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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295313

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is a respiratory infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Evidence on the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 is accumulating rapidly. In addition to structural proteins such as Spike and Envelope, the functional roles of non-structural and accessory proteins in regulating viral life cycle and host immune responses remain to be understood. Here, we show that open reading frame 8 (ORF8) acts as messenger for inter-cellular communication between alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mechanistically, ORF8 is a secretory protein that can be secreted by infected epithelial cells via both conventional and unconventional secretory pathways. The unconventionally secreted ORF8 recognizes the IL17RA receptor of macrophages and induces cytokine release. However, conventionally secreted ORF8 cannot bind to IL17RA due to N-linked glycosylation. Furthermore, we found that Yip1 interacting factor homolog B (YIF1B) is a channel protein that translocates unglycosylated ORF8 into vesicles for unconventional secretion. Blocking the unconventional secretion of ORF8 via a YIF1B knockout in hACE2 mice attenuates inflammation and yields delayed mortality following SARS-CoV-2 challenge.

2.
Vet Pathol ; : 3009858211057197, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551143

ABSTRACT

The dramatic global consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic soon fueled quests for a suitable model that would facilitate the development and testing of therapies and vaccines. In contrast to other rodents, hamsters are naturally susceptible to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) rapidly developed into a popular model. It recapitulates many characteristic features as seen in patients with a moderate, self-limiting course of the disease such as specific patterns of respiratory tract inflammation, vascular endothelialitis, and age dependence. Among 4 other hamster species examined, the Roborovski dwarf hamster (Phodopus roborovskii) more closely mimics the disease in highly susceptible patients with frequent lethal outcome, including devastating diffuse alveolar damage and coagulopathy. Thus, different hamster species are available to mimic different courses of the wide spectrum of COVID-19 manifestations in humans. On the other hand, fewer diagnostic tools and information on immune functions and molecular pathways are available than in mice, which limits mechanistic studies and inference to humans in several aspects. Still, under pandemic conditions with high pressure on progress in both basic and clinically oriented research, the Syrian hamster has turned into the leading non-transgenic model at an unprecedented pace, currently used in innumerable studies that all aim to combat the impact of the virus with its new variants of concern. As in other models, its strength rests upon a solid understanding of its similarities to and differences from the human disease, which we review here.

4.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293622

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is a respiratory infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Evidence on the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 is accumulating rapidly. In addition to structural proteins such as Spike and Envelope, the functional roles of non-structural and accessory proteins in regulating viral life cycle and host immune responses remain to be understood. Here, we show that open reading frame 8 (ORF8) acts as messenger for inter-cellular communication between alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mechanistically, ORF8 is a secretory protein that can be secreted by infected epithelial cells via both conventional and unconventional secretory pathways. The unconventionally secreted ORF8 recognizes the IL17RA receptor of macrophages and induces cytokine release. However, conventionally secreted ORF8 cannot bind to IL17RA due to N-linked glycosylation. Furthermore, we found that Yip1 interacting factor homolog B (YIF1B) is a channel protein that translocates unglycosylated ORF8 into vesicles for unconventional secretion. Blocking the unconventional secretion of ORF8 via a YIF1B knockout in hACE2 mice attenuates inflammation and yields delayed mortality following SARS-CoV-2 challenge.

5.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524173

ABSTRACT

With the exception of inactivated vaccines, all SARS-CoV-2 vaccines currently used for clinical application focus on the spike envelope glycoprotein as a virus-specific antigen. Compared to other SARS-CoV-2 genes, mutations in the spike protein gene are more rapidly selected and spread within the population, which carries the risk of impairing the efficacy of spike-based vaccines. It is unclear to what extent the loss of neutralizing antibody epitopes can be compensated by cellular immune responses, and whether the use of other SARS-CoV-2 antigens might cause a more diverse immune response and better long-term protection, particularly in light of the continued evolution towards new SARS-CoV-2 variants. To address this question, we explored immunogenicity and protective effects of adenoviral vectors encoding either the full-length spike protein (S), the nucleocapsid protein (N), the receptor binding domain (RBD) or a hybrid construct of RBD and the membrane protein (M) in a highly susceptible COVID-19 hamster model. All adenoviral vaccines provided life-saving protection against SARS-CoV-2-infection. The most efficient protection was achieved after exposure to full-length spike. However, the nucleocapsid protein, which triggered a robust T-cell response but did not facilitate the formation of neutralizing antibodies, controlled early virus replication efficiently and prevented severe pneumonia. Although the full-length spike protein is an excellent target for vaccines, it does not appear to be the only option for future vaccine design.

6.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463841

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected almost 200 million people worldwide and led to approximately 4 million deaths as of August 2021. Despite successful vaccine development, treatment options are limited. A promising strategy to specifically target viral infections is to suppress viral replication through RNA interference (RNAi). Hence, we designed eight small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the highly conserved 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of SARS-CoV-2. The most promising candidate identified in initial reporter assays, termed siCoV6, targets the leader sequence of the virus, which is present in the genomic as well as in all subgenomic RNAs. In assays with infectious SARS-CoV-2, it reduced replication by two orders of magnitude and prevented the development of a cytopathic effect. Moreover, it retained its activity against the SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant and has perfect homology against all sequences of the delta variant that were analyzed by bioinformatic means. Interestingly, the siRNA was even highly active in virus replication assays with the SARS-CoV-1 family member. This work thus identified a very potent siRNA with a broad activity against various SARS-CoV viruses that represents a promising candidate for the development of new treatment options.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/therapy , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Virus Replication/drug effects , 5' Untranslated Regions/genetics , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , HeLa Cells , Humans , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics
7.
Nature ; 599(7884): 283-289, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404888

ABSTRACT

Derailed cytokine and immune cell networks account for the organ damage and the clinical severity of COVID-19 (refs. 1-4). Here we show that SARS-CoV-2, like other viruses, evokes cellular senescence as a primary stress response in infected cells. Virus-induced senescence (VIS) is indistinguishable from other forms of cellular senescence and is accompanied by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which comprises pro-inflammatory cytokines, extracellular-matrix-active factors and pro-coagulatory mediators5-7. Patients with COVID-19 displayed markers of senescence in their airway mucosa in situ and increased serum levels of SASP factors. In vitro assays demonstrated macrophage activation with SASP-reminiscent secretion, complement lysis and SASP-amplifying secondary senescence of endothelial cells, which mirrored hallmark features of COVID-19 such as macrophage and neutrophil infiltration, endothelial damage and widespread thrombosis in affected lung tissue1,8,9. Moreover, supernatant from VIS cells, including SARS-CoV-2-induced senescence, induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation and activation of platelets and the clotting cascade. Senolytics such as navitoclax and a combination of dasatinib plus quercetin selectively eliminated VIS cells, mitigated COVID-19-reminiscent lung disease and reduced inflammation in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters and mice. Our findings mark VIS as a pathogenic trigger of COVID-19-related cytokine escalation and organ damage, and suggest that senolytic targeting of virus-infected cells is a treatment option against SARS-CoV-2 and perhaps other viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aniline Compounds/pharmacology , Aniline Compounds/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Dasatinib/pharmacology , Dasatinib/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Quercetin/pharmacology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/metabolism
8.
Virol J ; 18(1): 182, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traditional medicines based on herbal extracts have been proposed as affordable treatments for patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Teas and drinks containing extracts of Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra have been widely used in Africa in efforts to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and fight COVID-19. METHODS: The plant extracts and Covid-Organics drink produced in Madagascar were tested for plaque reduction using both feline coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Their cytotoxicities were also investigated. RESULTS: Several extracts as well as Covid-Organics inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and FCoV infection at concentrations that did not affect cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: Some plant extracts show inhibitory activity against FCoV and SARS-CoV-2. However, it remains unclear whether peak plasma concentrations in humans can reach levels needed to inhibit viral infection following consumption of teas or Covid-Organics. Clinical studies are required to evaluate the utility of these drinks for COVID-19 prevention or treatment of patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Artemisia/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Coronavirus, Feline/drug effects , Coronavirus, Feline/growth & development , Plant Extracts/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Viral Plaque Assay
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4869, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354100

ABSTRACT

In COVID-19, immune responses are key in determining disease severity. However, cellular mechanisms at the onset of inflammatory lung injury in SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly involving endothelial cells, remain ill-defined. Using Syrian hamsters as a model for moderate COVID-19, we conduct a detailed longitudinal analysis of systemic and pulmonary cellular responses, and corroborate it with datasets from COVID-19 patients. Monocyte-derived macrophages in lungs exert the earliest and strongest transcriptional response to infection, including induction of pro-inflammatory genes, while epithelial cells show weak alterations. Without evidence for productive infection, endothelial cells react, depending on cell subtypes, by strong and early expression of anti-viral, pro-inflammatory, and T cell recruiting genes. Recruitment of cytotoxic T cells as well as emergence of IgM antibodies precede viral clearance at day 5 post infection. Investigating SARS-CoV-2 infected Syrian hamsters thus identifies cell type-specific effector functions, providing detailed insights into pathomechanisms of COVID-19 and informing therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/immunology , Animals , Cricetinae , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Inflammation , Lung/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Mesocricetus , Monocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology
10.
Mol Inform ; 40(9): e2100031, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351262

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to be a global threat, causing millions of deaths worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus with spike (S) glycoproteins conferring binding to the host cell's angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is critical for cellular entry. The host range of the virus extends well beyond humans and non-human primates. Natural and experimental infections have confirmed the high susceptibility of cats, ferrets, and Syrian hamsters, whereas dogs, mice, rats, pigs, and chickens are refractory to SARS-CoV-2 infection. To investigate the underlying reason for the variable susceptibility observed in different species, we have developed molecular descriptors to efficiently analyse dynamic simulation models of complexes between SARS-CoV-2 S and ACE2. Our extensive analyses represent the first systematic structure-based approach that allows predictions of species susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Cats , Dogs , Ferrets , Haplorhini , Humans , Mesocricetus , Mice , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Rats , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Species Specificity , Swine
11.
Cell Rep ; 36(5): 109493, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328703

ABSTRACT

Safe and effective vaccines are urgently needed to stop the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We construct a series of live attenuated vaccine candidates by large-scale recoding of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and assess their safety and efficacy in Syrian hamsters. Animals were vaccinated with a single dose of the respective recoded virus and challenged 21 days later. Two of the tested viruses do not cause clinical symptoms but are highly immunogenic and induce strong protective immunity. Attenuated viruses replicate efficiently in the upper but not in the lower airways, causing only mild pulmonary histopathology. After challenge, hamsters develop no signs of disease and rapidly clear challenge virus: at no time could infectious virus be recovered from the lungs of infected animals. The ease with which attenuated virus candidates can be produced and administered favors their further development as vaccines to combat the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Editing , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunity , Mesocricetus , Mutation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14571, 2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315606

ABSTRACT

Effective and affordable treatments for patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), are needed. We report in vitro efficacy of Artemisia annua extracts as well as artemisinin, artesunate, and artemether against SARS-CoV-2. The latter two are approved active pharmaceutical ingredients of anti-malarial drugs. Concentration-response antiviral treatment assays, based on immunostaining of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, revealed that treatment with all studied extracts and compounds inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection of VeroE6 cells, human hepatoma Huh7.5 cells and human lung cancer A549-hACE2 cells, without obvious influence of the cell type on antiviral efficacy. In treatment assays, artesunate proved most potent (range of 50% effective concentrations (EC50) in different cell types: 7-12 µg/mL), followed by artemether (53-98 µg/mL), A. annua extracts (83-260 µg/mL) and artemisinin (151 to at least 208 µg/mL). The selectivity indices (SI), calculated based on treatment and cell viability assays, were mostly below 10 (range 2 to 54), suggesting a small therapeutic window. Time-of-addition experiments in A549-hACE2 cells revealed that artesunate targeted SARS-CoV-2 at the post-entry level. Peak plasma concentrations of artesunate exceeding EC50 values can be achieved. Clinical studies are required to further evaluate the utility of these compounds as COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Artemisinins/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Artemisia annua/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Vero Cells
13.
Cell Rep ; 36(4): 109433, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300649

ABSTRACT

The novel betacoronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a form of severe pneumonia disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To develop human neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, antibody gene libraries from convalescent COVID-19 patients were constructed and recombinant antibody fragments (scFv) against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein were selected by phage display. The antibody STE90-C11 shows a subnanometer IC50 in a plaque-based live SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay. The in vivo efficacy of the antibody is demonstrated in the Syrian hamster and in the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) mice model. The crystal structure of STE90-C11 Fab in complex with SARS-CoV-2-RBD is solved at 2.0 Å resolution showing that the antibody binds at the same region as ACE2 to RBD. The binding and inhibition of STE90-C11 is not blocked by many known emerging RBD mutations. STE90-C11-derived human IgG1 with FcγR-silenced Fc (COR-101) is undergoing Phase Ib/II clinical trials for the treatment of moderate to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Domains/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
Angewandte Chemie ; 133(29):16005-16014, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1300361

ABSTRACT

Wir zeigen, dass negativ geladene Polysulfate durch elektrostatische Wechselwirkungen an das Spike‐Protein von SARS‐CoV‐2 binden. Durch einen Plaquereduktionstest verglichen wir die hemmende Wirkung von Heparin, Pentosanpolysulfat, linearem Polyglycerolsulfat (LPGS) und hyperverzweigtem Polyglycerolsulfat (HPGS) gegenüber SARS‐CoV‐2. Dabei ist das synthetische LPGS der vielversprechendste Inhibitor mit IC50=67 μg mL−1 (ca. 1,6 μm) und zeigt eine 60‐fach höhere virushemmende Aktivität als Heparin (IC50=4084 μg mL−1) bei zugleich deutlich geringerer gerinnungshemmender Aktivität. Außerdem konnten wir durch Moleküldynamiksimulationen bestätigen, dass LPGS stärker an das Spike‐Protein bindet als Heparin selbst und dass LPGS sogar noch stärker an die Spike‐Proteine der neuen N501Y‐ und E484K‐Varianten bindet. Unsere Studien belegen, dass die Aufnahme von SARS‐CoV‐2 in Wirtzellen über elektrostatische Wechselwirkungen blockiert werden kann. Deshalb kann LPGS als vielversprechender Prototyp für das Design weiterer neuartiger viraler Inhibitoren von SARS‐CoV‐2 herangezogen werden.

15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3818, 2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279876

ABSTRACT

Viruses manipulate cellular metabolism and macromolecule recycling processes like autophagy. Dysregulated metabolism might lead to excessive inflammatory and autoimmune responses as observed in severe and long COVID-19 patients. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 modulates cellular metabolism and reduces autophagy. Accordingly, compound-driven induction of autophagy limits SARS-CoV-2 propagation. In detail, SARS-CoV-2-infected cells show accumulation of key metabolites, activation of autophagy inhibitors (AKT1, SKP2) and reduction of proteins responsible for autophagy initiation (AMPK, TSC2, ULK1), membrane nucleation, and phagophore formation (BECN1, VPS34, ATG14), as well as autophagosome-lysosome fusion (BECN1, ATG14 oligomers). Consequently, phagophore-incorporated autophagy markers LC3B-II and P62 accumulate, which we confirm in a hamster model and lung samples of COVID-19 patients. Single-nucleus and single-cell sequencing of patient-derived lung and mucosal samples show differential transcriptional regulation of autophagy and immune genes depending on cell type, disease duration, and SARS-CoV-2 replication levels. Targeting of autophagic pathways by exogenous administration of the polyamines spermidine and spermine, the selective AKT1 inhibitor MK-2206, and the BECN1-stabilizing anthelmintic drug niclosamide inhibit SARS-CoV-2 propagation in vitro with IC50 values of 136.7, 7.67, 0.11, and 0.13 µM, respectively. Autophagy-inducing compounds reduce SARS-CoV-2 propagation in primary human lung cells and intestinal organoids emphasizing their potential as treatment options against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Antinematodal Agents/pharmacology , Autophagosomes/metabolism , Autophagy , Autophagy-Related Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Metabolome , Niclosamide/pharmacology , Organoids , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spermidine/pharmacology , Spermine/pharmacology
16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(29): 15870-15878, 2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265369

ABSTRACT

Here we report that negatively charged polysulfates can bind to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 via electrostatic interactions. Using a plaque reduction assay, we compare inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by heparin, pentosan sulfate, linear polyglycerol sulfate (LPGS) and hyperbranched polyglycerol sulfate (HPGS). Highly sulfated LPGS is the optimal inhibitor, with an IC50 of 67 µg mL-1 (approx. 1.6 µm). This synthetic polysulfate exhibits more than 60-fold higher virus inhibitory activity than heparin (IC50 : 4084 µg mL-1 ), along with much lower anticoagulant activity. Furthermore, in molecular dynamics simulations, we verified that LPGS can bind more strongly to the spike protein than heparin, and that LPGS can interact even more with the spike protein of the new N501Y and E484K variants. Our study demonstrates that the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells can be blocked via electrostatic interactions, therefore LPGS can serve as a blueprint for the design of novel viral inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Heparin/metabolism , Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Heparin/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Polymers/metabolism , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Static Electricity , Vero Cells
17.
Small ; 17(11):2170046, 2021.
Article in Spanish | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1139301

ABSTRACT

In article number 2007091, Ievgen S. Donskyi, Chuanxiong Nie, Kai Ludwig, Jakob Trimpert, and co-workers report an idea of designing a graphene-based nanostructure that can rupture corona virions. This study shows that a combination of two different mechanisms at nanobiointerfaces by manipulation of the functionality of nanoplatform is an efficient way to control and accelerate biointeractions and to produce new vectors for future antiviral applications.

19.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(4): e13191, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068062

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the agent that causes COVID-19, invades epithelial cells, including those of the respiratory and gastrointestinal mucosa, using angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) as a receptor. Subsequent inflammation can promote rapid virus clearance, but severe cases of COVID-19 are characterized by an inefficient immune response that fails to clear the infection. Using primary epithelial organoids from human colon, we explored how the central antiviral mediator IFN-γ, which is elevated in COVID-19, affects epithelial cell differentiation, ACE2 expression, and susceptibility to infection with SARS-CoV-2. In mouse and human colon, ACE2 is mainly expressed by surface enterocytes. Inducing enterocyte differentiation in organoid culture resulted in increased ACE2 production. IFN-γ treatment promoted differentiation into mature KRT20+ enterocytes expressing high levels of ACE2, increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and resulted in enhanced virus production in infected cells. Similarly, infection-induced epithelial interferon signaling promoted enterocyte maturation and enhanced ACE2 expression. We here reveal a mechanism by which IFN-γ-driven inflammatory responses induce a vulnerable epithelial state with robust replication of SARS-CoV-2, which may have an impact on disease outcome and virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Models, Immunological , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Colon/immunology , Colon/pathology , Colon/virology , Disease Susceptibility , Enterocytes/metabolism , Enterocytes/pathology , Enterocytes/virology , Gene Expression , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Interferon-gamma/administration & dosage , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Mice , Organoids/immunology , Organoids/pathology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication/immunology
20.
Small ; 17(11): e2007091, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060956

ABSTRACT

Search of new strategies for the inhibition of respiratory viruses is one of the urgent health challenges worldwide, as most of the current therapeutic agents and treatments are inefficient. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic and has taken lives of approximately two million people to date. Even though various vaccines are currently under development, virus, and especially its spike glycoprotein can mutate, which highlights a need for a broad-spectrum inhibitor. In this work, inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by graphene platforms with precise dual sulfate/alkyl functionalities is investigated. A series of graphene derivatives with different lengths of aliphatic chains is synthesized and is investigated for their ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and feline coronavirus. Graphene derivatives with long alkyl chains (>C9) inhibit coronavirus replication by virtue of disrupting viral envelope. The ability of these graphene platforms to rupture viruses is visualized by atomic force microscopy and cryogenic electron microscopy. A large concentration window (10 to 100-fold) where graphene platforms display strongly antiviral activity against native SARS-CoV-2 without significant toxicity against human cells is found. In this concentration range, the synthesized graphene platforms inhibit the infection of enveloped viruses efficiently, opening new therapeutic and metaphylactic avenues against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Graphite/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
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