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2.
Panminerva Med ; 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is effective for symptom relief and respiratory support in patients with respiratory insufficiency, severe comorbidities and no indication to intubation. Experience with NIV as the ceiling of treatment in severely compromised novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients is lacking. METHODS: We evaluated 159 patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), 38 of whom with NIV as the ceiling of treatment, admitted to an ordinary ward and treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and respiratory physiotherapy. Treatment failure and death were correlated with clinical and laboratory parameters in the whole cohort and in patients with NIV as the ceiling of treatment. RESULTS: Patients who had NIV as the ceiling of treatment were elderly, with a low BMI and a high burden of comorbidities, showed clinical and laboratory signs of multi-organ insufficiency on admission and of rapidly deteriorating vital signs during the first week of treatment. NIV failure occurred overall in 77 (48%) patients, and 27/38 patients with NIV as the ceiling of treatment died. Congestive heart failure, chronic benign haematological diseases and inability/refusal to receive respiratory physiotherapy were independently associated to NIV failure and mortality. Need for increased positive end-expiratory pressures and low platelets were associated with NIV failure. Death was associated to cerebrovascular disease, need for CPAP cycles longer than 12h and, in the subgroup of patients with NIV as the ceiling of treatment, was heralded by vital sign deterioration within 48 h. CONCLUSIONS: NIV and physiotherapy are a viable treatment option for patients with severe COVID-19 and severe comorbidities.

3.
Panminerva Med ; 64(2): 244-252, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biobanks are imperative infrastructures, particularly during outbreaks, when there is an obligation to acquire and share knowledge as quick as possible to allow for implementation of science-based preventive, diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies. METHODS: We established a COVID-19 biobank with the aim of collecting high-quality and well-annotated human biospecimens, in the effort to understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying COVID-19 and identify therapeutic targets (COVID-BioB, NCT04318366). Here we describe our experience and briefly review the characteristics of the biobanks for COVID-19 that have been so far established. RESULTS: A total of 46,677 samples have been collected from 913 participants (63.3% males, median [IQR] age 62.2 [51.2-74.0] years) since the beginning of the program. Most patients (66.9%) had been admitted to hospital for COVID-19, with a median length of stay of 15.0 (9.0-27.0) days. A minority of patients (13.3% of the total) had been admitted for other reasons and subsequently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The remainder were managed at home after being seen at the Emergency Department. CONCLUSIONS: Having a solid research infrastructure already in place, along with flexibility and adaptability to new requirements, allowed for the quick building of a COVID-19 biobank that will help expand and share the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Biological Specimen Banks , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Minerva Med ; 2023 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients frequently develop respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Data on long-term survival of patients who had severe COVID-19 are insufficient. We assessed and compared two-year survival, CT imaging, quality of life, and functional recovery of COVID-19 ARDS patients requiring respiratory support with invasive (IMV) versus noninvasive ventilation (NIV). METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted up to May 28th, 2020, who required IMV or NIV, and survived to hospital discharge were enrolled. Patients were contacted two years after discharge to assess vital status, functional, psychological, and cognitive outcomes using validated scales. Patients with persistent respiratory symptoms or high burden of residual lung damage at previous CT scan received a two-year chest CT scan. RESULTS: Out of 61 IMV survivors, 98% were alive at two-year follow-up, and 52 completed the questionnaire. Out of 82 survivors receiving NIV only, 94% were alive at two years, and 47 completed the questionnaire. We found no major differences between invasively and noninvasively ventilated patients, with overall acceptable functional recovery. Among the 99 patients completing the questionnaire, 23 have more than moderate exertional dyspnea. Chest CT scans showed that 4 patients (all received IMV) had fibrotic-like changes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who received mechanical ventilation due to COVID-19 and were discharged from hospital had a 96% survival rate at the two-year follow-up. There was no difference in overall recovery and quality of life between patients who did and did not require IMV, although respiratory morbidity remains high.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1050531, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261899

ABSTRACT

Background: Microvascular lung vessels obstructive thromboinflammatory syndrome has been proposed as a possible mechanism of respiratory failure in COVID-19 patients. However, it has only been observed in post-mortem studies and has never been documented in vivo, probably because of a lack of CT scan sensitivity in small pulmonary arteries. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety, tolerability, and diagnostic value of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the assessment of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia for pulmonary microvascular thromboinflammatory syndrome. Methods: The COVID-OCT trial was a multicenter, open-label, prospective, interventional clinical study. Two cohorts of patients were included in the study and underwent pulmonary OCT evaluation. Cohort A consisted of patients with COVID-19 with a negative CT scan for pulmonary thrombosis and elevated thromboinflammatory markers (D-dimer > 10,000 ng/mL or 5,000 < D-dimer < 10,000 ng/mL and one of: C-reactive Protein > 100 mg/dL, IL-6 > 6 pg/mL, or ferritin > 900 ng/L). Cohort B consisted of patients with COVID-19 and a CT scan positive for pulmonary thrombosis. The primary endpoints of the study were: (i) to evaluate the overall safety of OCT investigation in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, and (ii) to report on the potential value of OCT as a novel diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of microvascular pulmonary thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. Results: A total of 13 patients were enrolled. The mean number of OCT runs performed in each patient was 6.1 ± 2.0, both in ground glass and healthy lung areas, achieving a good evaluation of the distal pulmonary arteries. Overall, OCT runs identified microvascular thrombosis in 8 patients (61.5%): 5 cases of red thrombus, 1 case of white thrombus, and 2 cases of mixed thrombus. In Cohort A, the minimal lumen area was 3.5 ± 4.6 mm2, with stenosis of 60.9 ± 35.9% of the area, and the mean length of thrombus-containing lesions was 5.4 ± 3.0 mm. In Cohort B, the percentage area obstruction was 92.6 ± 2.6, and the mean thrombus-containing lesion length was 14.1 ± 13.9 mm. No peri-procedural complications occurred in any of the 13 patients. Conclusion: OCT appears to be a safe and accurate method of evaluating the distal pulmonary arteries in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Here, it enabled the first in vivo documentation of distal pulmonary arterial thrombosis in patients with elevated thromboinflammatory markers, even when their CT angiogram was negative for pulmonary thrombosis. Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrial.gov, identifier NCT04410549.

6.
Emerg Med J ; 40(3): 202-209, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections can be complicated by acute brain failure. We assessed delirium prevalence, predictors and outcomes in COVID-19 ED patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study conducted at the San Raffaele ED (Italy). Patients age >18 years attending the ED between 26 February 2020 and 30 May 2020 and who had a positive molecular nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 were included. The Chart-Based Delirium Identification Instrument (CHART-DEL) was used to retrospectively assess delirium. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate delirium predictors. Univariable binary logistic regression analyses, linear regression analyses and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the association between delirium and clinical outcomes. Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted models were then run for the significant predictors of the univariable models. RESULTS: Among the 826 included patients, 123 cases (14.9%) of delirium were retrospectively detected through the CHART-DEL method. Patients with delirium were older (76.9±13.15 vs 61.3±14.27 years, p<0.001) and more frequently living in a long-term health facility (32 (26%) vs 22 (3.1%), p<0.001). Age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.09, p<0.001), dementia (OR 17.5, 95% CI 7.27 to 42.16, p<0.001), epilepsy (OR 6.96, 95% CI 2.48 to 19.51, p<0.001) and the number of chronic medications (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.17, p=0.03) were significant predictors of delirium in multivariable analyses. Delirium was associated with increased in-hospital mortality (adjusted HR 2.16, 95% CI 1.55 to 3.03, p<0.001) and with a reduced probability of being discharged home compared with being institutionalised (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.61, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Chart review frequently identified ED delirium in patients with COVID-19. Age, dementia, epilepsy and polypharmacy were significant predictors of ED delirium. Delirium was associated with an increased in-hospital mortality and with a reduced probability of being discharged home after hospitalisation. The findings of this single-centre retrospective study require validation in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Dementia , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Delirium/complications , Delirium/epidemiology , Dementia/complications , Emergency Service, Hospital
7.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 16: 3645-3654, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282258

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence regarding the impact of remdesivir (RDV) on SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance (VC) is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare VC timing in hospitalized COVID-19 patients who did or did not receive RDV. Methods: This was a matched-cohort study of patients hospitalized with pneumonia, a SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) at admission, and at least one NPS during follow-up. Patients who received RDV (cases) and those who did not (controls) were matched in a 1:2 ratio by age, sex, and PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) values at admission. NPSs were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Time to VC (within 30 days after hospital discharge) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was fitted to determine factors associated with VC. Results: There were 648 patients enrolled in the study (216 cases and 432 controls). VC was observed in 490 patients (75.6%), with a median time of 25 (IQR 16-34) days. Overall, time to VC was similar between cases and controls (p = 0.519). However, time to VC was different when considering both RDV treatment status and age (p = 0.007). A significant finding was also observed when considering both RDV treatment status and P/F values at admission (p = 0.007). A multivariate analysis showed that VC was associated with a younger age (aHR = 0.990, 95% CI 0.983-0.998 per every 10-year increase in age; p = 0.009) and a higher baseline P/F ratio (aHR=1.275, 95% CI 1.029-1.579; p=0.026), but not with RDV treatment status. Conclusion: Time to VC was similar in cases and controls. However, there was a benefit associated with using RDV in regard to time to VC in younger patients and in those with a P/F ratio ≤200 mmHg at hospital admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Cohort Studies
8.
Andrology ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Male patients with COVID-19 have been found with reduced serum total testosterone (tT) levels and with more severe clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess total testosterone (tT) levels and the probability of recovering eugonadal tT levels during a minimum 12-month timespan in a cohort of men who have been followed over time after the recovery from laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic, clinical and hormonal values were collected for the overall cohort. Hypogonadism was defined as tT ≤9.2 nmol/l. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to score health-significant comorbidities. Descriptive statistics was used to compare hormonal levels at baseline versus 7-month (FU1) versus 12-month (FU2) follow-up, respectively. Multivariate cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify the potential predictors of eugonadism recovery over time among patients with hypogonadism at the time of infection. RESULTS: Of the original cohort of 286 patients, follow-up data were available for 121 (42.3%) at FU1 and 63 (22%) patients at FU2, respectively. Higher median interquartile range (IQR) tT levels were detected at FU2 (13.8 (12.3-15.3) nmol/L) versus FU1 (10.2 [9.3-10.9] nmol/L) and versus baseline (3.6 [3.02-4.02] nmol/L) (all p < 0.0001), whilst both LH and E2 levels significantly decreased over the same time frame (all p ≤ 0.01). Circulating IL-6 levels further decreased at FU2 compared to FU1 levels (19.3 vs. 72.8 pg/ml) (p = 0.02). At multivariable cox regression analyses, baseline tT level (HR 1.19; p = 0.03 [1.02-1.4]) was independently associated with the probability of tT level normalization over time, after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating tT levels keep increasing over time in men after COVID-19. Still, almost 30% of men who recovered from COVID-19 had low circulating T levels suggestive for a condition of hypogonadism at a minimum 12-month follow-up.

9.
Andrology ; 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The identification of biomarkers correlated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes is a relevant need for clinical management. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is characterized by elevated interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, HLA-G, and impaired testosterone production. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at defining the combined impact of sex hormones, interleukin-10, and HLA-G on COVID-19 pathophysiology and their relationship in male patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, electrochemiluminescent assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay circulating total testosterone, 17ß-estradiol (E2 ), IL-10, and -HLAG5 as well as SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 Immunoglobulin G from 292 healthy controls and 111 COVID-19 patients with different disease severity at hospital admission, and in 53 COVID-19 patients at 7-month follow-up. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We found significantly higher levels of IL-10, HLA-G, and E2 in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls and an inverse correlation between IL-10 and testosterone, with IL-10, progressively increasing and testosterone progressively decreasing with disease severity. This correlation was lost at the 7-month follow-up. The risk of death in COVID-19 patients with low testosterone increased in the presence of high IL-10. A negative correlation between SARS-CoV-2 Immunoglobulin G and HLA-G or IL-10 at hospitalization was observed. At the 7-month follow-up, IL-10 and testosterone normalized, and  HLA-G decreased. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that combined evaluation of IL-10 and testosterone predicts the risk of death in men with COVID-19 and support the hypothesis that IL-10 fails to suppress excessive inflammation by promoting viral spreading.

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 834887, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114213

ABSTRACT

Background: A motley postacute symptomatology may develop after COVID-19, irrespective of the acute disease severity, age, and comorbidities. Frail individuals have reduced physiological reserves and manifested a worse COVID-19 course, during the acute setting. However, it is still unknown, whether frailty may subtend some long COVID-19 manifestations. We explored the prevalence of long COVID-19 disturbs in COVID-19 survivals. Methods: This was an observational study. Patients aged 65 years or older were followed-up 1, 3, and 6 months after hospitalization for COVID-19 pneumonia. Results: A total of 382 patients were enrolled. Frail patients were more malnourished (median Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form score 8 vs. 9, p = 0.001), at higher risk of sarcopenia [median Strength, Assistance with walking, Rising from a chair, Climbing stairs, and Falls (SARC-F) score 3 vs. 1.5, p = 0.003], and manifested a worse physical performance [median Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score 10 vs. 11, p = 0.0007] than robust individuals, after hospital discharge following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. Frailty was significantly associated with: (i) confusion, as a presenting symptom of COVID-19 [odds ratio (OR) 77.84, 95% CI 4.23-1432.49, p = 0.003]; (ii) malnutrition (MNA-SF: adjusted B -5.63, 95% CI -8.39 to -2.87, p < 0.001), risk of sarcopenia (SARC-F: adjusted B 9.11, 95% CI 3.10-15.13, p = 0.003), impaired muscle performance (SPPB: B -3.47, 95% CI -6.33 to -0.61, p = 0.02), complaints in mobility (adjusted OR 1674200.27, 95% CI 4.52-619924741831.25, p = 0.03), in self-care (adjusted OR 553305.56, 95% CI 376.37-813413358.35, p < 0.001), and in performing usual activities of daily living (OR 71.57, 95% CI 2.87-1782.53, p = 0.009) at 1-month follow-up; (iii) dyspnea [modified Medical Research Council (mMRC): B 4.83, 95% CI 1.32-8.33, p = 0.007] and risk of sarcopenia (SARC-F: B 7.12, 95% CI 2.17-12.07, p = 0.005) at 3-month follow-up; and (iv) difficulties in self-care (OR 2746.89, 95% CI 6.44-1172310.83, p = 0.01) at the 6-month follow-up. In a subgroup of patients (78 individuals), the prevalence of frailty increased at the 1-month follow-up compared to baseline (p = 0.009). Conclusion: The precocious identification of frail COVID-19 survivors, who manifest more motor and respiratory complaints during the follow-up, could improve the long-term management of these COVID-19 sequelae.

11.
Drug design, development and therapy ; 16:3645-3654, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073818

ABSTRACT

Background Evidence regarding the impact of remdesivir (RDV) on SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance (VC) is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare VC timing in hospitalized COVID-19 patients who did or did not receive RDV. Methods This was a matched-cohort study of patients hospitalized with pneumonia, a SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) at admission, and at least one NPS during follow-up. Patients who received RDV (cases) and those who did not (controls) were matched in a 1:2 ratio by age, sex, and PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) values at admission. NPSs were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Time to VC (within 30 days after hospital discharge) was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier curve. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was fitted to determine factors associated with VC. Results There were 648 patients enrolled in the study (216 cases and 432 controls). VC was observed in 490 patients (75.6%), with a median time of 25 (IQR 16–34) days. Overall, time to VC was similar between cases and controls (p = 0.519). However, time to VC was different when considering both RDV treatment status and age (p = 0.007). A significant finding was also observed when considering both RDV treatment status and P/F values at admission (p = 0.007). A multivariate analysis showed that VC was associated with a younger age (aHR = 0.990, 95% CI 0.983–0.998 per every 10-year increase in age;p = 0.009) and a higher baseline P/F ratio (aHR=1.275, 95% CI 1.029–1.579;p=0.026), but not with RDV treatment status. Conclusion Time to VC was similar in cases and controls. However, there was a benefit associated with using RDV in regard to time to VC in younger patients and in those with a P/F ratio ≤200 mmHg at hospital admission.

12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(9): ofac454, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051512

ABSTRACT

Background: This study's primary aim was to evaluate the impact of thrombotic complications on the development of secondary infections. The secondary aim was to compare the etiology of secondary infections in patients with and without thrombotic complications. Methods: This was a cohort study (NCT04318366) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients hospitalized at IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital between February 25 and June 30, 2020. Incidence rates (IRs) were calculated by univariable Poisson regression as the number of cases per 1000 person-days of follow-up (PDFU) with 95% confidence intervals. The cumulative incidence functions of secondary infections according to thrombotic complications were compared with Gray's method accounting for competing risk of death. A multivariable Fine-Gray model was applied to assess factors associated with risk of secondary infections. Results: Overall, 109/904 patients had 176 secondary infections (IR, 10.0; 95% CI, 8.8-11.5; per 1000-PDFU). The IRs of secondary infections among patients with or without thrombotic complications were 15.0 (95% CI, 10.7-21.0) and 9.3 (95% CI, 7.9-11.0) per 1000-PDFU, respectively (P = .017). At multivariable analysis, thrombotic complications were associated with the development of secondary infections (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.788; 95% CI, 1.018-3.140; P = .043). The etiology of secondary infections was similar in patients with and without thrombotic complications. Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19, thrombotic complications were associated with a high risk of secondary infections.

13.
Minerva Med ; 113(4): 695-706, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease characterized by systemic inflammation, which might enhance baseline thrombotic risk, especially in hospitalized patients. Little is, however, known about predictors of thrombotic complications in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We prospectively followed up 180 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Demographics, clinical and laboratory features at presentation and past medical history were tested as predictors of the first thrombotic complication through multivariate Cox regression analysis and a categorical score generated based on the results. RESULTS: Sixty-four thromboses were recorded in 54 patients, of whom seven with thrombosis on admission and 47 with thrombosis during hospitalization. Patients with thrombosis were mainly Caucasian and diabetic, had marked baseline signs of inflammation and organ damage, lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio, higher D-dimer levels and history of major hemorrhages. The latter three variables were independently associated to thrombotic complications and concurred to a 0-5 score, which accounted for 80% of the total sample variability. Patients with three or more points of the newly generated score were at higher risk for thrombotic complications (HR=4.9, P<0.001). Patients with thrombotic complications were more likely to be admitted to intensive care and/or to die (HR=1.9, P=0.036). Five of 180 patients were diagnosed with disseminated intravascular coagulation and three of them died. Eleven minor and no major bleeding events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk for thrombosis and might be stratified on admission based on lower Pao2/FiO2 ratio, higher D-dimer levels and history of major hemorrhages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Thrombosis , Algorithms , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemorrhage , Humans , Inflammation , Preliminary Data , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology
14.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970382

ABSTRACT

Background A motley postacute symptomatology may develop after COVID-19, irrespective of the acute disease severity, age, and comorbidities. Frail individuals have reduced physiological reserves and manifested a worse COVID-19 course, during the acute setting. However, it is still unknown, whether frailty may subtend some long COVID-19 manifestations. We explored the prevalence of long COVID-19 disturbs in COVID-19 survivals. Methods This was an observational study. Patients aged 65 years or older were followed-up 1, 3, and 6 months after hospitalization for COVID-19 pneumonia. Results A total of 382 patients were enrolled. Frail patients were more malnourished (median Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form score 8 vs. 9, p = 0.001), at higher risk of sarcopenia [median Strength, Assistance with walking, Rising from a chair, Climbing stairs, and Falls (SARC-F) score 3 vs. 1.5, p = 0.003], and manifested a worse physical performance [median Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score 10 vs. 11, p = 0.0007] than robust individuals, after hospital discharge following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. Frailty was significantly associated with: (i) confusion, as a presenting symptom of COVID-19 [odds ratio (OR) 77.84, 95% CI 4.23–1432.49, p = 0.003];(ii) malnutrition (MNA-SF: adjusted B –5.63, 95% CI –8.39 to –2.87, p < 0.001), risk of sarcopenia (SARC-F: adjusted B 9.11, 95% CI 3.10–15.13, p = 0.003), impaired muscle performance (SPPB: B –3.47, 95% CI –6.33 to –0.61, p = 0.02), complaints in mobility (adjusted OR 1674200.27, 95% CI 4.52–619924741831.25, p = 0.03), in self-care (adjusted OR 553305.56, 95% CI 376.37–813413358.35, p < 0.001), and in performing usual activities of daily living (OR 71.57, 95% CI 2.87–1782.53, p = 0.009) at 1-month follow-up;(iii) dyspnea [modified Medical Research Council (mMRC): B 4.83, 95% CI 1.32–8.33, p = 0.007] and risk of sarcopenia (SARC-F: B 7.12, 95% CI 2.17–12.07, p = 0.005) at 3-month follow-up;and (iv) difficulties in self-care (OR 2746.89, 95% CI 6.44–1172310.83, p = 0.01) at the 6-month follow-up. In a subgroup of patients (78 individuals), the prevalence of frailty increased at the 1-month follow-up compared to baseline (p = 0.009). Conclusion The precocious identification of frail COVID-19 survivors, who manifest more motor and respiratory complaints during the follow-up, could improve the long-term management of these COVID-19 sequelae.

15.
Minerva Med ; 113(2): 281-290, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of continuous positive airway pressure and respiratory physiotherapy outside the Intensive Care Unit during a pandemic. METHODS: In this cohort study performed in February-May 2020 in a large teaching hospital in Milan, COVID-19 patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome receiving continuous positive airway pressure (positive end-expiratory pressure =10 cm H2O, FiO2=0.6, daily treatment duration: 4×3h-cycles) and respiratory physiotherapy including pronation outside the Intensive Care Unit were followed-up. RESULTS: Of 90 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (45/90, 50% pronated at least once) outside the Intensive Care Unit and with a median (interquartile) follow-up of 37 (11-46) days, 45 (50%) were discharged at home, 28 (31%) were still hospitalized, and 17 (19%) died. Continuous positive airway pressure failure was recorded for 35 (39%) patients. Patient mobilization was associated with reduced failure rates (P=0.033). No safety issues were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous positive airway pressure with patient mobilization (including pronation) was effective and safe in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 managed outside the Intensive Care Unit setting during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pronation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
16.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 88(6): 472-478, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Platelet activation at the early stage of COVID-19 is poorly described. The need for antiplatelet therapy in patients with COVID-19 remains controversial. We characterized the platelet activation profile in hospitalized patients at the early stage of COVID-19 using the modified prothrombinase Platelet Activation State (PAS) Assay. METHODS: Sixteen patients admitted to the emergency department of the IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy) between February 8 and April 2021 were enrolled. All patients presented with respiratory symptoms and tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Platelet activation was measured via the PAS Assay within 24 hours from patients' hospital admission. Data were compared with those measured in N.=24 healthy subjects (controls). RESULTS: Platelet activation was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with respect to controls (PAS=0.63 [0.58-0.98%] vs. 0.46 [0.40-0.65%], respectively; P=0.03). Of note, highest PAS values were measured in the two patients with the worst clinical outcome, i.e., death because of respiratory failure (PAS=2.09% and 1.20%, respectively). No differences in standard coagulation parameters were noted between these two patients and those who were later discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of significant platelet activation state at the early stage of COVID-19 and suggests that the patient-specific platelet activation profile is a reliable clinical marker to stratify COVID-19 patients at high risk of poor clinical outcome who might potentially benefit from antiplatelet therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Platelet Activation , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 34(4): 945-949, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748379

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Exploring the association between frailty and mortality in a cohort of patients with COVID-19 respiratory insufficiency treated with continuous positive airway pressure. METHODS: Frailty was measured using a Frailty Index (FI) created by using the baseline assessment data on comorbidities and body mass index and baseline blood test results (including pH, lactate dehydrogenase, renal and liver function, inflammatory indexes and anemia). FI > 0.25 identified frail individuals. RESULTS: Among the 159 included individuals (81% men, median age of 68) frailty was detected in 69% of the patients (median FI score 0.3 ± 0.08). Frailty was associated to an increased mortality (adjusted HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.02-3.88, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty is highly prevalent among patients with COVID-19, predicts poorer outcomes independently of age. A personalization of care balancing the risk and benefit of treatments (especially the invasive ones) in such complex patients is pivotal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , Comorbidity , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Female , Frail Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Humans , Male , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 801133, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: acute illnesses, like COVID-19, can act as a catabolic stimulus on muscles. So far, no study has evaluated muscle mass and quality through limb ultrasound in post-COVID-19 patients. METHODS: cross sectional observational study, including patients seen one month after hospital discharge for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The patients underwent a multidimensional evaluation. Moreover, we performed dominant medial gastrocnemius ultrasound (US) to characterize their muscle mass and quality. RESULTS: two hundred fifty-nine individuals (median age 67, 59.8% males) were included in the study. COVID-19 survivors with reduced muscle strength had a lower muscle US thickness (1.6 versus 1.73 cm, p =0.02) and a higher muscle stiffness (87 versus 76.3, p = 0.004) compared to patients with normal muscle strength. Also, patients with reduced Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) scores had a lower muscle US thickness (1.3 versus 1.71 cm, p = 0.01) and a higher muscle stiffness (104.9 versus 81.07, p = 0.04) compared to individuals with normal SPPB scores. The finding of increased muscle stiffness was also confirmed in patients with a pathological value (≥ 4) at the sarcopenia screening tool SARC-F (103.0 versus 79.55, p < 0.001). Muscle stiffness emerged as a significant predictor of probable sarcopenia (adjusted OR 1.02, 95% C.I. 1.002 - 1.04, p = 0.03). The optimal ultrasound cut-offs for probable sarcopenia were 1.51 cm for muscle thickness (p= 0.017) and 73.95 for muscle stiffness (p = 0.004). DISCUSSION: we described muscle ultrasound characteristics in post COVID-19 patients. Muscle ultrasound could be an innovative tool to assess muscle mass and quality in this population. Our preliminary findings need to be confirmed by future studies comparing muscle ultrasound with already validated techniques for measuring muscle mass and quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Survivors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Extremities/diagnostic imaging , Extremities/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/pathology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Organ Size , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/etiology , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Ultrasonography
19.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung damage leading to gas-exchange deficit and sepsis leading to systemic hypoperfusion are well-known features of severe pneumonia. Although frequently described in COVID-19, their prognostic impact in COVID-19-related pneumonia vs COVID-19-urelated pneumonia has never been compared. This study assesses fundamental gas-exchange and hemodynamic parameters and explores their prognostic impact in COVID-19 pneumonia and non-COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated arterial pO2/FiO2, alveolar to arterial O2 gradient, shock index, and serum lactate in 126 COVID-19 pneumonia patients, aged 18- 65, presenting to the emergency department with acute, non-hypercapnic respiratory failure. As a control group we identified 1:1 age-, sex-, and pO2/FiO2-matched COVID-19-urelated pneumonia patients. Univariate and multivariable predictors of 30-day survival were identified in both groups. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lower arterial serum lactate concentration (p<0.001) and shock index (p<0.001) values as compared to non-COVID-19 patients. While we did not observe differences in lactate concentration or in shock index values in deceased vs surviving COVID-19 patients (respectively, p=0.7 and p=0.6), non-COVID-19 deceased patients showed significantly higher lactate and shock index than non-COVID-19 survivors (p<0.001 and p=0.03). The pO2/FiO2 was the most powerful determinant of survival by Cox regression multivariate analysis in COVID-19 patients (p=0.006), while it was lactate in non-COVID-19 patients (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to COVID19-unrelated pneumonia, COVID-19 pneumonia outcome seems more strictly correlated to the extent of lung damage, rather than to the systemic circulatory and metabolic derangements typical of sepsis.

20.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 47(2): 147-150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a wide spectrum of effects, including acute kidney injury (AKI) in up to 40% of hospitalized patients. Given the established relationship between AKI and poor prognosis, whether AKI might be a prognostic indicator for patients admitted to the hospital for SARS-CoV-2 infection would allow for a straightforward risk stratification of these patients. METHODS: We analyzed data of 623 patients admitted to San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, IT) between February 25 and April 19, 2020, for laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Incidence of AKI at hospital admission was calculated, with AKI defined according to the KDIGO criteria. Multivariable Cox regression models assessed the association between AKI and overall mortality and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). RESULTS: Overall, 108 (17%) patients had AKI at hospital admission for SARS-CoV-2 infection. After a median follow-up for survivors of 14 days (interquartile range: 8, 23), 123 patients died, while 84 patients were admitted to the ICU. After adjusting for confounders, patients who had AKI at hospital admission were at increased risk of overall mortality compared to those who did not have AKI (hazards ratio [HR]: 2.00; p = 0.0004), whereas we did not find evidence of an association between AKI and ICU admission (HR: 0.95; p = 0.9). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that AKI might be an indicator of poor prognosis for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and as such, given its readily availability, it might be used to improve risk stratification at hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage
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