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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(6): 1081-1084, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707490

ABSTRACT

The clinical significance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) RNA in stool remains uncertain. We found that extrapulmonary dissemination of infection to the gastrointestinal tract, assessed by the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool, is associated with decreased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survival. Measurement of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool may have utility for clinical risk assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Feces , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504421

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Obstructive lung diseases (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) and smoking are associated with greater risk of respiratory infections and hospitalisations, but conflicting data exist regarding their association with severity of COVID-19, and few studies have evaluated whether these associations differ by age. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between asthma, COPD and smoking on the severity of COVID-19 among a cohort of hospitalised patients, and to test for effect modification by age. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of electronic health record data of patients admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital, assigning the maximal WHO Clinical Progression Scale score for each patient during the first 28 days following hospital admission. Using ordered logistic regression, we measured the association between maximal severity score and asthma, COPD and smoking and their interaction with age. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 1391 patients hospitalised with COVID-19, we found an increased risk of severe disease among patients with COPD and prior smoking, independent of age. We also found evidence of effect modification by age with asthma and current smoking; in particular, asthma was associated with decreased COVID-19 severity among older adults, and current smoking was associated with decreased severity among younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort study identifies age as a modifying factor for the association between asthma and smoking on severity of COVID-19. Our findings highlight the complexities of determining risk factors for COVID-19 severity, and suggest that the effect of risk factors may vary across the age spectrum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Aged , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects
4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(2): e698-e707, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes. The mechanistic underpinnings of this association are not well-understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mediating role of systemic inflammation in obesity-associated COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: This hospital-based, observational study included 3828 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients who were hospitalized February to May 2020 at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) or Columbia University Irving Medical Center/New York Presbyterian Hospital (CUIMC/NYP). We use mediation analysis to evaluate whether peak inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP], erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], D-dimer, ferritin, white blood cell count and interleukin-6) are in the causal pathway between obesity (BMI ≥ 30) and mechanical ventilation or death within 28 days of presentation to care. RESULTS: In the MGH cohort (n = 1202), obesity was associated with greater likelihood of ventilation or death (OR = 1.73; 95% CI = [1.25, 2.41]; P = 0.001) and higher peak CRP (P < 0.001) compared with nonobese patients. The estimated proportion of the association between obesity and ventilation or death mediated by CRP was 0.49 (P < 0.001). Evidence of mediation was more pronounced in patients < 65 years (proportion mediated = 0.52 [P < 0.001] vs 0.44 [P = 0.180]). Findings were more moderate but consistent for peak ESR. Mediation by other inflammatory markers was not supported. Results were replicated in CUIMC/NYP cohort (n = 2626). CONCLUSION: Findings support systemic inflammatory pathways in obesity-associated severe COVID-19 disease, particularly in patients < 65 years, captured by CRP and ESR. Contextualized in clinical trial findings, these results reveal therapeutic opportunity to target systemic inflammatory pathways and monitor interventions in high-risk subgroups and particularly obese patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Obesity/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(6): 1081-1084, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303899

ABSTRACT

The clinical significance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) RNA in stool remains uncertain. We found that extrapulmonary dissemination of infection to the gastrointestinal tract, assessed by the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool, is associated with decreased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survival. Measurement of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool may have utility for clinical risk assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Feces , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
Front Neurol ; 12: 642912, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202073

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Patients with comorbidities are at increased risk for poor outcomes in COVID-19, yet data on patients with prior neurological disease remains limited. Our objective was to determine the odds of critical illness and duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with prior cerebrovascular disease and COVID-19. Methods: A observational study of 1,128 consecutive adult patients admitted to an academic center in Boston, Massachusetts, and diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. We tested the association between prior cerebrovascular disease and critical illness, defined as mechanical ventilation (MV) or death by day 28, using logistic regression with inverse probability weighting of the propensity score. Among intubated patients, we estimated the cumulative incidence of successful extubation without death over 45 days using competing risk analysis. Results: Of the 1,128 adults with COVID-19, 350 (36%) were critically ill by day 28. The median age of patients was 59 years (SD: 18 years) and 640 (57%) were men. As of June 2nd, 2020, 127 (11%) patients had died. A total of 177 patients (16%) had a prior cerebrovascular disease. Prior cerebrovascular disease was significantly associated with critical illness (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.14-2.07), lower rate of successful extubation (cause-specific HR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.33-0.98), and increased duration of intubation (restricted mean time difference = 4.02 days, 95% CI = 0.34-10.92) compared to patients without cerebrovascular disease. Interpretation: Prior cerebrovascular disease adversely affects COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized patients. Further study is required to determine if this subpopulation requires closer monitoring for disease progression during COVID-19.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244270, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992713

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences by race/ethnicity in clinical characteristics and outcomes among hospitalized patients with Covid-19 at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). METHODS: The MGH Covid-19 Registry includes confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected patients hospitalized at MGH and is based on manual chart reviews and data extraction from electronic health records (EHRs). We evaluated differences between White/Non-Hispanic and Hispanic patients in demographics, complications and 14-day outcomes among the N = 866 patients hospitalized with Covid-19 from March 11, 2020-May 4, 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 43% of patients hospitalized with Covid-19 were women, median age was 60.4 [IQR = (48.2, 75)], 11.3% were Black/non-Hispanic and 35.2% were Hispanic. Hispanic patients, representing 35.2% of patients, were younger than White/non-Hispanic patients [median age 51y; IQR = (40.6, 61.6) versus 72y; (58.0, 81.7) (p<0.001)]. Hispanic patients were symptomatic longer before presenting to care (median 5 vs 3d, p = 0.039) but were more likely to be sent home with self-quarantine than be admitted to hospital (29% vs 16%, p<0.001). Hispanic patients had fewer comorbidities yet comparable rates of ICU or death (34% vs 36%). Nonetheless, a greater proportion of Hispanic patients recovered by 14 days after presentation (62% vs 45%, p<0.001; OR = 1.99, p = 0.011 in multivariable adjusted model) and fewer died (2% versus 18%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized Hispanic patients were younger and had fewer comorbidities compared to White/non-Hispanic patients; despite comparable rates of ICU care or death, a greater proportion recovered. These results have implications for public health policy and the design and conduct of clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , African Americans/genetics , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Electronic Health Records , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, General , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , /genetics
12.
AIDS ; 34(12): 1781-1787, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many people living with HIV (PLWH) have comorbidities which are risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or have exposures that may lead to acquisition of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2. There are few studies, however, on the demographics, comorbidities, clinical presentation, or outcomes of COVID-19 in people with HIV. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes in a large cohort of PLWH with COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically identified all PLWH who were diagnosed with COVID-19 at a large hospital from 3 March to 26 April 2020 during an outbreak in Massachusetts. We analyzed each of the cases to extract information including demographics, medical comorbidities, clinical presentation, and illness course after COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: We describe a cohort of 36 PLWH with confirmed COVID-19 and another 11 patients with probable COVID-19. Almost 85% of PLWH with confirmed COVID-19 had a comorbidity associated with severe disease, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, or hypertension. Approximately 77% of PLWH with COVID-19 were non-Hispanic Black or Latinx whereas only 40% of the PLWH in our clinic were Black or Latinx. Nearly half of PLWH with COVID-19 had exposure to congregate settings. In addition to people with confirmed COVID-19, we identified another 11 individuals with probable COVID-19, almost all of whom had negative PCR testing. CONCLUSION: In the largest cohort to date of PLWH and confirmed COVID-19, almost all had a comorbidity associated with severe disease, highlighting the importance of non-HIV risk factors in this population. The racial disparities and frequent link to congregate settings in PLWH and COVID-19 need to be explored urgently.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Cost of Illness , Female , HIV Infections/ethnology , Humans , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Diabetes Care ; 43(12): 2938-2944, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732933

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes and obesity are highly prevalent among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but little is known about their contributions to early COVID-19 outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that diabetes is a risk factor for poor early outcomes, after adjustment for obesity, among a cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) COVID-19 Data Registry of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between 11 March 2020 and 30 April 2020. Primary outcomes were admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), need for mechanical ventilation, and death within 14 days of presentation to care. Logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, obesity, and relevant comorbidities. RESULTS: Among 450 patients, 178 (39.6%) had diabetes-mostly type 2 diabetes. Among patients with diabetes versus patients without diabetes, a higher proportion was admitted to the ICU (42.1% vs. 29.8%, respectively, P = 0.007), required mechanical ventilation (37.1% vs. 23.2%, P = 0.001), and died (15.9% vs. 7.9%, P = 0.009). In multivariable logistic regression models, diabetes was associated with greater odds of ICU admission (odds ratio 1.59 [95% CI 1.01-2.52]), mechanical ventilation (1.97 [1.21-3.20]), and death (2.02 [1.01-4.03]) at 14 days. Obesity was associated with greater odds of ICU admission (2.16 [1.20-3.88]) and mechanical ventilation (2.13 [1.14-4.00]) but not with death. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, diabetes was associated with poor early outcomes, after adjustment for obesity. These findings can help inform patient-centered care decision making for people with diabetes at risk for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Intensive Care Units , Obesity/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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