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1.
ANZ J Surg ; 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Grading the illness using clinical parameters is essential for the daily progress of inpatients. Existing systems do not incorporate these parameters holistically. The study was designed to internally validate the illness wellness scale, based upon clinical assessment of the patients requiring surgical care, for their risk stratification and uniformity of communication between health care providers. METHODS: Prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care hospital. An expert panel devised the scale, and it was modified after feedback from 100 health care providers. A total of 210 patients (150 for internal validation and 60 for inter-observer variability) who required care under the department of surgical disciplines were enrolled. This included patients presenting to surgery OPD, admitted to COVID/non-COVID surgical wards and ICUs, aged ≥16 years. RESULTS: The response rate of the final illness wellness scale was 95% with 86% positive feedback and a mean of 1.7 on the Likert scale for ease of use (one being very easy and five being difficult). It showed excellent consistency and minimal inter-observer variability with the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) above 0.9. In the internal validation cohort (n = 150), univariate and multivariable analysis of factors affecting mortality revealed that categorical risk stratification, age ≥ 60 years, presence or absence of co-morbidities especially hypertension and chronic kidney disease significantly affect mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The Illness wellness scale is an effective tool for uniformly communicating between health care professionals and is also a strong predictor of risk stratification and mortality in patients requiring surgical care.

2.
EJIFCC ; 34(1):42-56, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2293449

ABSTRACT

Background Inflammatory and hematological markers are used extensively for early prognostication and monitoring in COVID-19. We aimed to determine whether routinely prescribed laboratory markers can predict adverse outcome at presentation in COVID-19. Methods This retrospective observational study was performed on 401 samples collected between July to December 2020 from COVID-19 positive subjects, admitted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi, India. Clinical details and laboratory investigations within 3 days of COVID-19 positivity were obtained. Clinical outcomes were noted from patient medical records, till discharge or death. Laboratory parameters, with individually defined cut-offs, were used, either singly or in combination to distinguish survival and death for those having severe and non-severe disease at initial presentation. Findings Total Leukocyte count, Absolute neutrophil count, Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ratio, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Lactate Dehydrogenase, Ferritin and Lymphocyte to CRP ratio (LCR) were significantly altered at presentation in severe COVID-19 as compared to non-severe cases;and, also in those who died due to COVID-19 compared to those who survived. A combination of four markers, CRP (≥3.9mg/dL);IL-6 (≥45.37pg/ml);Ferritin (≥373ng/mL);1/LCR ≥0.405 was found to strongly predict mortality in cases with non-severe presentation as also in severe cases. Conclusion and Interpretation The combination of routinely used markers, CRP, IL-6, Ferritin and 1/LCR can be used to predict adverse outcomes, even in those presenting with mild to moderate disease. This would identify subset of patients who would benefit from closer monitoring than usual for non-severe disease.

4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 108(4): 727-733, 2023 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267264

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 disease (COVID-19) has caused more than 6 million deaths globally. Understanding predictors of mortality will help in prioritizing patient care and preventive approaches. This was a multicentric, unmatched, hospital-based case-control study conducted in nine teaching hospitals in India. Cases were microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 patients who died in the hospital during the period of study and controls were microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 patients who were discharged from the same hospital after recovery. Cases were recruited sequentially from March 2020 until December-March 2021. All information regarding cases and controls was extracted retrospectively from the medical records of patients by trained physicians. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was done to assess the association between various predictor variables and deaths due to COVID-19. A total of 2,431 patients (1,137 cases and 1,294 controls) were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 52.8 years (SD: 16.5 years), and 32.1% were females. Breathlessness was the most common symptom at the time of admission (53.2%). Increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 46-59 years, 3.4 [95% CI: 1.5-7.7]; 60-74 years, 4.1 [95% CI: 1.7-9.5]; and ≥ 75 years, 11.0 [95% CI: 4.0-30.6]); preexisting diabetes mellitus (aOR: 1.9 [95% CI: 1.2-2.9]); malignancy (aOR: 3.1 [95% CI: 1.3-7.8]); pulmonary tuberculosis (aOR: 3.3 [95% CI: 1.2-8.8]); breathlessness at the time of admission (aOR: 2.2 [95% CI: 1.4-3.5]); high quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at the time of admission (aOR: 5.6 [95% CI: 2.7-11.4]); and oxygen saturation < 94% at the time of admission (aOR: 2.5 [95% CI: 1.6-3.9]) were associated with mortality due to COVID-19. These results can be used to prioritize patients who are at increased risk of death and to rationalize therapy to reduce mortality due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Dyspnea
5.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 27(1): 80-81, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202496

ABSTRACT

How to cite this article: Venkateswaran V, Soni KD, Trikha A. "There is No Easy Way to Say This…": Communication Challenges in the COVID-19 Intensive Care Unit. Indian J Crit Care Med 2023;27(1):79-81.

7.
World J Virol ; 11(6): 477-484, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The exponential rise in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases has resulted in an increased number of patients requiring prolonged ventilatory support and subsequent tracheostomy. With the limited availability of literature regarding the outcomes of COVID-19 patients with tracheostomy, we attempted to study the clinical characteristics and multiple parameters affecting the outcomes in these patients. AIM: To determine all-cause mortality following tracheostomy and its association with various risk factors in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective study included 73 adult COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU between 1 April, 2020 and 30 September, 2021 who underwent tracheostomy as a result of acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19. The data collected included demographics (age, sex), comorbidities, type of oxygen support at admission, severity of COVID-19, complications, and other parameters such as admission to tracheostomy, intubation to tracheostomy, ICU stay, hospital stay, and outcome. RESULTS: This study included 73 adult patients with an average age of 52 ± 16.67 years, of which 52% were men. The average time for admission to tracheostomy was 18.12 ± 12.98 days while intubation to tracheostomy was 11.97 ± 9 days. The mortality rate was 71.2% and 28.8% of patients were discharged alive. The mean duration of ICU and hospital stay was 25 ± 11 days and 28.21 ± 11.60 days, respectively. Greater age, severe COVID-19, mechanical ventilation, shock and acute kidney injury were associated with poor prognosis; however, early tracheostomy in intubated patients resulted in better outcomes. CONCLUSION: Patients with severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation have a poor prognosis but patients with early tracheostomy may benefit with no added risk. We recommend that the timing of tracheostomy be decided on a case-by-case basis and a well-designed randomised controlled trial should be performed to elucidate the potential benefit of early tracheostomy in such patients.

8.
J Med Virol ; 95(1): e28384, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148399

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 causes morbid pathological changes in different organs including lungs, kidneys, liver, and so on, especially in those who succumb. Though clinical outcomes in those with comorbidities are known to be different from those without-not much is known about the differences at the histopathological level. To compare the morbid histopathological changes in COVID-19 patients between those who were immunocompromised (Gr 1), had a malignancy (Gr 2), or had cardiometabolic conditions (hypertension, diabetes, or coronary artery disease) (Gr 3), postmortem tissue sampling (minimally invasive tissue sampling [MITS]) was done from the lungs, kidney, heart, and liver using a biopsy gun within 2 hours of death. Routine (hematoxylin and eosin) and special staining (acid fast bacilli, silver methanamine, periodic acid schiff) was done besides immunohistochemistry. A total of 100 patients underwent MITS and data of 92 patients were included (immunocompromised: 27, malignancy: 18, cardiometabolic conditions: 71). In lung histopathology, capillary congestion was more in those with malignancy, while others like diffuse alveolar damage, microthrombi, pneumocyte hyperplasia, and so on, were equally distributed. In liver histopathology, architectural distortion was significantly different in immunocompromised; while steatosis, portal inflammation, Kupffer cell hypertrophy, and confluent necrosis were equally distributed. There was a trend towards higher acute tubular injury in those with cardiometabolic conditions as compared to the other groups. No significant histopathological difference in the heart was discerned. Certain histopathological features were markedly different in different groups (Gr 1, 2, and 3) of COVID-19 patients with fatal outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/pathology , Heart
9.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0165622, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117157

ABSTRACT

Selection of reference genes during real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is critical to determine accurate and reliable mRNA expression. Nonetheless, not a single study has investigated the expression stability of candidate reference genes to determine their suitability as internal controls in SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM). Using qRT-PCR, we determined expression stability of the nine most commonly used housekeeping genes, namely, TATA-box binding protein (TBP), cyclophilin (CypA), ß-2-microglobulin (B2M), 18S rRNA (18S), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), glucuronidase beta (GUSB), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT-1), ß-ACTIN, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in patients with COVID-19 of various severities (asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe) and those with CAM. We used statistical algorithms (delta-CT [threshold cycle], NormFinder, BestKeeper, GeNorm, and RefFinder) to select the most appropriate reference gene and observed that clinical severity profoundly influences expression stability of reference genes. CypA demonstrated the most consistent expression irrespective of disease severity and emerged as the most suitable reference gene in COVID-19 and CAM. Incidentally, GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, showed the maximum variations in expression and emerged as the least suitable. Next, we determined expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-15 using CypA and GAPDH as internal controls and show that CypA-normalized expression matches well with the RNA sequencing-based expression of these genes. Further, IL-6 expression correlated well with the plasma levels of IL-6 and C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation. In conclusion, GAPDH emerged as the least suitable and CypA as the most suitable reference gene in COVID-19 and CAM. The results highlight the expression variability of housekeeping genes due to disease severity and provide a strong rationale for identification of appropriate reference genes in other chronic conditions as well. IMPORTANCE Gene expression studies are critical to develop new diagnostics, therapeutics, and prognostic modalities. However, accurate determination of expression requires data normalization with a reference gene, whose expression does not vary across different disease stages. Misidentification of a reference gene can produce inaccurate results. Unfortunately, despite the global impact of COVID-19 and an urgent unmet need for better treatment, not a single study has investigated the expression stability of housekeeping genes across the disease spectrum to determine their suitability as internal controls. Our study identifies CypA and then TBP as the two most suitable reference genes for COVID-19 and CAM. Further, GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene in COVID-19 studies, turned out to be the least suitable. This work fills an important gap in the field and promises to facilitate determination of an accurate expression of genes to catalyze development of novel molecular diagnostics and therapeutics for improved patient care.

10.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(5&6): 546-553, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110448

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: High mortality has been observed in the cancer population affected with COVID-19 during this pandemic. We undertook this study to determine the characteristics and outcomes of cancer patients with COVID-19 and assessed the factors predicting outcome. Methods: Patients of all age groups with a proven history of malignancy and a recent diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on nasal/nasopharyngeal reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR tests were included. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were compared between survivors and non-survivors groups, with respect to observed mortality. Results: Between May 11 and August 10, 2020, 134 patients were included from the three centres and observed mortality was 17.1 per cent. The median age was 53 yr (interquartile range 39-61 yr) and thirty four patients (25%) were asymptomatic. Solid tumours accounted for 69.1 per cent and breast cancer was the most common tumour type (20%). One hundred and five patients (70.5%) had received chemotherapy within the past four weeks and 25 patients (19.3%) had neutropenia at presentation. On multivariate analysis, age [odds ratio (OR) 7.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-54.00); P=0.033], haemoglobin [OR 6.28 (95% CI 1.07-37.04); P=0.042] neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio [OR 12.02 (95% CI 2.08-69.51); P=0.005] and baseline serum albumin [OR 18.52 (95% CI 2.80-122.27); P=0.002], were associated with higher mortality. Recent chemotherapy, haematological tumours type and baseline neutropenia did not affect the outcome. Interpretation & conclusions: Higher mortality in moderate and severe infections was associated with baseline organ dysfunction and elderly age. Significant proportion of patients were asymptomatic and might remain undetected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Neutropenia , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , India/epidemiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neutropenia/complications
11.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(12): 1486-1493, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At what rate does the RNA of SARS CoV-2 shed from cadavers? Although, there have been numerous studies which have demonstrated the persistence of the virus on dead bodies, there is a lack of conclusive evidence regarding the variation of viral RNA content in cadavers. This has led to a knowledge gap regarding the safe handling/management of COVID-19 decedents, posing a barrier in forensic investigations. METHODS: In this study, we report the presence of RNA of SARS CoV-2 by real time RT-PCR, in nasopharyngeal swabs collected after death from two groups of bodies - one who died due to COVID-19 and the other who died due to other diagnoses. A prospective study on 199 corpses, who had tested positive for COVID-19 ante-mortem, was conducted at a tertiary care center. RNA testing was conducted at different time intervals (T1-T5). RESULTS: 112(56.3%) died primarily due to COVID-19 and 87(43.7%) died due to other diagnoses. 144(72.4%) were male and 55(27.6%) were female. A total of 115 (57.8%) tested positive for COVID-19 after death at different time points. The mean age was 50.7 ± 18.9 years and the length of hospitalization ranged from 1 to 50 days with a mean of 9.2 ± 7.6 days. Realtime RT-PCR positivity of SARS CoV-2 RNA decreases with time. CONCLUSION: We observed that real time RT-PCR positivity, indicating viral RNA detection, decreases with time. Therefore, it is advisable to follow appropriate COVID-19 precautions to carry out scientific studies, medico-legal investigations and mortuary services on suspected/confirmed COVID-19 corpses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Male , Humans , Infant , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Cadaver
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0091922, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088422

ABSTRACT

In the second wave of COVID-19 in India, there was a new challenge in the form of mucormycosis. Coinfection with mucormycosis was perilous as both conditions required a prolonged hospital stay, thus serving as an ideal platform for secondary infections. Using a retrospective observational study, we studied secondary infections and their impact on the outcome in COVID-19 patients with mucormycosis. The outcome in these patients was evaluated and compared with COVID-19 patients with mucormycosis but without any secondary infection. SPSS V-20 was used for data analysis. Fifty-five patients tested positive for mucormycosis (55/140; 39.28). Twelve out of these 55 (21.8%) developed secondary infections during their hospital stay. Bloodstream infection was the most common (42.86%) secondary infection. The Gram-negative (GN) organisms were more common (11/16; 68.75%) compared with the Gram-positives (GP) (5/16; 31.25%). But the most common isolate was Enterococcus faecium (5/16; 31.25%). A high percentage of microorganisms isolated were multidrug-resistant (15/16; 93.75%). Two out of five (40%) isolates of Enterococcus faecium were vancomycin-resistant (VRE). High resistance to carbapenems was noted in the GN isolates (9/11; 81.81%). The comparison of length of stay in both subgroups was statistically significant (P value <0.001). When compared, the length of stay in people with adverse outcomes was also statistically significant (P value <0.001). Procalcitonin (PCT) had a positive predictive value for the development of secondary bacterial infections (P value <0.001). Antimicrobial stewardship and strict infection control practices are the need of the hour. IMPORTANCE Although our knowledge about COVID-19 and secondary infections in patients is increasing daily, little is known about the secondary infections in COVID-19-mucormycosis patients. Thus, we have intended to share our experience regarding this subgroup. The importance of this study is that it brings to light the type of secondary infections seen in COVID-19-mucormycosis patients. These secondary infections were partially responsible for the mortality and morbidity of the unfortunate ones. We, as health care workers, can learn the lesson and disseminate the knowledge so that in similar situations, health care workers, even in other parts of the world, know what to expect.

13.
J Lab Physicians ; 15(2): 187-193, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087391

ABSTRACT

Background Calcium has been shown to play a vital role in the pathophysiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus diseases, but less is known about hypocalcemia in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and its association with the disease severity and the final outcome. Therefore, this study was conducted with an aim to assess clinical features in COVID-19 patients having hypocalcemia and to observe its impact on COVID-19 disease severity and the final outcome. Methods In this retrospective study, consecutive COVID-19 patients of all age groups were enrolled. Demographical, clinical, and laboratory details were collected and analyzed. On the basis of albumin-corrected calcium levels, patients were classified into normocalcemic ( n = 51) and hypocalcemic ( n = 110) groups. Death was the primary outcome. Results The mean age of patients in the hypocalcemic group was significantly lower ( p < 0.05). A significantly higher number of hypocalcemic patients had severe COVID-19 infection (92.73%; p < 0.01), had comorbidities (82.73%, p < 0.05), and required ventilator support (39.09%; p < 0.01) compared with normocalcemic patients. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the hypocalcemic patients (33.63%; p < 0.05). Hemoglobin ( p < 0.01), hematocrit ( p < 0.01), and red cell count ( p < 0.01) were significantly lower with higher levels of absolute neutrophil count (ANC; p < 0.05) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; p < 0.01) in the hypocalcemic patients. Albumin-corrected calcium levels had a significant positive correlation with hemoglobin levels, hematocrit, red cell count, total protein, albumin, and albumin-to-globulin ratio and a significant negative correlation with ANC and NLR. Conclusion The disease severity, ventilator requirement, and mortality were considerably higher in hypocalcemic COVID-19 patients.

14.
Journal of Laboratory Physicians ; 14(1):32-36, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046271

ABSTRACT

Background  The recent onset of COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated many patients to be hospitalized in the COVID-19 treating centers. Owing to the need for isolation of these patients and minimizing the risk of transmission to healthy people, COVID-19-positive patients are completely restricted from meeting their friends and families. This gives rise to anxiety amongst the patients' relatives as they are not able to monitor the progress of the patients and have to depend entirely on the healthcare staff for any updates regarding the patient. In contrast, the treating doctors are undergoing severe stress due to the unknown nature of the virus and the risks involved in treating patients. They are thoroughly exhausted after the long hours donning the personal protection equipment (PPE). Objective  To structure and form an interface for communication between the treating physician and the families, as a “communication team,” to decrease the workload on the treating physicians and minimize their contact time in a COVID-19 setting. Results  The addition of a communication team improved the physicians' efficiency of patient management and family satisfaction. Several challenges were faced during the setting up of this interface effectively. However, most of these were dealt with along the way. The communication team was instrumental in allaying the anxiety of the family with respect to their patients' clinical condition. This also ensured engagement of doctors from non-clinical and laboratory-based departments in the COVID-19 treatment process. Conclusion  Adding up a communication team for communicating clinical updates to the family in a resource-limited scenario greatly improved communication and thus family satisfaction of the COVID-19-positive patients.

15.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 38(Suppl 1): S34-S45, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024787

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected postgraduate medical education, training, and ongoing research work across specialties. Our survey aimed to analyze the effect of COVID-19 on challenges in pursuing research and academics and ascertain the stressors on residents across medical specialties. Material and Methods: The questionnaire was validated by 10 experts and following ethical approval, this google form-based survey was circulated to postgraduates across specialties across the country through social media platforms over 1 month (22 August 2020 to 21 September 2020). On clicking the link, the participants received brief information regarding the survey followed by the questionnaire. Weekly reminders were sent to the nonresponders till the desired sample size was attained, after which the survey was closed, and responses were analyzed. Results: Four hundred and nineteen of 900 residents completed the survey (46.6% response rate). Majority (88.8%) admitted that the inability to conduct the thesis and break in academics caused a significant amount of mental stress upon them. Though classes had resumed through online platforms for most residents (75.4%), the residents reported that lack of bedside learning (65.4%), inadequate progress tests (26.4%), and delay in thesis topic allotment (84.6% among those not allotted thesis) correlated with increased stress. Fear of extension of the course (53%; P = 0.019) and getting infected with COVID-19 (46.6%; P = 0.019) were most cited reasons for significant stress in most of the residents. Many residents (26%) were unable to sleep properly and 22.1% were unable to concentrate on academics. Majority believed that extension of the submission deadline, reduction in sample size, and change in topic would help to complete thesis. Conclusion: The present survey revealed that there is a major impediment to research and academics of medical postgraduates during COVID-19 pandemic which has markedly increased their stress levels.

16.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 38(Suppl 1): S129-S130, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024769
17.
Microsc Microanal ; : 1-25, 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016486

ABSTRACT

In this study, we examined the cellular infectivity and ultrastructural changes due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the various cells of bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) from intubated patients of different age groups (≥60 years and <60 years) and with common comorbidities such as diabetes, liver and kidney diseases, and malignancies. BALF of 79 patients (38 cases >60 and 41 cases <60 years) were studied by light microscopy, immunofluorescence, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate the ultrastructural changes in the ciliated epithelium, type II pneumocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and anucleated granulocytes. This study demonstrated relatively a greater infection and better preservation of subcellular structures in these cells from BALF of younger patients (<60 years compared with the older patients (≥60 years). The different cells of BALF from the patients without comorbidities showed higher viral load compared with the patients with comorbidities. Diabetic patients showed maximum ultrastructural damage in BALF cells in the comorbid group. This study highlights the comparative effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the different airway and inflammatory cells of BALF at the subcellular levels among older and younger patients and in patients with comorbid conditions.

18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4058, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004786

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key host protein by which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters and multiplies within cells. The level of ACE2 expression in the lung is hypothesised to correlate with an increased risk of severe infection and complications in COrona VIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). To test this hypothesis, we compared the protein expression status of ACE2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in post-mortem lung samples of patients who died of severe COVID-19 and lung samples obtained from non-COVID-19 patients for other indications. IHC for CD61 and CD163 was performed for the assessment of platelet-rich microthrombi and macrophages, respectively. IHC for SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen was also performed. In a total of 55, 44 COVID-19 post-mortem lung samples were tested for ACE2, 36 for CD163, and 26 for CD61, compared to 15 non-covid 19 control lung sections. Quantification of immunostaining, random sampling, and correlation analysis were used to substantiate the morphologic findings. Our results show that ACE2 protein expression was significantly higher in COVID-19 post-mortem lung tissues than in controls, regardless of sample size. Histomorphology in COVID-19 lungs showed diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), acute bronchopneumonia, and acute lung injury with SARS-CoV-2 viral protein detected in a subset of cases. ACE2 expression levels were positively correlated with increased expression levels of CD61 and CD163. In conclusion, our results show significantly higher ACE2 protein expression in severe COVID-19 disease, correlating with increased macrophage infiltration and microthrombi, suggesting a pathobiological role in disease severity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/metabolism , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Integrin beta3/genetics , Integrin beta3/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
19.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(5&6): 570-574, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994296

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study was aimed to understand the clinical, laboratory, radiological parameters and the outcome of COVID-19 patients with underlying haematological disease. All patients with known haematological disease admitted with COVID-19-positive status from April to August 2020 in the COVID-19 facility of a tertiary care centre in north India, were included. Their medical records were analyzed for outcome and mortality risk factors. Fifty four patients, 37 males, were included in the study. Of these, 36 patients had haematological malignancy and 18 had benign disorder. Fever (95.5%), cough (59.2%) and dyspnoea (31.4%) were the most common symptoms. Nine patients had severe disease at diagnosis, mostly malignant disorders. Overall mortality rate was 37.0 per cent, with high mortality seen in patients with aplastic anaemia (50.0%), acute myeloid (46.7%) and lymphoblastic leukaemia (40.0%). On univariate analysis, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status >2 [odd ratio (OR) 11.6], COVID-19 severity (OR 8.2), dyspnoea (OR 5.7) and blood product transfusion (OR 6.4) were the predictors of mortality. However, the presence of moderate or severe COVID-19 (OR 16.6, confidence interval 3.8-72.8) was found significant on multivariate analysis. The results showed that patients with haematological malignancies and aplastic anaemia might be at increased risk of getting severe COVID-19 infection and mortality as compared to the general population.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Male , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Anemia, Aplastic/complications , Anemia, Aplastic/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , India/epidemiology
20.
Ther Adv Vaccines Immunother ; 10: 25151355221115009, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993307

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 infections among severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-vaccinated individuals are of clinical concern, especially in those requiring hospitalization. Such real-world data on ChAdOx1 nCoV-19- and BBV152-vaccinated individuals are scarce. Hence, there is an urgent need to understand their clinical profile and outcomes. Methods: A 1:1 pair-matched study was performed among vaccinated and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients admitted between March 2021 and June 2021 at a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India. The vaccinated group (received at least one dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BBV152) was prospectively followed till discharge or death and matched [for age (±10 years), sex, baseline disease severity and comorbidities] with a retrospective group of unvaccinated patients admitted during the study period. Paired analysis was done to look for clinical outcomes between the two groups. Results: The study included a total of 210 patients, with 105 in each of the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. In the vaccinated group, 47 (44.8%) and 58 (55.2%) patients had received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and BBV152, respectively. However, 73 patients had received one dose and 32 had received two doses of the vaccine. Disease severity was mild in 36.2%, moderate in 31.4% and severe in 32.4%. Two mortalities were reported out of 19 fully vaccinated individuals. All-cause mortality in the vaccinated group was 8.6% (9/105), which was significantly lower than the matched unvaccinated group mortality of 21.9% (23/105), p = 0.007. Vaccination increased the chances of survival (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.42-10.18) compared to the unvaccinated group. Conclusion: In the second wave of the pandemic predominated by delta variant of SARS CoV-2, vaccination reduced all-cause mortality among hospitalized patients, although the results are only preliminary.

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