure and inflammation; and viral clearance in the oropharynx. DESIGN: NOR-Solidarity is an independent, add-on, randomized controlled trial to the WHO Solidarity trial that included biobanking and 3 months of clinical follow-up (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04321616). SETTING: 23 hospitals in Norway. PATIENTS: Eligible patients were adults hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERVENTION: Between 28 March and 4 October 2020, a total of 185 patients were randomly assigned and 181 were included in the full analysis set. Patients received remdesivir (n = 42), HCQ (n = 52), or standard of care (SoC) (n = 87). MEASUREMENTS: In addition to the primary end point of WHO Solidarity, study-specific outcomes were viral clearance in oropharyngeal specimens, the degree of respiratory failure, and inflammatory variables. RESULTS: No significant differences were seen between treatment groups in mortality during hospitalization. There was a marked decrease in SARS-CoV-2 load in the oropharynx during the first week overall, with similar decreases and 10-day viral loads among the remdesivir, HCQ, and SoC groups. Remdesivir and HCQ did not affect the degree of respiratory failure or inflammatory variables in plasma or serum. The lack of antiviral effect was not associated with symptom duration, level of viral load, degree of inflammation, or presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at hospital admittance. LIMITATION: The trial had no placebo group. CONCLUSION: Neither remdesivir nor HCQ affected viral clearance in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Clinical Therapy Research in the Specialist Health Services, Norway.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Oropharynx/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
13.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(2): 204-212, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 induces antibodies that can be used as a proxy for COVID-19. We present a repeated nationwide cross-sectional study assessing the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2, the infection fatality rate (IFR), and infection hospitalization rate (IHR) during the first year of the pandemic in Norway. METHODS: Residual serum samples were solicited in April/May 2020 (Round 1), in July/August 2020 (Round 2) and in January 2021 (Round 3). Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were measured using a flow cytometer-based assay. Aggregate data on confirmed cases, COVID-19-associated deaths and hospitalizations were obtained from the Emergency preparedness registry for COVID-19 (Beredt C19), and the seroprevalence estimates were used to estimate IFR and IHR. RESULTS: Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were measured in 4840 samples. The estimated seroprevalence increased from 0.8% (95% credible interval [CrI] 0.4%-1.3%) after the first wave of the pandemic (Rounds 1 and 2 combined) to 3.2% (95% CrI 2.3%-4.2%) (Round 3). The IFR and IHR were higher in the first wave than in the second wave and increased with age. The IFR was 0.2% (95% CrI 0.1%-0.3%), and IHR was 0.9% (95% CrI 0.6%-1.5%) for the second wave. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence estimates show a cumulative increase of SARS-CoV-2 infections over time in the Norwegian population and suggest some under-recording of confirmed cases. The IFR and IHR were low, corresponding to the relatively low number of COVID-19-associated deaths and hospitalizations in Norway. Most of the Norwegian population was still susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection after the first year of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Norway/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
14.
Sustainability ; 9(12)20200501.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-1450863

ABSTRACT

As a generation of 'digital natives,' secondary students who were born from 2002 to 2010 have various approaches to acquiring digital knowledge. Digital literacy and resilience are crucial for them to navigate the digital world as much as the real world; however, these remain under-researched subjects, especially in developing countries. In Vietnam, the education system has put considerable effort into teaching students these skills to promote quality education as part of the United Nations-defined Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG4). This issue has proven especially salient amid the COVID??19 pandemic lockdowns, which had obliged most schools to switch to online forms of teaching. This study, which utilizes a dataset of 1061 Vietnamese students taken from the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)'s "Digital Kids Asia Pacific (DKAP)" project, employs Bayesian statistics to explore the relationship between the students' background and their digital abilities. Results show that economic status and parents' level of education are positively correlated with digital literacy. Students from urban schools have only a slightly higher level of digital literacy than their rural counterparts, suggesting that school location may not be a defining explanatory element in the variation of digital literacy and resilience among Vietnamese students. Students' digital literacy and, especially resilience, also have associations with their gender. Moreover, as students are digitally literate, they are more likely to be digitally resilient. Following SDG4, i.e., Quality Education, it is advisable for schools, and especially parents, to seriously invest in creating a safe, educational environment to enhance digital literacy among students.

16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308341

ABSTRACT

Frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) involved in the COVID-19 response have a higher risk of experiencing psychosocial distress amidst the pandemic. Between July and September 2020, a second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic appeared in Vietnam with Da Nang city being the epicenter. During the outbreak, HCWs were quarantined within the health facilities in a bid to limit the spread of COVID-19 to their respective communities. Using the stress component of the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), we assessed the level of stress among HCWs in Da Nang city. Between 30 August and 15 September 2020, 746 frontline HCWs were recruited to fill in an online structured questionnaire. Overall, 44.6% of participants experienced increased stress and 18.9% severe or extremely severe stress. In multivariable analysis, increased stress was associated with longer working hours (OR = 1.012; 95% CI: 1.004-1.019), working in health facilities providing COVID-19 treatment (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.04-2.39), having direct contact with patients or their bio-samples (physicians, nurses and laboratory workers; OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.02-1.99), low confidence in the available personal protective equipment (OR = 0.846; 95% CI: 0.744-0.962) and low knowledge on COVID-19 prevention and treatment (OR = 0.853; 95% CI: 0.739-0.986). In conclusion, many frontline HCWs experienced increased stress during the COVID-19 outbreak in Da Nang city. Reducing working time, providing essential personal protective equipment and enhancing the knowledge on COVID-19 will help to reduce this stress. Moreover, extra support is needed for HCWs who are directly exposed to COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam/epidemiology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217069

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictive measures implemented may considerably affect people's lives. This study aimed to assess the well-being of Vietnamese people after COVID-19 lockdown measures were lifted and life gradually returned to normal. An online survey was organized from 21 to 25 April 2020 among Vietnamese residents aged 18 and over. The survey was launched by the Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy. The WHO-5 Well-Being Index (scored 0-25) was used to score participants' well-being. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of well-being. A total of 1922 responses were analyzed (mean age: 31 years; 30.5% male; 88.2% health professionals or students in the health sector). The mean well-being score was 17.35 ± 4.97. Determinants of a high well-being score (≥13) included older age, eating healthy food, practicing physical exercise, working from home, and adhering to the COVID-19 preventive measures. Female participants, persons worried about their relatives' health, and smokers were more likely to have a low well-being score. In conclusion, after the lockdown measures were lifted, the Vietnamese have people continued to follow COVID-19 preventive measures, and most of them scored high on the well-being scale. Waiting to achieve large-scale COVID-19 vaccine coverage, promoting preventive COVID-19 measures remains important, together with strategies to guarantee the well-being of the Vietnamese people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vietnam/epidemiology
19.
Front Public Health ; 8: 589183, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083142

ABSTRACT

Due to the shared border with China, Vietnam faced risks from the COVID-19 pandemic at the early stages of the outbreak. Good hygiene practices were considered an effective prevention method, but there were only minimal data on the effectiveness of hygiene practices against the pandemic at the community level. Thus, this study aims to assess hygiene practices in society by using a community-based survey. A cross-sectional study using survey monkey was conducted from December 2019 to February 2020. The Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit participants and exploratory factor analysis was applied to scrutinize the construct validity of the measurement. We used the Tobit regression model to assess the association. Hygiene in a high-risk environment and hygiene in the social and educational environment were two main factors after applying the EFA method. Participants grade community sanitation quite low (around 6 out of 10). Furthermore, the mean score of hygiene practice at a local level in a high-risk environment was slightly low at 6.0. The score of sanitation in the Central region (5.3) was quite low compared to the North (5.8) and the South (6.2). The most high-risk environment was construction, industrial zone and food safety. Moreover, younger respondents were more likely to report poorer hygiene practices in high-risk environments (Coefficient = -1.67; 95% CI = -3.03; -0.32) and social and educational environment (Coefficient = -1.29; 95% CI = -2.54; -0.04). Our study gives an insight into pandemic preparedness at the grassroots level. The findings suggest the necessity of specific communication education for society to improve the compliance of hygiene practices to prevent the spreading of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Hygiene , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Male , Sanitation , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vietnam , Young Adult
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