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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296076

ABSTRACT

Background: Several observations indicate a hyperinflammatory state in severely ill COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of extracorporeal cytokine elimination by CytoSorb® on COVID-19 associated vasoplegic shock.<br><br>Methods: In this prospective randomised pilot study COVID-19 patients with vasoplegic shock requiring norepinephrine >0·2 µg/kg/min, CRP >100 mg/L and indication for hemodialysis were randomised 1:1 to receive CytoSorb® treatment for 3-7 days or standard of care. The primary endpoint was time until resolution of vasoplegic shock, estimated by a Cox-regression model. Secondary endpoints included mortality, serum interleukin-6 concentrations, and catecholamine requirements. The study was registered in the German Registry of Clinical Trials (DRKS00021447).<br><br>Findings: From November 2020 to March 2021, 50 patients were enrolled of which 23 patients were randomised to receive CytoSorb® treatment and 26 patients to receive standard of care. One patient randomised to cytokine adsorption was excluded due to withdrawal of informed consent. Resolution of vasoplegic shock was observed in 13 (56·5%) of 23 patients in the CytoSorb® and 12 (46·2%) of 26 patients in the control group after a median of 5 (IQR 4-5) and 4 (IQR 3-5) days, respectively. The hazard ratio (HR) for the primary endpoint, adjusted for the predefined variables age, gender, ECMO-therapy, or time from shock onset to study inclusion was HR 1·23 (95%CI: 0·54-2·79), p=0·63). The mortality rate was 78% in the CytoSorb® and 73% in the control group (unadjusted HR 1·17 (95%CI: 0·61-2.23), p=0·64). The effects on inflammatory markers and catecholamine requirements and the type and rates of adverse events were similar in the two groups.<br><br>Interpretation: In this pilot trial in severely ill COVID-19 patients CytoSorb® treatment did not improve resolution of vasoplegic shock as compared to standard treatment. Mortality rates, catecholamine requirements, inflammatory markers and adverse events did not differ between the two groups.<br><br>Trial Registration: The study was registered in the German Registry of Clinical Trials (DRKS00021447<br><br>Funding: Internal university funds<br><br>Declaration of Interest: HS, LJL, MP, TK, PT, FS, KUE, SK, JVK, MO, AKrü, A Kra, KB declare no conflicts of interest. PE received honoraria from GSK and AstraZeneca and filed two patents for novel urinary biomarkers outside the submitted work. ST received research funding and honoraria for workshops and lectures from Orionpharma. He additionally received honoraria for workshops and lectures from Edwards and honoraria for lectures from Amomed and Smith&Nephews. CS received grants from: Drägerwerk AG& Co.KGaA;German Reseach Society;German Aerospace Center;Einstein Foundation Berlin;Federal Joint Committee (G-BA);Inner University grants;Project Management Agency;Non-Profit Promoting Science and Education;European Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care;Baxter Deutschland GmbH;Cytosorbents Europe GmbH;Edwards Lifsciences Germany GmbH;Fresenius Medical Care;Grünenthal GmbH;Massimo Europe Ltd.;Pfizer Pharma PFE GmbH;Georg Thieme Verlag, Dr. F Köhler Chemie GmbH;Sintetica GmbH;Stifterverband für die deutsche Wissenschaft e.V./Philips;Stiftung Charié;AGUETTANT Deutschland GmbH;AbbVie Deutschland GmbH & Co.KG;Amomed Pharma GmbH;InTouch Health;Copra System GmbH;Correvio GmbH;Max Plank Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e.V.;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Anästhesiologie & Intensivmedizin (DGAI);Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft e.V./Medtronic;Philipps ElectronicsNederland BV;BMG, BMBF, German Research Society all outside the submitted work. In addition, CS has different patents. DK received fees for speaking at a symposia organized on behalf of Fresenius Medical Care AG, Germany.<br><br>Ethical Approval: The original protocol and the changes were approved by the local ethics<br>committee (EA1/069/20).

2.
Nature ; 600(7888): 295-301, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483137

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes COVID-19. Given its acute and often self-limiting course, it is likely that components of the innate immune system play a central part in controlling virus replication and determining clinical outcome. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes with notable activity against a broad range of viruses, including RNA viruses1,2. NK cell function may be altered during COVID-19 despite increased representation of NK cells with an activated and adaptive phenotype3,4. Here we show that a decline in viral load in COVID-19 correlates with NK cell status and that NK cells can control SARS-CoV-2 replication by recognizing infected target cells. In severe COVID-19, NK cells show defects in virus control, cytokine production and cell-mediated cytotoxicity despite high expression of cytotoxic effector molecules. Single-cell RNA sequencing of NK cells over the time course of the COVID-19 disease spectrum reveals a distinct gene expression signature. Transcriptional networks of interferon-driven NK cell activation are superimposed by a dominant transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) response signature, with reduced expression of genes related to cell-cell adhesion, granule exocytosis and cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In severe COVID-19, serum levels of TGFß peak during the first two weeks of infection, and serum obtained from these patients severely inhibits NK cell function in a TGFß-dependent manner. Our data reveal that an untimely production of TGFß is a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and may inhibit NK cell function and early control of the virus.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224034

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: To evaluate time-dependent right ventricular (RV) performance in patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) undergoing intensive care (ICU) treatment. (2) Methods: This prospective observational study included 21 ICU patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS in a university hospital in 2020 (first wave). Patients were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography at an early (EE) and late (LE) stage of disease. Echocardiographic parameters describing RV size and function as well as RV size in correlation to PaO2/FiO2 ratio were assessed in survivors and nonsurvivors. (3) Results: Echocardiographic RV parameters were within normal range and not significantly different between EE and LE. Comparing survivors and nonsurvivors revealed no differences in RV performance at EE. Linear regression analysis did not show a correlation between RV size and PaO2/FiO2 ratio over all measurements. Analysing EE and LE separately showed a significant increase in RV size correlated to a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio at a later stage of COVID-19 ARDS. (4) Conclusion: The present study reveals neither a severe RV dilatation nor an impairment of systolic RV function during the initial course of COVID-19-associated ARDS. A trend towards an increase in RV size in correlation with ARDS severity in the second week after ICU admission was observed.

4.
J Electrocardiol ; 66: 102-107, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 seem to be prone to the development of arrhythmias. The objective of this trial was to determine the characteristics, clinical significance and therapeutic consequences of these arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 113 consecutive patients (mean age 64.1 ± 14.3 years, 30 (26.5%) female) with positive PCR testing for SARS-CoV2 as well as radiographically confirmed pulmonary involvement admitted to the ICU from March to May 2020 were included and observed for a cumulative time of 2321 days. Fifty episodes of sustained atrial tachycardias, five episodes of sustained ventricular arrhythmias and thirty bradycardic events were documented. Sustained new onset atrial arrhythmias were associated with hemodynamic deterioration in 13 cases (35.1%). Patients with new onset atrial arrhythmias were older, showed higher levels of Hs-Troponin and NT-proBNP, and a more severe course of disease. The 5 ventricular arrhythmias (two ventricular tachycardias, two episodes of ventricular fibrillation, and one torsade de pointes tachycardia) were observed in 4 patients. All episodes could be terminated by immediate defibrillation/cardioversion. Five bradycardic events were associated with hemodynamic deterioration. Precipitating factors could be identified in 19 of 30 episodes (63.3%), no patient required cardiac pacing. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between patients with or without bradycardic events. CONCLUSION: Relevant arrhythmias are common in severely ill ICU patients with COVID-19. They are associated with worse courses of disease and require specific treatment. This makes daily close monitoring of telemetric data mandatory in this patient group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Infection ; 49(4): 757-762, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171404

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Type I interferons are important in the defense of viral infections. Recently, neutralizing IgG auto-antibodies against type I interferons were found in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Here, we analyzed expression of CD169/SIGLEC1, a well described downstream molecule in interferon signaling, and found increased monocytic CD169/SIGLEC1 expression levels in patients with mild, acute COVID-19, compared to patients with severe disease. We recommend further clinical studies to evaluate the value of CD169/SIGLEC1 expression in patients with COVID-19 with or without auto-antibodies against type I interferons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 1/blood , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 1/biosynthesis , Up-Regulation
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1961, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169399

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 reflects an inefficient immune reaction to SARS-CoV-2. Here we analyze, at the single cell level, plasmablasts egressed into the blood to study the dynamics of adaptive immune response in COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care. Before seroconversion in response to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, peripheral plasmablasts display a type 1 interferon-induced gene expression signature; however, following seroconversion, plasmablasts lose this signature, express instead gene signatures induced by IL-21 and TGF-ß, and produce mostly IgG1 and IgA1. In the sustained immune reaction from COVID-19 patients, plasmablasts shift to the expression of IgA2, thereby reflecting an instruction by TGF-ß. Despite their continued presence in the blood, plasmablasts are not found in the lungs of deceased COVID-19 patients, nor does patient IgA2 binds to the dominant antigens of SARS-CoV-2. Our results thus suggest that, in severe COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 triggers a chronic immune reaction that is instructed by TGF-ß, and is distracted from itself.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(4): 905-915, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169160

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication in COVID-19, but its precise etiology has not fully been elucidated. Insights into AKI mechanisms may be provided by analyzing the temporal associations of clinical parameters reflecting disease processes and AKI development. Methods: We performed an observational cohort study of 223 consecutive COVID-19 patients treated at 3 sites of a tertiary care referral center to describe the evolvement of severe AKI (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes stage 3) and identify conditions promoting its development. Descriptive statistics and explanatory multivariable Cox regression modeling with clinical parameters as time-varying covariates were used to identify risk factors of severe AKI. Results: Severe AKI developed in 70 of 223 patients (31%) with COVID-19, of which 95.7% required kidney replacement therapy. Patients with severe AKI were older, predominantly male, had more comorbidities, and displayed excess mortality. Severe AKI occurred exclusively in intensive care unit patients, and 97.3% of the patients developing severe AKI had respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation, vasopressor therapy, and inflammatory markers (serum procalcitonin levels and leucocyte count) were independent time-varying risk factors of severe AKI. Increasing inflammatory markers displayed a close temporal association with the development of severe AKI. Sensitivity analysis on risk factors of AKI stage 2 and 3 combined confirmed these findings. Conclusion: Severe AKI in COVID-19 was tightly coupled with critical illness and systemic inflammation and was not observed in milder disease courses. These findings suggest that traditional systemic AKI mechanisms rather than kidney-specific processes contribute to severe AKI in COVID-19.

8.
Journal of Clinical Investigation ; 130(12):6477-6489, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1021205

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). So far, viral targets of cellular immunity and factors determining successful mounting of T cell responses are poorly defined. We therefore analyzed cellular responses to membrane, nucleocapsid, and spike proteins in individuals suffering from moderate or severe infection and in individuals who recovered from mild disease. We demonstrate that the CoV-2-specific CD4· T helper cell response is directed against all 3 proteins with comparable magnitude, ex vivo proliferation, and portions of responding patients. However, individuals who died were more likely to have not mounted a cellular response to the proteins. Higher patient age and comorbidity index correlated with increased frequencies of CoV-2specific CD4· T cells, harboring higher portions of IL-2-secreting, but lower portions of IFN-y-secreting, cells. Diminished frequencies of membrane protein-reactive IFN-y· T cells were particularly associated with higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II scores in patients admitted to intensive care. CoV-2-specific T cells exhibited elevated PD-1 expression in patients with active disease as compared with those individuals who recovered from previous mild disease. In summary, our data suggest a link between individual patient predisposition with respect to age and comorbidity and impairment of CoV-2specific Th1-type cellular immunity, thereby supporting a concept of altered T cell function in at-risk patients.

9.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6477-6489, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021209

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). So far, viral targets of cellular immunity and factors determining successful mounting of T cell responses are poorly defined. We therefore analyzed cellular responses to membrane, nucleocapsid, and spike proteins in individuals suffering from moderate or severe infection and in individuals who recovered from mild disease. We demonstrate that the CoV-2-specific CD4+ T helper cell response is directed against all 3 proteins with comparable magnitude, ex vivo proliferation, and portions of responding patients. However, individuals who died were more likely to have not mounted a cellular response to the proteins. Higher patient age and comorbidity index correlated with increased frequencies of CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells, harboring higher portions of IL-2-secreting, but lower portions of IFN-γ-secreting, cells. Diminished frequencies of membrane protein-reactive IFN-γ+ T cells were particularly associated with higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II scores in patients admitted to intensive care. CoV-2-specific T cells exhibited elevated PD-1 expression in patients with active disease as compared with those individuals who recovered from previous mild disease. In summary, our data suggest a link between individual patient predisposition with respect to age and comorbidity and impairment of CoV-2-specific Th1-type cellular immunity, thereby supporting a concept of altered T cell function in at-risk patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-2/immunology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Th1 Cells/pathology
10.
Brain Behav Immun ; 93: 415-419, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 intensive care patients can present with neurological syndromes, usually in the absence of SARS-CoV-2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The recent finding of some virus-neutralizing antibodies cross-reacting with brain tissue suggests the possible involvement of specific autoimmunity. DESIGN: Blood and CSF samples from eleven critically ill COVID-19 patients presenting with unexplained neurological symptoms including myoclonus, oculomotor disturbance, delirium, dystonia and epileptic seizures, were analyzed for anti-neuronal and anti-glial autoantibodies. RESULTS: Using cell-based assays and indirect immunofluorescence on unfixed murine brain sections, all patients showed anti-neuronal autoantibodies in serum or CSF. Antigens included intracellular and neuronal surface proteins, such as Yo or NMDA receptor, but also various specific undetermined epitopes, reminiscent of the brain tissue binding observed with certain human monoclonal SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. These included vessel endothelium, astrocytic proteins and neuropil of basal ganglia, hippocampus or olfactory bulb. CONCLUSION: The high frequency of autoantibodies targeting the brain in the absence of other explanations suggests a causal relationship to clinical symptoms, in particular to hyperexcitability (myoclonus, seizures). Several underlying autoantigens and their potential molecular mimicry with SARS-CoV-2 still await identification. However, autoantibodies may already now explain some aspects of multi-organ disease in COVID-19 and can guide immunotherapy in selected cases.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , Central Nervous System Diseases/virology , Aged , Autoantigens , Autoimmunity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Trials ; 21(1): 577, 2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613556

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Approximately 8 - 10 % of COVID-19 patients present with a serious clinical course and need for hospitalization, 8% of hospitalized patients need ICU-treatment. Currently, no causal therapy is available and treatment is purely supportive. The main reason for death in critically ill patients is acute respiratory failure. However, in a number of patients a severe hyperinflammatory response with excessively elevated proinflammatory cytokines causes vasoplegic shock resistant to vasopressor therapy. A new polystyrene-based hemoadsorber (CytoSorb®, Cytosorbents Inc., New Jersey, USA) has been shown to adsorb effectively cytokines and other middle molecular weight toxins this way reducing their blood concentrations. This has been routinely used in clinical practice in the EU for other conditions where a cytokine storm occurs and an observational study has just been completed on COVID-19 patients. We hypothesized that the extracorporeal elimination of cytokines in critically ill COVID-19 patients with suspected hyperinflammation and shock may stabilize hemodynamics and improve outcome. The primary endpoint is time until resolution of vasoplegic shock, which is a well implemented, clinically relevant endpoint in critical care studies. TRIAL DESIGN: Phase IIb, multicenter, prospective, open-label, randomized, 1:1 parallel group pilot study comparing the additional use of "CytoSorb" to standard of care without "CytoSorb". PARTICIPANTS: Patients are recruited from the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of 7 participating centers in Germany (approximately 10 ICUs). All patients aged 18- 80 with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2, a C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥ 100 mg/l, a Procalcitonin (PCT) < 2 ng/l, and suspected cytokine storm defined via a vasoplegic shock (Norepinephrine > 0.2 µg/min/kg to achieve a Mean Arterial Pressure ≥ 65mmHg). Patients are included irrespective of indication for renal replacement therapy. Suspected or proven bacterial cause for vasoplegic shock is a contraindication. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Within 24 hours after meeting the inclusion criteria patients will be randomized to receive either standard of care or standard of care and additional "CytoSorb" therapy via a shaldon catheter for 3-7 days. Filter exchange is done every 24 hours. If patients receive antibiotics, an additional dose of antibiotics is administered after each change of "CytoSorb" filter in order to prevent underdosing due to "CytoSorb" treatment. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcome is time to resolution of vasoplegic shock (defined as no need for vasopressors for at least 8 hours in order to sustain a MAP ≥ 65mmHg) in days. Secondary outcomes are 7 day mortality after fulfilling the inclusion criteria, mortality until hospital discharge, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) measurement on day 1 and 3, need for mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of ICU-stay, catecholamine dose on day 1/2/3 after start of "CytoSorb" and acute kidney injury. RANDOMIZATION: An electronic randomization will be performed using the study software secuTrial® administered by the Clinical Study Center (CSC) of the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. Randomization is done in blocks by 4 stratified by including center. BLINDING (MASKING): The trial will be non-blinded for the clinicians and patients. The statistician will receive a blinded data set, so that all analyses will be conducted blinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): As this is a pilot study with the goal to examine the feasibility of the study design as well as the intervention effect, no formal sample size calculation was conducted. A total number of approximately 80-100 patients is planned (40-50 patients per group). Safety assessment is done after the inclusion of each 10 patients per randomization group. TRIAL STATUS: Please see the study protocol version from April 24 2020. Recruitment of patients is still pending. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered on April 27 2020 in the German Registry of Clinical Trials (DRKS) under the number DRKS00021447. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Hemadsorption , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Cytokines/isolation & purification , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
Infection ; 48(4): 619-626, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597401

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide causing a global health emergency. Pa-COVID-19 aims to provide comprehensive data on clinical course, pathophysiology, immunology and outcome of COVID-19, to identify prognostic biomarkers, clinical scores, and therapeutic targets for improved clinical management and preventive interventions. METHODS: Pa-COVID-19 is a prospective observational cohort study of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection treated at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. We collect data on epidemiology, demography, medical history, symptoms, clinical course, and pathogen testing and treatment. Systematic, serial blood sampling will allow deep molecular and immunological phenotyping, transcriptomic profiling, and comprehensive biobanking. Longitudinal data and sample collection during hospitalization will be supplemented by long-term follow-up. RESULTS: Outcome measures include the WHO clinical ordinal scale on day 15 and clinical, functional, and health-related quality-of-life assessments at discharge and during follow-up. We developed a scalable dataset to (i) suit national standards of care, (ii) facilitate comprehensive data collection in medical care facilities with varying resources, and (iii) allow for rapid implementation of interventional trials based on the standardized study design and data collection. We propose this scalable protocol as blueprint for harmonized data collection and deep phenotyping in COVID-19 in Germany. CONCLUSION: We established a basic platform for harmonized, scalable data collection, pathophysiological analysis, and deep phenotyping of COVID-19, which enables rapid generation of evidence for improved medical care and identification of candidate therapeutic and preventive strategies. The electronic database accredited for interventional trials allows fast trial implementation for candidate therapeutic agents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered at the German registry for clinical studies (DRKS00021688).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Registries , Berlin/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Management , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Phenotype , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization
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